Journal of Textiles The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Mathematical Modeling to Predict the Geometrical and Physical Properties of Bleached Cotton Plain Single Jersey Knitted Fabrics Mon, 30 Mar 2015 06:47:05 +0000 This paper presents a novel mathematical model of bleached cotton plain single jersey knitted fabrics. The mathematical model is used to deduce the fabric geometrical relationships that can be useful for forecasting the properties of the fabric before production. A practical verification is carried out at different cotton yarn counts and twist factors. The obtained mathematical and practical results are deeply studied and analyzed. The results showed a good agreement between the proposed mathematical model and the practical one. The finished fabric weight is predicted at different yarn counts and loop lengths, and a forecasting weight chart is deduced. This chart will undoubtedly help the producers to enhance the fabric productions. In addition, an actual yarn diameter in the fabric measuring method is carried out and the fabric thickness is estimated consequently. The obtained results proved that the plain single jersey thickness is proportional to three times of the actual measured yarn diameter. A. Fouda, A. El-Hadidy, and A. El-Deeb Copyright © 2015 A. Fouda et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Bed Cover Properties Produced from Double Fabric Based on Honeycomb Thu, 26 Mar 2015 13:22:41 +0000 This research aims to innovate a new fabric structure, which could be used as a bed cover based on double honeycomb fabric with self-stitching. The honeycomb air pockets were aimed at facing each other to form closed small air chambers which work to sequester the air. The double fabric increases fabric thickness. Thus, the opportunity to improve thermal comfort could be achieved. A number of samples were produced with different densities and counts of weft yarn. Thermal insulation and water vapour permeability were measured and compared with bed covers produced from reversible weft backed structure. Geometrical properties, abrasion resistance, and air permeability were also measured. The results showed that the innovated structure had higher values of thermal insulation than reversible weft backed structure at certain weft counts and densities. A. A. Salama, A. S. El-Deeb, and I. M. El-shahat Copyright © 2015 A. A. Salama et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Bromelain Treatment pH with Wool for Antifelting and Reduced Pilling Behaviour: Objective Assessment Approach Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:37:00 +0000 Wool fabric possesses unique properties like resiliency, warmth, wide aesthetic qualities, and comfort. However, felting-shrinkage and pilling tendency of wool after wear and repeated launderings are its inherent limitations. Proteolytic enzymes are extensively used as biocatalysts for eco-friendly wool antifelting treatments. However, uncontrolled wool protein hydrolysis by protease may lead to excessive weight loss leading to weakening of fiber and reduction in its tensile value, which further have detrimental effect on the pilling propensity of protease treated wool during use of woolen textiles. Optimum selection of protease treatment parameters like concentration, pH, temperature, and so forth can help in controlled reaction to achieve the desired effect, which generally involves cumbersome sampling and analysis. Optimization for pH of bromelain (proteolytic enzyme having activity in acidic conditions) treatment with wool has been done while aiming at the desired areawise shrinkage value, minimum weight loss, and reduced pilling by using standard methods and objective fast Fourier transformation technique for pilling evaluation specifically. Amandeep Kaur and J. N. Chakraborty Copyright © 2015 Amandeep Kaur and J. N. Chakraborty. All rights reserved. Effects of Different Mordants on Silk Fabric Dyed with Onion Outer Skin Extracts Wed, 10 Dec 2014 00:10:13 +0000 At present, a higher demand is put towards the use of natural dyes due to increased awareness of the environmental and health hazards associated with the synthesis and use of synthetic dyes. This research was conducted using onion outer skins as a potential source of natural plant dyes. In this study, extraction of dye was carried out in aqueous boiling method. Premordanting technique was followed using different mordants, namely alum, ferrous sulphate, tin, tannic acid, tartaric acid, and their combinations on silk fabric. Fabric samples dyed without using any mordant were then compared with the dyed samples pretreated with the mordants. The range of colors developed on dyed materials was evaluated by measuring the color values with respect to values and color coordinates. It was concluded that the color values were found to be influenced by the addition of mordants, and thus different fashion hues were obtained from the same amount of dye extract using different mordants. Ferrous sulphate was found as the most influential mordant. values between