Table 1: Studies of AKI Biomarkers.

Clinical settingPatient populationBiomarkerReferences

cardiac surgerypediatricNGAL[16, 17]
IL-18[18]
NGAL + IL-18[19]
adultsNGAL[2024]
IL-18[25, 26]
NGAL + IL-18[19]
KIM-1[27, 28]
urinary CysC[29, 30]

critical carepediatricNGAL[31, 32]
IL-18[33]
KIM-1[34]
adultsNGAL [3537]
KIM-1 [38]

post-transplantadultsKIM-1[39]
urinary CysC[40]

contrast-induced AKIpediatricNGAL[41]
adultsNGAL[42, 43]
IL-18[44]
NGAL + IL-18[45]

cisplatin-induced AKIanimal studiesNGAL[46]
KIM-1[47, 48]
urinary CysC[49]
adultsNGAL[50]
L-FABP[51]