- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Toxicology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 370460, 8 pages
The Benefits and Risks of Consuming Brewed Tea: Beware of Toxic Element Contamination
1University of Alberta, Number 301, 9509-156 Street, Edmonton, AB, Canada T5P 4J5
2University of Alberta, 2935-66 Street, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6K 4C1
3Luleå University of Technology, Aurorum 10, 977 75 Luleå, Sweden
Received 30 July 2013; Accepted 9 September 2013
Academic Editor: Lucio Guido Costa
Copyright © 2013 Gerry Schwalfenberg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- E. Álvarez-Ayuso, A. Giménez, and J. C. Ballesteros, “Fluoride accumulation by plants grown in acid soils amended with flue gas desulphurisation gypsum,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 192, no. 3, pp. 1659–1666, 2011.
- Z. Tan and G. Xiao, “Leaching characteristics of fly ash from Chinese medical waste incineration,” Waste Management and Research, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 285–294, 2012.
- M. Fujimaki Hayacibara, C. S. Queiroz, C. P. Machado Tabchoury, and J. Aparecido Cury, “Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages,” Revista de Saude Publica, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 100–105, 2004.
- S.-C. C. Lung, H.-W. Cheng, and C. B. Fu, “Potential exposure and risk of fluoride intakes from tea drinks produced in Taiwan,” Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 158–166, 2008.
- X.-P. Wang, Y.-J. Ma, and Y.-C. Xu, “Studies on contents of arsenic, selenium, mercury and bismuth in tea samples collected from different regions by atomic fluorescence spectrometry,” Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1653–1657, 2008.
- W.-Y. Han, F.-J. Zhao, Y.-Z. Shi, L.-F. Ma, and J.-Y. Ruan, “Scale and causes of lead contamination in Chinese tea,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 125–132, 2006.
- S. Shekoohiyan, M. Ghoochani, A. Mohagheghian, A. H. Mahvi, M. Yunesian, and S. Nazmara, “Determination of lead, cadmium and arsenic in infusion tea cultivated in north of Iran,” Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering, vol. 9, article 37, 2012.
- F. Perera, T.-Y. Li, Z.-J. Zhou et al., “Benefits of reducing prenatal exposure to coal-burning pollutants to children's neurodevelopment in China,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 116, no. 10, pp. 1396–1400, 2008.
- D. Tang, T.-Y. Li, J. J. Liu et al., “Effects of prenatal exposure to coal-burning pollutants on children's development in China,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 674–679, 2008.
- X.-X. Zheng, Y.-L. Xu, S.-H. Li, X.-X. Liu, R. Hui, and X.-H. Huang, “Green tea intake lowers fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol in adults: a meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 601–610, 2011.
- Z.-M. Wang, B. Zhou, Y.-S. Wang et al., “Black and green tea consumption and the risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 506–515, 2011.
- M. Ali and M. Afzal, “A potent inhibitor of thrombin stimulated platelet thromboxane formation from unprocessed tea,” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Medicine, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 9–13, 1987.
- W.-S. Kang, I.-H. Lim, D.-Y. Yuk et al., “Antithrombotic activities of green tea catechins and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 229–237, 1999.
- P. Bogdanski, J. Suliburska, M. Szulinska, M. Stepien, D. Pupek-Musialik, and A. Jablecka, “Green tea extract reduces blood pressure, inflammatory biomarkers, and oxidative stress and improves parameters associated with insulin resistance in obese, hypertensive patients,” Nutrition Research, vol. 32, pp. 421–427, 2012.
- K. Boehm, F. Borrelli, E. Ernst et al., “Green tea (Camellia sinensis) for the prevention of cancer,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, Article ID CD005004, 2009.
- B. J. Fuhrman, R. M. Pfeiffer, A. H. Wu et al., “Green tea intake is associated with urinary estrogen profiles in Japanese-American women,” Nutrition Journal, vol. 12, article 25, 2013.