unmordanted (Reference dyed) and metallic mordanted fabric samples were found higher than those between unmordanted and nonmetallic mordanted fabric samples. The dyed samples were evaluated for color fastness to washing, light, drycleaning, rubbing, and perspiration. The color fastness properties were found to be satisfactory and improved in many cases. From the fastness results, it was obvious that these dyes can also be applied on silk fabric without using any mordant if required. Mohammad Gias Uddin Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Gias Uddin. All rights reserved. Antimicrobial Activity of Perspiration Pads and Cotton Cloth Fabricated with the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms Mon, 08 Dec 2014 07:16:54 +0000 Waterhyacinth is one of the most dangerous aquatic weeds causing various ecological and environmental issues. The plant has several pharmaceutical properties in spite of its harmful nature. In the present study, perspiration pads and cotton cloth fabricated with the ethyl acetate extract of waterhyacinth were evaluated for its activity against Corynebacterium. Perspiration pads and samples of cotton cloth were fabricated with ethyl acetate extract of Eichhornia crassipes by three methods, namely, dipping, sonication, and homogenization. The antimicrobial activity of the fabricated textile materials was tested against Corynebacterium, a microorganism commonly seen in human sweat. Disc diffusion method (AATCC 147) was used for evaluating the antimicrobial nature of the fabricated samples. Sonication was found to be efficient for coating of the extract on the cotton cloth, whereas dipping method was found to be efficient in case of perspiration pads. No bacterial growth was observed under and on the fabricated cloth and perspiration pads indicating that the fabrics possess bacteriostatic property and not bactericidal property and the absence of leaching of the extract. The results showed significant antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Eichhornia crassipes coated onto fabrics against Corynebacterium with no growth under and on the test sample. P. Lalitha, P. Jayanthi, and R. Sujitha Copyright © 2014 P. Lalitha et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Malononitrile-Condensed Disperse Dyes and Application on Polyester and Nylon Fabrics Mon, 08 Dec 2014 06:56:27 +0000 An active methylene compound, malononitrile, was introduced into the structures of a series of disperse dyes previously prepared by coupling phloroglucinol, barbituric acid, and α and β-naphtho to 4-amino-3-nitrobenzaldehyde. The dyes were purified by recrystallization from ethanol. The purity of the dyes was examined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the dyes were characterized by visible absorption and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The malononitrile-condensed dyes produced deeper colours and shades with better fastness to wash, light, and perspiration on application to polyester and nylon fabrics when compared to their uncondensed analogue. Yusuf Y. Lams, P. O. Nkeonye, K. A. Bello, M. K. Yakubu, and A. O. Lawal Copyright © 2014 Yusuf Y. Lams et al. All rights reserved. A Study on Herbal Finish to Prevent Bed Sore Using Mangifera indica and Triphala Dried Fruit Mon, 01 Dec 2014 09:55:16 +0000 “Bed sores” owe their name to the observation that patients who were bedridden and not properly repositioned would often develop ulcerations or sores on their skin, typically over bony prominences. These bed sores, which result from prolonged pressure, are also called “decubitus ulcers,” “pressure sores,” “skin breakdown,” and “pressure ulcers.” They are associated with adverse health outcomes and high treatment costs. This study focuses on developing herbal finish to prevent bed sores. For this purpose, functional finishing was utilized to produce a bedsore preventing fabric. Plain weave cotton fabric was dyed by using herbal extracts, dried, and then cured. Two samples in different ratios (1 : 2 and 2 : 1) of two herbal extracts (Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits) were prepared with and without binder (chitosan). Air permeability, wicking ability, Drop Test for absorbency, and antibacterial properties were examined for those samples. Based on the results, fabric dyed with Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits in the ratio of 2 : 1 with chitosan is determined as the most promising combination for the final product. Kiruthika Deivasigamani, Siva Kumar Kolandaivel, and Kavitha Krishnamoorthi Copyright © 2014 Kiruthika Deivasigamani et al. All rights reserved. Environmental Sustainability Evaluation of Apparel Product: A Case Study on Knitted T-Shirt Mon, 24 Nov 2014 12:59:32 +0000 The work reported in this paper presents the assessment of environmental performances of selected branded apparel T-Shirt products made by Bangladesh. The study is based on a standard evaluation tool named Higg Index which is basically used widely to measure the environmental sustainability of various apparel