About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Toxicology
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 754810, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/754810
Review Article

On the Toxicity of Therapeutically Used Nanoparticles: An Overview

Biochemistry Department, Science College, King Saud University, P.O. Box 22452, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

Received 26 June 2008; Accepted 20 October 2008

Academic Editor: Syed F. Ali

Copyright © 2009 A. El-Ansary and S. Al-Daihan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. M. Hussain, K. L. Hess, J. M. Gearhart, K. T. Geiss, and J. J. Schlager, “In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 975–983, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  2. S. Zhang, Z. Bian, C. Gu, et al., “Preparation of anti-human cardiac troponin I immunomagnetic nanoparticles and biological activity assays,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 143–148, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  3. G. Oberdörster, E. Oberdörster, and J. Oberdörster, “Nanotoxicology: an emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 823–839, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. G. Oberdörster, V. Stone, and K. Donaldson, “Toxicology of nanoparticles: a historical perspective,” Nanotoxicology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 2–25, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. J. P. Rayman-Rasmussen, J. E. Riviere, and N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, “Variables infleuncing interactions of uncharged quantum dot nanoparticles with skin cells and identification of biochemical modulators,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1344–1348, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  6. P. Borm, F. C. Klaessig, T. D. Landry, et al., “Research strategies for safety evaluation of nanomaterials, part V: role of dissolution in biological fate and effects of nanoscale particles,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 23–32, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  7. C.-W. Lam, J. T. James, R. McCluskey, and R. L. Hunter, “Pulmonary toxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes in mice 7 and 90 days after intractracheal instillation,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 126–134, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  8. P. H. M. Hoet, I. Brüske-Hohlfeld, and O. V. Salata, “Nanoparticles—known and unknown health risks,” Journal of Nanobiotechnology, vol. 2, article 12, pp. 1–15, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  9. M. R. Wiesner, G. V. Lowry, P. Alvarez, D. Dionysiou, and P. Biswas, “Assessing the risks of manufactured nanomaterials,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 40, no. 14, pp. 4336–4345, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. J. Miller, “Beyond biotechnology: FDA regulations of nanomedicine,” The Columbia Science and Technology Law Review, vol. 4, p. E5, 2003.
  11. A. P. Alivisatos, “Less is more in medicine,” in Understanding Nanotechnology, pp. 56–69, Warner Book, New York, NY, USA, 2002.
  12. M. Sherman, “The world of nanotechnology,” US Pharm, vol. 12, pp. HS-3–HS-4, 2004.
  13. M. Ratner and D. Ratner, Nanotechnology: A Gentle Introduction to the Next Big Idea, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2003.
  14. H. M. Kipen and D. L. Laskin, “Smaller is not always better: nanotechnology yields nanotoxicology,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 289, no. 5, pp. L696–L697, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  15. W. I. Hagens, A. G. Oomen, W. H. de Jong, F. R. Cassee, and A. J. A. M. Sips, “What do we (need to) know about the kinetic properties of nanoparticles in the body?,” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 217–229, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  16. S. M. Moghimi, A. C. Hunter, and J. C. Murray, “Nanomedicine: current status and future prospects,” FASEB Journal, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 311–330, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  17. M. C. Garnett and P. Kallinteri, “Nanomedicines and nanotoxicology: some physiological principles,” Occupational Medicine, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 307–311, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  18. J. Curtis, M. Greenberg, J. Kester, S. Phillips, and G. Krieger, “Nanotechnology and nanotoxicology: a primer for clinicians,” Toxicological Reviews, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 245–260, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. K. R. Vega-Villa, J. K. Takemoto, J. A. Yáñez, C. M. Remsberg, M. L. Forrest, and N. M. Davies, “Clinical toxicities of nanocarrier systems,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 929–938, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  20. R. Hardman, “A toxicological review of quantum dots: toxicity depends on physico-chemical and environmental factors,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 165–172, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. R. A. Denison, Environmental and safety impacts on nanotechnology: what research is needed?, 2005, http://www.environmentaldefense.org/documents/5136_DenisonHousetestimonyOnNano.pdf.
  22. H.-D. Liang and M. J. K. Blomley, “The role of ultrasound in molecular imaging,” British Journal of Radiology, vol. 76, pp. S140–S150, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. J. M. Stern and J. A. Cadeddu, “Emerging use of nanoparticles for the therapeutic ablation of urologic malignancies,” Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 93–96, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  24. R. H. Müller and C. M. Keck, “Drug delivery to the brain—realization by novel drug carriers,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 471–483, 2004.
  25. S. M. Moghimi, A. C. Hunter, and J. C. Murray, “Long-circulating and target-specific nanoparticles: theory to practice,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 283–318, 2001.