- J. A. Montague, L. M. Butler, A. H. Wu, et al., “Green and black tea intake in relation to prostate cancer risk among Singapore Chinese,” Cancer Causes Control, vol. 23, pp. 1635–1641, 2012.
- J. S. Zheng, J. Yang, Y. Q. Fu, T. Huang, Y. J. Huang, and D. Li, “Effects of green tea, black tea, and coffee consumption on the risk of esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2013.
- T. M. Jurgens, A. M. Whelan, L. Killian, S. Doucette, S. Kirk, and E. Foy, “Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 12, Article ID 008650, 2012.
- M. Maeda-Yamamoto, “Human clinical studies of tea polyphenols in allergy or life style-related diseases,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 19, no. 34, pp. 6148–6155, 2013.
- J. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Suo, Y. Liu, and B. Zhao, “Green tea catechins ameliorate adipose insulin resistance by improving oxidative stress,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 1648–1657, 2012.
- K. C. Silva, M. A. Rosales, D. E. Hamassaki, et al., “Green tea is neuroprotective in diabetic retinopathy,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 54, pp. 1325–1336, 2013.
- M.-Y. Kang, Y. H. Park, B. S. Kim et al., “Preventive effects of green tea (Camellia Sinensis var. Assamica) on diabetic nephropathy,” Yonsei Medical Journal, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 138–144, 2012.
- A. Araghizadeh, J. Kohanteb, and M. M. Fani, “Inhibitory activity of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract on some clinically isolated cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria,” Medical Principles and Practice, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 368–372, 2013.
- J. Steinmann, J. Buer, T. Pietschmann, and E. Steinmann, “Anti-infective properties of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 168, pp. 1059–1073, 2013.
- R. Canuel, S. B. de Grosbois, M. Lucotte, L. Atikessé, C. Larose, and I. Rheault, “New evidence on the effects of tea on mercury metabolism in humans,” Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 232–238, 2006.
- M. He and W.-X. Wang, “Factors affecting the bioaccessibility of methylmercury in several marine fish species,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 59, no. 13, pp. 7155–7162, 2011.
- W. Liu, Z. Xu, H. Yang, Y. Deng, B. Xu, and Y. Wei, “The protective effects of tea polyphenols and schisandrin B on nephrotoxicity of mercury,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 1651–1665, 2011.
- O. Ouédraogo and M. Amyot, “Effects of various cooking methods and food components on bioaccessibility of mercury from fish,” Environmental Research, vol. 111, no. 8, pp. 1064–1069, 2011.
- “Tea and coffee with your fish?” Harvard Health Letter, vol. 37, no. 3, article 7, 2012.
- N. M. Pham, A. Nanri, K. Kurotani et al., “Green tea and coffee consumption is inversely associated with depressive symptoms in a Japanese working population,” Public Health Nutrition, 2013.
- K. Niu, A. Hozawa, S. Kuriyama et al., “Green tea consumption is associated with depressive symptoms in the elderly,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 1615–1622, 2009.
- S. Davinelli, N. Sapere, D. Zella, R. Bracale, M. Intrieri, and G. Scapagnini, “Pleiotropic protective effects of phytochemicals in Alzheimer's disease,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2012, Article ID 386527, 11 pages, 2012.
- World Health Organization, “Global assessment of the state-of-the-science of endocrine disruptors,” Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 1–180, 2002.
- Y. W. Chen, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Yang, C. C. Yen, K. S. Tsai, and S. H. Liu, “Inorganic mercury causes pancreatic β-cell death via the oxidative stress-induced apoptotic and necrotic pathways,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 243, no. 3, pp. 323–331, 2010.
- E. A. Belyaeva, T. V. Sokolova, L. V. Emelyanova, and I. O. Zakharova, “Mitochondrial electron transport chain in heavy metal-induced neurotoxicity: effects of cadmium, mercury, and copper,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2012, Article ID 136063, 14 pages, 2012.