products. Higg Index is an internal self-assessment tool created by the outdoor apparel industry and Nike’s apparel environmental design tool which aims to aggregate information on the environmental performance of products. The Index considers performance across the full life-cycle of a product, including impacts from “input materials, manufacturing, packaging, transportation, use, and end-of-life.” Selected apparel branded T-Shirt products from S. Oliver, BUTex-Innovation, PUMA, Esprit, Aarong, and Yellow were taken into consideration. The results indicate that newly developed ecofriendly T-shirt and foreign branded products named S. Oliver, PUMA, and Esprit gained higher score but local branded product like Aarong and Yellow gained lower score in terms of environmental sustainability based on Higg Index assessment tool. Moreover, many weaknesses and opportunities for improvement of both local and foreign branded T-Shirt products have been identified and suggested which would eventually lead the fashion designer, apparel manufacturer, stakeholder, and consumer towards greener apparel products. Md. Mazedul Islam and Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan Copyright © 2014 Md. Mazedul Islam and Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan. All rights reserved. Dyeing of Polyester and Polyamide Synthetic Fabrics with Natural Dyes Using Ecofriendly Technique Mon, 24 Nov 2014 12:27:39 +0000 This work presents an ecofriendly method for dyeing synthetic fabrics with natural dyes using UV/ozone pretreatment to activate fiber and improve dyeability of polyester and nylon. Fabrics are pretreated with UV/ozone for different periods of time ranged from 5 min to 120 min. Effect of pretreatment on surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Mechanical behavior was studied by testing tensile strength and elongation percentage. Chemical modification of the surface was studied using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (ATR-FTIR). Dyeability of the treated samples was investigated in terms of their colour strength expressed as K/s in addition to fastness to washing and light. This research showed the increment of the affinity of the studied synthetic fabrics towards curcumin and saffron natural dyes using ecofriendly technique. Khaled Elnagar, Tarek Abou Elmaaty, and Sally Raouf Copyright © 2014 Khaled Elnagar et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study between Physical Properties of Compact and Ring Yarn Fabrics Produced from Medium and Coarser Yarn Counts Sun, 23 Nov 2014 12:38:57 +0000 In compact spinning, fibers in drawing stage are condensed using air suction, which results in the produced yarns which significantly differ from ring spun yarns in their physical and mechanical properties. This study compares between physical properties of compact and ring yarn fabrics woven from coarser and medium yarn counts. The experimental results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. The findings of this study revealed that woven fabrics produced from compact spun yarns are superior to those produced from ring spun yarns with respect to breaking strength, breaking elongation, abrasion resistance, tearing strength, and air permeability. Ghada Ali Abou-Nassif Copyright © 2014 Ghada Ali Abou-Nassif. All rights reserved. A Design Tool for Clothing Applications: Wind Resistant Fabric Layers and Permeable Vents Tue, 18 Nov 2014 09:49:55 +0000 A computational clothing design tool is used to examine the effects of different clothing design features upon performance. Computational predictions of total heat and mass transfer coefficients of the clothing design tool showed good agreement with experimental measurements obtained using a sweating thermal manikin for four different clothing systems, as well as for the unclothed bare manikin. The specific clothing design features examined in this work are the size and placement of air-permeable fabric vents in a protective suit composed primarily of a fabric-laminated polymer film layer. The air-permeable vents were shown to provide additional ventilation and to significantly decrease both the total thermal insulation and the water vapor resistance of the protective suit. Phillip Gibson, Michael Sieber, Jerry Bieszczad, John Gagne, David Fogg, and Jintu Fan Copyright © 2014 Phillip Gibson et al. All rights reserved. Absolute and Relative Activity of Microencapsulated Natural Essential Oils against the Larvae of Carpet Beetle Anthrenus flavipies (LeConte) Wed, 12 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This study focuses on finding natural ecofriendly alternatives to the existing commercial Anthrenus flavipies resist chemicals. Eucalyptus, lavender, and citronella microcapsules were explored as natural alternatives. Chemical contents of microcapsules and fragrance releasing property were tested using gas chromatography. Absolute (proofing) and relative (repellent) activities of microcapsule treated fabrics were tested against the larvae of carpet beetle Anthrenus flavipies (LeConte). Proofing activity test results revealed that natural essential oils act as a deterrent for Anthrenus flavipies, but give lesser protection compared to commercial chemical permethrin. Repellency test results also affirmed these findings and it was observed that Anthrenus flavipies prefers to eat untreated fabric compared to its treated counterpart. Jayant Udakhe, Neeraj Shrivastava, Smita Honade, Dhanashree Banait, and Namita Sonawane Copyright © 2014 Jayant Udakhe et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Fabric Layers on the Relationship between Fabric Constructional Parameters and Percentage Reflectance Values of Polyester Fabrics Thu, 16 Oct 2014 07:52:15 +0000 This paper focused on the assessment of the relation between constructional properties and percentage reflectance values of fabrics woven from polyester yarns through fabric layer numbers. Reflectance measurements were conducted on pretreated but undyed fabric samples at five different fabric layers. Twelve polyester fabrics having different constructional parameters were used and fabrics differed from each other by their weft yarn densities, weave patterns, and weft yarn filament fineness. Warp yarn properties (type, count, and density) were the same at all the fabrics. Percentage reflectance values of the fabrics changed according to yarn density, weave pattern, and filament fineness in accordance with fabric layer numbers during reflectance measurement. Percentage reflectance values gradually increased as fabric layer numbers increased. The highest reflectance values were obtained at 16 layers of fabric. The effects of single constructional parameters on reflectance values disappeared as fabric layer numbers increased. Percentage reflectance values were analyzed according to ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and statistical results revealed the cross relations obtained. Light-trap phenomenon was discussed according to reflectance characteristics of woven fabrics. Mine Akgun, Behcet Becerir, and Halil Rifat Alpay Copyright © 2014 Mine Akgun et al. All rights reserved. Protocol for Quantification of Defects in Natural Fibres for Composites Wed, 27 Aug 2014 08:28:27 +0000 Natural bast-type plant fibres are attracting increasing interest for being used for structural composite applications where high quality fibres with good mechanical properties are required. A protocol for the quantification of defects in natural fibres is presented. The protocol is based on the experimental method of optical microscopy and the image analysis algorithms of the seeded region growing method and Otsu’s method. The use of the protocol is demonstrated by examining two types of differently processed flax fibres to give mean defect contents of 6.9 and 3.9%, a difference which is tested to be statistically significant. The protocol is evaluated with respect to the selection of image analysis algorithms, and Otsu’s method is found to be a more appropriate method than the alternative coefficient of variation method. The traditional way of defining defect size by area is compared to the definition of defect size by width, and it is shown that both definitions can be used to give unbiased findings for the comparison between fibre types. Finally, considerations are given with respect to true measures of defect content, number of determinations, and number of significant figures used for the descriptive statistics. Ulrich Andreas Mortensen and Bo Madsen Copyright © 2014 Ulrich Andreas Mortensen and Bo Madsen. All rights reserved. Dyeing of Silk with Anthocyanins Dyes Extract from Liriope platyphylla Fruits Wed, 20 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A new source of natural anthocyanins dyes, from Liriope platyphylla fruit, is proposed. This paper analyzes the dye extracts, the primary color components of the extracts, the color features of the extracts under different pH conditions, and their application in silk dyeing. The research shows that, nine anthocyanins are found in  L. platyphylla fruits by analyzing the results of the HPLC/DAD, MS, and MS/MS spectra. The five major anthocyanins related to delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives take up 91.72% of total anthocyanin contents. The color of the solution is red under acidic condition (pH < 3.0) and stays in yellow under alkaline condition with pH values above 7.0. The dye extracts applied to silk fabric with mordant free dyeing show different color under different pH conditions, changing between purple, blue, green, and yellow. However, the dyed colors is light and the dyeing rate is low. Metal mordant such as Sn in chelation enhances the dye depth and improves the fastness of the dyed silk fabrics, especially in silk fabrics dyed by premordanting and metamordanting. Huayin Wang, Ping Li, and Wenlong Zhou Copyright © 2014 Huayin Wang et al. All rights reserved. Knitting Force Measurement on Flat Knitting Machines Tue, 05 Aug 2014 07:19:55 +0000 Knittability can be defined as the ability of yarns to run on knitting machines without problems. Knittability