- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Toxicology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 983072, 7 pages
Recognizing and Preventing Overexposure to Methylmercury from Fish and Seafood Consumption: Information for Physicians
1Stony Brook University, 167 Dana Hall, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000, USA
2University at Albany, State University of New York, 5 University Place, A217, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA
3Institute of Neurotoxicology and Neurological Disorders, 8232 14th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98115, USA
4Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
5Groth Consulting Services, 75 Clifford Avenue, Pelham, NY 10803, USA
6California Pacific Medical Center, 2100 Webster Street, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA
7School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, 4-175 Health Sciences Center, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8430, USA
Received 30 March 2011; Accepted 27 April 2011
Academic Editor: Dietrich Büsselberg
Copyright © 2011 Susan M. Silbernagel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, “ToxFAQs: chemical agent briefing sheet, Mercury,” 2006, http://www.kuskokwimcouncil.org/documents/mercury.pdf.
- US Environmental Protection Agency and US Federal Drug Administration, “What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish,” 2004, http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/Product-SpecificInformation/Seafood/FoodbornePathogensContaminants/Methylmercury/ucm115662.htm.
- J. M. Hightower, A. O'Hare, and G. T. Hernandez, “Blood mercury reporting in NHANES: identifying Asian, Pacific Islander, native American, and multiracial groups,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 173–175, 2006.
- K. R. Mahaffey, R. P. Clickner, and R. A. Jeffries, “Adult women's blood mercury concentrations vary regionally in the United States: association with patterns of fish consumption (NHANES 1999–2004),” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 2009.
- W. McKelvey, R. C. Gwynn, N. Jeffery et al., “A biomonitoring study of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the blood of New York City adults,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 115, no. 10, pp. 1435–1441, 2007.
- R. L. Sato, G. G. Li, and S. Shaha, “Antepartum seafood consumption and mercury levels in newborn cord blood,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 194, no. 6, pp. 1683–1688, 2006.
- P. Grandjean, P. Weihe, R. White et al., “Cognitive deficit in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury,” Neurotoxicology and Teratology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 417–428, 1997.
- S. G. Gilbert and K. S. Grant-Webster, “Neurobehavioral effects of developmental methylmercury exposure,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 103, no. 6, pp. 135–142, 1995.
- E. Oken, J. S. Radesky, R. O. Wright et al., “Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury levels, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 167, no. 10, pp. 1171–1181, 2008.
- E. Oken, R. O. Wright, K. P. Kleinman et al., “Maternal fish consumption, hair mercury, and infant cognition in a U. S. cohort,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 113, no. 10, pp. 1376–1380, 2005.
- J. F. Risher and R. DeWoskin, “Toxicological profile for mercury,” in Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, 1999.
- S. A. Lederman, R. L. Jones, K. L. Caldwell et al., “Relation between cord blood mercury levels and early child development in a World Trade Center cohort,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 116, no. 8, pp. 1085–1091, 2008.
- D. Mozaffarian, “Fish, mercury, selenium and cardiovascular risk: current evidence and unanswered questions,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1894–1916, 2009.
- T. Yorifuji, T. Tsuda, S. Kashima, S. Takao, and M. Harada, “Long-term exposure to methylmercury and its effects on hypertension in Minamata,” Environmental Research, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 40–46, 2010.
- A. L. Choi, P. Weihe, E. Budtz-Jorgensen et al., “Methylmercury exposure and adverse cardiovascular effects in Faroese whaling men,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 367–372, 2009.
- K. Yaginuma-Sakurai, K. Murata, M. Shimada et al., “Intervention study on cardiac autonomic nervous effects of methylmercury from seafood,” Neurotoxicology and Teratology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 240–245, 2010.
- E. Guallar, M. I. Sanz-Gallardo, P. Van'T Veer et al., “Mercury, fish oils, and the risk of myocardial infarction,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 22, pp. 1747–1754, 2002.
- National Research Council, Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2000.
- M. Gochfeld and J. Burger, “Good fish/bad fish: a composite benefit-risk by dose curve,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 511–520, 2005.
- G. L. Ginsberg and B. F. Toal, “Quantitative approach for incorporating methylmercury risks and omega-3 fatty acid benefits in developing species-specific fish consumption advice,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 267–275, 2009.
- P. A. Loring, L. K. Duffy, and M. S. Murray, “A risk-benefit analysis of wild fish consumption for various species in Alaska reveals shortcomings in data and monitoring needs,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, pp. 4532–4541, 2010.
- T. Clarkson, L. Magos, and G. Myers, “The toxicology of mercury—current exposures and clinical manifestations,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, no. 18, pp. 1731–1737, 2003.
- B. Weiss, T. W. Clarkson, and W. Simon, “Silent latency periods in methylmercury poisoning and in neurodegenerative disease,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 851–854, 2002.
- S.-M. Shim, M. G. Ferruzzi, Y.-C. Kim, E. M. Janle, and C. R. Santerre, “Impact of phytochemical-rich foods on bioaccessibility of mercury from fish,” Food Chemistry, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 46–50, 2009.
- R. Canuel, S. B. De Grosbois, L. Atikessé et al., “New evidence on variations of human body burden of methylmercury from fish consumption,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 302–306, 2006.
- J. M. Hightower and D. Moore, “Mercury levels in high-end consumers of fish,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 604–608, 2003.
- E. Groth III, “Over the limit eating too much high-mercury fish,” in Mercury Policy Project, Montpelier, Vt, USA, 2011, http://mercurypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/mppoverthelimit.pdf.
- P. Carta, C. Flore, R. Alinovi et al., “Sub-clinical neurobehavioral abnormalities associated with low level of mercury exposure through fish consumption,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 24, no. 4-5, pp. 617–623, 2003.
- R. F. Korns, “The frustrations of Bettye Russow,” Nutrition Today, vol. 7, pp. 21–23, 1972.
- K. L. Caldwell, M. E. Mortensen, R. L. Jones, S. P. Caudill, and J. D. Osterloh, “Total blood mercury concentrations in the U.S. population: 1999–2006,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 212, no. 6, pp. 588–598, 2009.
- Center for Disease Control and Protection, “Case definition: organic mercury poisoning,” 2006, http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/mercury/mercorgcasedef.asp.
- New York State Department of Health, “Section 22.7 reportable levels of heavy metals in blood and urine,” 2010, http://www.health.ny.gov/regulations/nycrr/title_10/part_22/#s226.
- E. Yokoo, J. Valente, L. Grattan, S. Schmidt, I. Platt, and E. Silbergeld, “Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults,” Environmental Health, vol. 2, article 8, 2003.
- K. Schoeman, J. Bend, J. Hill, K. Nash, and G. Koren, “Defining a lowest observable adverse effect hair concentrations of mercury for neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure through maternal fish consumption: a systematic review,” Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 670–682, 2009.
- J. F. Risher and S. N. Amler, “Mercury exposure: evaluation and intervention. The inappropriate use of chelating agents in the diagnosis and treatment of putative mercury poisoning,” Neurotoxicology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 691–699, 2005.
- Washington State Department of Health, “Checklist to reduce exposure to contaminants in fish,” http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/oehas/fish/fishchecklist.htm.
- A. H. Stern, “Public health guidance on cardiovascular benefits and risks related to fish consumption,” Environmental Health, vol. 6, article 31, 2007.
- E. Oken and D. C. Bellinger, “Fish consumption, methylmercury and child neurodevelopment,” Current Opinion in Pediatrics, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 178–183, 2008.
- United States Department of Agriculture, “How much are you eating?” in Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, United States Department of Agriculture, 2002.
- H. Smiciklas-Wright, D. C. Mitchell, S. J. Mickle, A. J. Cook, and J. D. Goldman, “Foods commonly eaten in the United States: quantities consumed per eating occasion and in a day, 1994–1996,” 2002, http://www.ars.usda.gov/sp2userfiles/place/12355000/pdf/portion.pdf.
- X. Huang, R. A. Hites, J. A. Foran et al., “Consumption advisories for salmon based on risk of cancer and noncancer health effects,” Environmental Research, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 263–274, 2006.
- R. A. Hites, J. A. Foran, D. O. Carpenter, M. C. Hamilton, B. A. Knuth, and S. J. Schwager, “Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon,” Science, vol. 303, no. 5655, pp. 226–229, 2004.
- B. Johnson, H. Hicks, W. Cibulas, et al., “Public health implications of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),” http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/dt/pcb007.html.
- S. Bushkin-Bedient and D. O. Carpenter, “Benefits versus risks associated with consumption of fish and other seafood,” Reviews on Environmental Health, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 161–191, 2010.
- J. A. Bourdon, T. M. Bazinet, T. T. Arnason, L. E. Kimpe, J. M. Blais, and P. A. White, “Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) agonist activity of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements: implications for daily intake of dioxins and PCBs,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, pp. 3093–3097, 2010.
- E. M. Sundeland, “Mercury exposure from domestic and imported estuarine and marine fish in the U. S. seafood market,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 235–242, 2007.