  26. A. Ito, M. Shinkai, H. Honda, and T. Kobayashi, “Medical application of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  27. Q. A. Pankhurst, J. Connolly, S. K. Jones, and J. Dobson, “Applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine,” Journal of Physics D, vol. 36, no. 13, pp. R167–R181, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. J. K. Vasir and V. Labhasetwar, “Targeted drug delivery in cancer therapy,” Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 363–374, 2005.
  29. P. Moroz, S. K. Jones, and B. N. Gray, “Magnetically mediated hyperthermia: current status and future directions,” International Journal of Hyperthermia, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 267–284, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  30. L. Sun and L. C. Chow, “Preparation and properties of nano-sized calcium fluoride for dental applications,” Dental Materials, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 111–116, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  31. Azonanotechnology article: Nanomedicine-How nanotechnology can be used in the healthcare/drug markets for humans and animals, August 2005, http://www.azonano.com/Details.asp?articleid=1326.
  32. Physicsweb article: Nanodevices target viruses, October 2004, http://www.physicsweb.org/articles/news/8/10/6/1.
  33. G. Nighswonger, A Medical Device Link MD& DI column: new polymers and nanotubes add muscle to prothetic limbs, 1999, http://www.devicelink.com/mddi/archive/99/08/004.html.
  34. G. Oberdörster, Toxicology of airborn environment and occupational particles, January 2006, http://www2.envmed.rochester.edu/envmed/tox/faculty/oberdoerster.html.
  35. S. K. Klimuk, S. C. Semple, P. N. Nahirney, et al., “Enhanced anti-inflammatory activity of a liposomal intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide in an acute model of contact hypersensitivity,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 292, no. 2, pp. 480–488, 2000.
  36. D. B. Warheit, B. R. Laurence, K. L. Reed, D. H. Roach, G. A. M. Reynolds, and T. R. Webb, “Comparative pulmonary toxicity assessment of single-wall carbon nanotubes in rats,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 117–125, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  37. K. Donaldson, V. Stone, C. L. Tran, W. Kreyling, and P. J. A. Borm, “Nanotoxicology,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 727–728, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  38. K. R. Vega-Villa, J. K. Takemoto, J. A. Yáñez, C. M. Remsberg, M. L. Forrest, and N. M. Davies, “Clinical toxicities of nanocarrier systems,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 929–938, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  39. G. Oberdörster, A. Maynard, K. Donaldson, et al., “Principles for characterizing the potential human health effects from exposure to nanomaterials: elements of a screening strategy,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 2, article 8, pp. 1–35, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  40. L. K. Limbach, P. Wick, P. Manser, R. N. Grass, A. Bruinink, and W. J. Stark, “Exposure of engineered nanoparticles to human lung epithelial cells: influence of chemical composition and catalytic activity on oxidative stress,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 4158–4163, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. J. B. Wright, K. Lam, A. G. Buret, M. E. Olson, and R. E. Burrell, “Early healing events in a porcine model of contaminated wounds: effects of nanocrystalline silver on matrix metalloproteinases, cell apoptosis, and healing,” Wound Repair and Regeneration, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 141–151, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. A. P. Supp, A. N. Neely, D. M. Supp, G. D. Warden, and S. T. Boyce, “Evaluation of cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of Acticoat® burn dressing for management of microbial contamination in cultured skin substitutes grafted to athymic mice,” Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 238–246, 2005.
  43. H. W. Chen, S. F. Su, C. T. Chien, et al., “Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce emphysema-like lung injury in mice,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 2393–2395, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  44. P. Muangman, C. Chuntrasakul, S. Silthram, et al., “Comparison of efficacy of 1% silver sulfadiazine and ActicoatTM for treatment of partial-thickness burn wounds,” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, vol. 89, no. 7, pp. 953–958, 2006.
  45. J. E. Paddle-Ledinek, Z. Nasa, and H. J. Cleland, “Effect of different wound dressings on cell viability and proliferation,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 117, pp. 110S–118S, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  46. L. Braydich-Stolle, S. Hussain, J. J. Schlager, and M.-C. Hofmann, “In vitro cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in mammalian germline stem cells,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 412–419, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  47. S. Takenaka, E. Karg, C. Roth, et al., “Pulmonary and systemic distribution of inhaled ultrafine silver particles in rats,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 109, pp. 547–551, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. S. M. Hussain, A. K. Javorina, A. M. Schrand, H. M. Duhart, S. F. Ali, and J. J. Schlager, “The interaction of manganese nanoparticles with PC-12 cells induces dopamine depletion,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 456–463, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  49. S. M. Mirsattari, R. R. Hammond, M. D. Sharpe, F. Y. Leung, and G. B. Young, “Myoclonic status epilepticus following repeated oral ingestion of colloidal silver,” Neurology, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 1408–1410, 2004.