can be achieved when less stress is applied on the knitting machine parts by the knitting yarns. This paper presents a novel measuring system for the knitting force needed to perform knitting yarns on flat knitting machine based on data acquisition system (DAS). The proposed system is used to measure the knitting force at different machine settings and different properties of the knitting yarns to determine the optimal production conditions. For this reason, three types of knitted fabric structures (single jersey, Rib 1 × 1, and full cardigan) with three different loop lengths and five different twists of ply yarn were produced. The obtained results showed the optimal yarn ply twist factor which gave minimum knitting force (less stress on needles or knitting yarns) at different loop lengths for each structure. A. Fouda, A. El-Hadidy, and A. El-Deeb Copyright © 2014 A. Fouda et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Durability to Laundering of Triclosan and Chitosan on a Textile Substrate Wed, 02 Jul 2014 11:42:18 +0000 In a hospital environment, textile substrates have been implicated as a vector in the transmission of disease. To mitigate the harmful spread of disease via textile substrates, an effective measure is treatment of textiles with antimicrobial agents. The current investigation compares one of the most widely used chemically synthesized antimicrobial agents, triclosan with chitosan, a naturally occurring antimicrobial agent. For the study, samples of a common polyester/cotton textile used in hospital settings were treated with triclosan and chitosan based antimicrobial agents. Following treatment, the samples were analyzed for their effectiveness against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using standard AATCC Test Methods. The efficacy of the treatment to laundering was then evaluated by subjecting the treated samples to 50 washings and repeating the tests against the challenge microorganisms. Data obtained were statistically analyzed at a 95% confidence interval. Results showed that before laundering both triclosan and chitosan treated samples were extremely effective as antimicrobial agents. After laundering, chitosan was less effective against E.coli but maintained efficacy against S. aureus. The effectiveness of triclosan was not adversely affected after the laundering treatments. Anupama Sargur Ranganath and Ajoy K. Sarkar Copyright © 2014 Anupama Sargur Ranganath and Ajoy K. Sarkar. All rights reserved. The Integration of Technology and Management in the Competitiveness of the United States Short Staple Yarn Manufacturing Industry Mon, 09 Jun 2014 06:00:54 +0000 The purpose of this research was to investigate whether a balance of technology and management could be used in order to sustain a viable United States (US) short staple yarn production industry. The methodology used in this study consisted of primary research comprising two phases. The first phase consisted of interviews with industry executives in order to find out what US yarn manufacturers think are the important factors in maintaining a competitive yarn industry. The second phase was an online survey with industry customers in order to find out why weavers and knitters buy from US manufacturers. Results reveal that US manufacturers have competitive advantages over other countries because of skill level of workforce, variety of products offered, customer relationships, innovation and technology, and product quality. In order to keep these competitive advantages, “technology” and “management” strategies should be implemented. Results also reveal the areas in which the US yarn manufacturers should focus their resources in order to stay competitive or indeed survive. Suvalee T. Tangboonritruthai, William Oxenham, Nancy L. Cassill, and Erin D. Parrish Copyright © 2014 Suvalee T. Tangboonritruthai et al. All rights reserved. Bamboo Rayon-ZnO Nanoparticles Composite as Multifunctional Textile Materials Mon, 10 Mar 2014 14:03:00 +0000 In the current study, an acrylic acid grafted bamboo rayon fabric was utilized as a substrate to immobilize ZnO nanoparticles. The bamboo rayon-ZnO nanoparticles composite was prepared by the treatment of swollen grafted fabric with ZnCl2 followed by conversion of Zn2+ ions into ZnO nanoparticles. The modified product was characterized and then evaluated for antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as durability of their antibacterial activity after washing. The product showed antibacterial activity against both types of bacteria which was found to be durable till 40 washes. The modified material also showed improved UV protection. The product can be claimed as semidurable multifunctional textile material. Javed Sheikh and M. D. Teli Copyright © 2014 Javed Sheikh and M. D. Teli. All rights reserved. Defect Detection Techniques for Airbag Production Sewing Stages Tue, 25 Feb 2014 09:26:16 +0000 Airbags are subjected to strict quality control in order to ensure passengers safety. The quality of fabric and sewing thread influences the final product and therefore, sewing defects must be early and accurately detected, in order to remove the item from production. Airbag seams assembly can take various forms, using linear and circle primitives, with threads of different colors and length densities, creating lockstitch or double threads chainstitch. The paper presents a framework for the automatic detection of defects occurring during the airbag sewing stage. Types of defects as skipped stitch, missed stitch, or superimposed seam for lockstitch and two threads chainstitch are detected and marked. Using image processing methods, the proposed framework follows the seams path and determines if a color pattern of the considered stitches is valid. Raluca Brad, Lavinia Barac, and Remus Brad Copyright © 2014 Raluca Brad et al. All rights reserved. Applied Biomimetics: A New Fresh Look of Textiles Tue, 25 Feb 2014 07:21:45 +0000 Biomimetics is a new research field that deals with extraction and imitation of functional principles of nature and applying them in engineering. Due to the perfection of structures and mechanisms found in the natural world, scientists came to the conclusion that these may constitute reliable sources of inspiration and viable solutions for technological problems they face today. Industrial applications have rapidly developed. Trying to synthesize all information about this extremely large field, with branches in biology, physics, chemistry, and engineering, soon I realised that an exhaustive study is merely a utopia. Despite all that, the beauty and perfection of “inspiration sources” which led to the fabrication of many biomimetic prototypes encouraged me to approach with thrill and enthusiasm this fascinating domain, not in general, but in a more specific field, the textile field. After a brief introduction to Biomimetics and a historical review of it, there are presented some of the most important biomimetic textiles innovations, among which I mention fibrous structures, multifunctional surfaces, thermal insulating materials, and structurally coloured materials. Mirela Teodorescu Copyright © 2014 Mirela Teodorescu. All rights reserved. Studies on Wicking Behaviour of Polyester Fabric Mon, 24 Feb 2014 09:33:30 +0000 This paper aims to investigate vertical wicking properties of polyester fabric based on change in sample direction and change in tension. Also experimental results are compared with theoretical results. Polyester fabric made out of spun yarn with four types of variation in pick density was used. Theoretical values of vertical wicking were calculated by using Lucas-Washburn equation and experimental results were recorded using strip test method. Maximum height reached experimentally in both warp way and weft way is more than that of the theoretical values. The maximum height attained by fabric experimentally in weft is more as compared to warp way. Vertical wicking increases with increase in tension. This paper is focused on wicking which plays a vital role in determining comfort and moisture transport behavior of fabric. Arobindo Chatterjee and Pratibha Singh Copyright © 2014 Arobindo Chatterjee and Pratibha Singh. All rights reserved. A Study on Coloring Properties of Rheum emodi on Jute Union Fabrics Tue, 11 Feb 2014 09:39:34 +0000 Jute-cotton and jute-wool union fabrics have been printed with colorant extracted from Rheum emodi with guar gum and albumin as thickening agents and aluminium sulphate, copper sulphate, and ferrous sulphate as mordants. Printing with Rheum emodi colorant with different mordants resulted in different shades ranging from yellowish brown, deep brown, reddish brown, and gray shades to olive black. The K/S value showed that mordants, namely, CuSO4 and FeSO4, exhibited high colour absorption regardless of the nature of material used. All the printed samples have good to excellent wash, rubbing and light fastness properties regardless of the nature of materials, mordants, and thickeners used. Guar gum is closely at par with albumin as a thickening agent and considering the cost and availability of raw material, guar gum is the better choice for the textile industry. Lopamudra Nayak Copyright © 2014 Lopamudra Nayak. All rights reserved. A Computer-Based System for Evaluation of Slub Yarn Characteristics Thu, 09 Jan 2014 11:40:59 +0000 This research aims to build a computer-based system for measuring slub yarn characteristics and evaluating the results using statistical methods. The measuring system was based on the electrical condenser of the Uster evenness tester as a measuring sensor. A digital storage oscilloscope was used to convert the analogue output signals into digital data to be recorded on a computer. A designed computer program was constructed using MatLab language for signal analysis based on a proposed method. Final results from this system contained graphical plots for the three measured slub yarn geometrical parameters slub length, slub distance, and slub thickness and a final report for all the measured slub yarn characteristics. The results of tested slub yarn