- L. Hu, J. B. Greer, H. Solo-Gabriele, L. A. Fieber, and Y. Cai, “Arsenic toxicity in the human nerve cell line SK-N-SH in the presence of chromium and copper,” Chemosphere, vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 1082–1087, 2013.
- M. Valko, H. Morris, and M. T. D. Cronin, “Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1161–1208, 2005.
- A. R. Nair, O. Degheselle, K. Smeets, E. Van Kerkhove, and A. Cuypers, “Cadmium-induced pathologies: where is the oxidative balance lost (or not)?” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 6116–6143, 2013.
- N. F. Kolachi, T. G. Kazi, H. I. Afridi et al., “Status of toxic metals in biological samples of diabetic mothers and their neonates,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 196–212, 2011.
- K. Jomova, D. Vondrakova, M. Lawson, and M. Valko, “Metals, oxidative stress and neurodegenerative disorders,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 345, no. 1-2, pp. 91–104, 2010.
- S. J. Genuis, “Sensitivity-related illness: the escalating pandemic of allergy, food intolerance and chemical sensitivity,” The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 24, pp. 6047–6061, 2010.
- P. Moszczyński, J. Rutowski, S. Słowiński, and S. Bem, “Immunological effects of occupational exposure to metallic mercury in the population of T-cells and NK-cells,” Analyst, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 99–103, 1998.
- C. Guerrero-Bosagna and M. K. Skinner, “Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of phenotype and disease,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 354, no. 1-2, pp. 3–8, 2012.
- M. K. Skinner, “Role of epigenetics in developmental biology and transgenerational inheritance,” Birth Defects Research C, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 51–55, 2011.
- M. E. Sears, K. J. Kerr, and R. I. Bray, “Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in sweat: a systematic review,” Journal of Environmental and Public Health, vol. 2012, Article ID 184745, 10 pages, 2012.
- M. E. Sears and S. J. Genuis, “Environmental determinants of chronic disease and medical approaches: recognition, avoidance, supportive therapy, and detoxification,” Journal of Environmental and Public Health, vol. 2012, Article ID 356798, 15 pages, 2012.
- S. J. Genuis, “Elimination of persistent toxicants from the human body,” Human and Experimental Toxicology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 3–18, 2011.
- T. W. Clarkson, “Factors involved in heavy metal poisoning,” Federation Proceedings, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1634–1639, 1977.
- T. I. Lidsky and J. S. Schneider, “Lead neurotoxicity in children: basic mechanisms and clinical correlates,” Brain, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 5–19, 2003.
- S. J. Genuis, G. Schwalfenberg, A. K. Siy, and I. Rodushkin, “Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 11, Article ID e49676, 2012.
- M. A. Rahman, B. Rahman, and N. Ahmed, “High blood manganese in iron-deficient children in Karachi,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1677–1683, 2013.
- F. M. Crinella, “Does soy-based infant formula cause ADHD? Update and public policy considerations,” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 395–407, 2012.
- Y. Wang, H. Jing, V. Mehta, G. J. Welter, and D. E. Giammar, “Impact of galvanic corrosion on lead release from aged lead service lines,” Water Research, vol. 46, pp. 5049–5060, 2012.
- R. W. Sheets, “Release of heavy metals from European and Asian porcelain dinnerware,” The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 212, no. 2-3, pp. 107–113, 1998.
- Centers for Disease Control, Department of Health and Human Services, “Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals,” Atlanta, Ga, USA, pp.1–529, 2009, http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/pdf/FourthReport.pdf.
- World Health Organization, “Children's Health and the Environment. WHO Training Package for the Health Sector,” World Health Organization, 2009, http://www.who.int/ceh/en/.
- D. Coury, “Biological influences on brain and behavior,” in Proceedings of the Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting: Adolescent Medicine, Baltimore, Md, USA, 2001.