  50. Y.-C. Chung, I.-H. Chen, and C.-J. Chen, “The surface modification of silver nanoparticles by phosphoryl disulfides for improved biocompatibility and intracellular uptake,” Biomaterials, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1807–1816, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  51. T. R. Pisanic, II, J. D. Blackwell, V. I. Shubayev, R. R. Fiñones, and S. Jin, “Nanotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticle internalization in growing neurons,” Biomaterials, vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 2572–2581, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  52. V. Wiwanitkit, A. Sereemaspun, and R. Rojanathanes, “Effect of gold nanoparticles on spermatozoa: the first world report,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. e7–e8, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  53. O. I. Manin, V. A. Nikolaev, A. A. Kolomiĭtsev, and I. I. Lebedenko, “Comparative toxicological evaluation of domestic golden alloys for soldering,” Stomatologiia, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 64–67, 2007.
  54. Y. Zhao, H. Meng, Z. Chen, F. Zhao, and Z. F. Chai, “Dependence of nanotoxicity on nanoscale characteristics and strategies for reducing and eliminating nanotoxicity,” in Nanotoxicology, Y. L. Zhao and H. S. Nalwa, Eds., pp. 265–280, American Scientific, Stevenson Ranch, Calif, USA, 2007.
  55. J. H. Galla, “Metabolic alkalosis,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 369–375, 2000.
  56. A. J. Williams, “ABC of oxygen. Assessing and interpreting arterial blood gases and acid-base balance,” British Medical Journal, vol. 317, no. 7167, pp. 1213–1216, 1998.
  57. T. Y. Tao, F. Liu, L. Klomp, C. Wijmenga, and J. D. Gitlin, “The copper toxicosis gene product Murr 1 directly interacts with the Wilson disease protein,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 43, pp. 41593–41596, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  58. H. Meng, Z. Chen, G. Xing, et al., “Ultrahigh reactivity provokes nanotoxicity: explanation of oral toxicity of nano-copper particles,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 175, no. 1–3, pp. 102–110, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  59. L. Li and Y.-J. Zhu, “High chemical reactivity of silver nanoparticles toward hydrochloric acid,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 303, no. 2, pp. 415–418, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  60. K. E. Driscoll, R. C. Lindenschmidt, J. K. Maurer, J. M. Higgins, and G. Ridder, “Pulmonary response to silica or titanium dioxide: inflammatory cells, alveolar macrophage-derived cytokines, and histopathology,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 381–390, 1990.
  61. J. Ferin and G. Oberdorster, “Biological effects and toxicity assessment of titanium dioxides: anatase and rutile,” American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 69–72, 1985.
  62. E. Bermudez, J. B. Mangum, B. Asgharian, et al., “Long-term pulmonary responses of three laboratory rodent species to subchronic inhalation of pigmentary titanium dioxide particles,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 86–97, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. E. Bermudez, J. B. Mangum, B. A. Wong, et al., “Pulmonary responses of mice, rats, and hamsters to subchronic inhalation of ultrafine titanium dioxide particles,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 347–357, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  64. D. B. Warheit, T. R. Webb, and K. L. Reed, “Pulmonary toxicity studies with TiO2 particles containing various commercial coatings,” Toxicologist, vol. 72, no. 1, p. 298A, 2003.
  65. D. B. Warheit, T. R. Webb, K. L. Reed, et al., “Pulmonoary toxicity study in rats with three forms of ultrafine-TiO2 particles: differential responses related to surface properties,” Toxicology, vol. 230, no. 1, pp. 90–104, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  66. J. Li, Q. Li, J. Xu, et al., “Comparative study on the acute pulmonary toxicity induced by 3 and 20 nm TiO2 primary particles in mice,” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 239–244, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. I. Lynch, T. Cedervall, M. Lundqvist, C. Cabaleiro-Lago, S. Linse, and K. A. Dawson, “The nanoparticle—protein complex as a biological entity; a complex fluids and surface science challenge for the 21st century,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 134-135, pp. 167–174, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  68. T. Cedervall, I. Lynch, M. Foy, et al., “Detailed identification of plasma proteins adsorbed on copolymer nanoparticles,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 46, no. 30, pp. 5754–5756, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  69. I. Lynch and K. A. Dawson, “Protein-nanoparticle interactions,” Nanotoday, vol. 3, no. 1-2, pp. 40–47, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. P. J. A. Borm and W. Kreyling, “Toxicological hazards of inhaled nanoparticles—potential implications for drug delivery,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 521–531, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. H. R. Kim, K. Andrieux, S. Gil, et al., “Translocation of poly(ethylene glycol-co-hexadecyl)cyanoacrylate nanoparticles into rat brain endothelial cells: role of apolipoproteins on receptor-medicted endocytosis,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 793–799, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  72. D. Dutta, S. K. Sundaram, J. G. Teeguarden, et al., “Adsorbed proteins influence the biological activity and molecular targeting of nanomaterials,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 303–315, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  73. X.-C. Shen, X.-Y. Liou, L.-P. Ye, H. Liang, and Z.-Y. Wang, “Spectroscopic studies on the interaction between human hemoglobin and CdS quantum dots,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 311, no. 2, pp. 400–406, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  74. M. Kurath and S. Maasen, “Toxicology as a nanoscience?—Disciplinary identities reconsidered,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 3, article 6, pp. 1–13, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  75. A. V. Kabanov, “Polymer genomics: an insight into pharmacology and toxicology of nanomedicines,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 58, no. 15, pp. 1597–1621, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed