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Journal of Toxicology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 328120, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/328120
Review Article

Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury

1Division of Renal Diseases & Hypertension, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Mail Stop C-281, 12700 East 19th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
2Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Mail Stop C-281, 12700 East 19th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA

Received 27 May 2011; Accepted 2 September 2011

Academic Editor: P. J. O'Brien

Copyright © 2011 Jeffrey C. Sirota et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common problem in both the inpatient and outpatient setting and often results from drug toxicities. Traditional methods of identifying AKI, through measurement of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, are problematic in that they are slow to detect decreases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and are influenced by a variety of factors that are not related to GFR changes. The problems inherent in a creatinine-based diagnosis of AKI have impeded the development of proper therapeutics in AKI and posed problems in evaluating nephrotoxicity of drugs and other chemical exposures. In recent years, a number of new biomarkers of AKI with more favorable test characteristics than creatinine have been identified and studied in a variety of experimental and clinical settings. This review will consider the most well-established biomarkers and appraise the literature, with particular attention given to the use of biomarkers in identifying toxin-mediated AKI.