samples showed that actual slub geometrical parameters differ from nominal values and the difference had two level: prevailing difference and outlier values. Outliers which are considered slub yarn defects were detected and counted in a final report using the box plot statistical method which could be an effective industrial tool for evaluation of both yarn quality and machine performance. The prevailing difference was assessed using histogram comparison which could help in adjusting the setting of slub yarn device to obtain the required appearance. R. Abd El-khalek, R. El-Bealy, and A. El-Deeb Copyright © 2014 R. Abd El-khalek et al. All rights reserved. Heat Generation by Polypyrrole Coated Glass Fabric Tue, 24 Sep 2013 17:11:18 +0000 Vapor deposition technique was employed to coat polypyrrole (PPy) on glass substrate using FeCl3 as oxidant and p-toluenesulfonic acid (−OTs) as doping agent. The Joule heating effect of PPy coated E-glass fabric was studied by supplying various DC electric fields. The coated fabric exhibited reasonable electrical stability, possessed medium electrical conductivity and was effective in heat generation. An increase in temperature of conductive fabric subjected to constant voltage was observed whereas decrease in power consumption was recorded. Thickness of PPy coating on glass fibers was analyzed by Laser confocal microscope and scanning electron microscope. A. M. Rehan Abbasi, J. Militky, and J. Gregr Copyright © 2013 A. M. Rehan Abbasi et al. All rights reserved. Exploratory Investigation of Chitosan as Mordant for Eco-Friendly Antibacterial Printing of Cotton with Natural Dyes Thu, 05 Sep 2013 18:45:55 +0000 Although a lot of antibacterial finishes are available for cotton, the user safety and durability of the finish are always the important issues. Some of the natural dyes are known to possess antibacterial properties; however, most of them are nonsubstantive. Hence, they are used in conjunction with eco-friendly natural mordants. Although metallic mordants are effective, they are environmentally pollutants, hence not desirable. In the current work, the novel natural mordant like chitosan with different concentrations (10% and 20% of weight of fiber) was applied on cotton and fabric was printed with natural dyes such as catechu, turmeric, and marigold using screen printing method. All the three dyes were used in powder form in print paste with different concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10%) and guar gum was used as thickener. The printed samples using chitosan as a mordant showed the equivalent color values to that of prints obtained using alum as a mordant. The printed fabric showed excellent antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The method may be considered suitable for eco-friendly printing and antibacterial finishing of textile materials. M. D. Teli, Javed Sheikh, and Pragati Shastrakar Copyright © 2013 M. D. Teli et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Some Fabric and Sewing Conditions on Apparel Seam Characteristics Tue, 11 Jun 2013 10:03:17 +0000 Many previous studies showed that seam appearance as well as performance depends on the interrelationship of fabrics, threads, and the stitch/seam selection and lastly on the sewing conditions, which include the needle size, needle thread tension, stitch density, and the appropriate operation and maintenance of the sewing machine. Present investigation elucidates the effect of blend composition, sewing thread size, and sewing needle parameters on garment seam characteristics (i.e., seam strength, seam strength efficiency, seam puckering, seam stiffness, and drape coefficient). The seam quality characterization is studied through the L9 orthogonal design methodology. In good quality apparels, compatibility of the seams with the functional requirement is very important for serviceability and life of the apparel. Reversibility as well as repairing of seams in the apparel is very limited in the condition of seam failure. Seam strength efficiency is higher for the uniform fiber matrix in the structure of fabrics. The polyester dominated suiting fabrics give minimum seam stiffness because polyester component has low flexural rigidity. The cotton dominated suiting fabrics have less seam puckering due to increase in fabric stiffness. A. K. Choudhary and Amit Goel Copyright © 2013 A. K. Choudhary and Amit Goel. All rights reserved. Dyeing Studies with Eucalyptus, Quercetin, Rutin, and Tannin: A Research on Effect of Ferrous Sulfate Mordant Thu, 02 May 2013 10:06:46 +0000 Natural dyes from Eucalyptus leaf extract, quercetin, rutin, and tannin were applied to silk fabric by pad-batch and pad-dry techniques under different conditions. Ferrous sulfate was used as a mordant. The dyeing properties were evaluated by measuring K/S and CIELAB values. In addition, the different fastness properties were evaluated. The effect of dyes at different concentration levels with respect to their colour strength was also studied. Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit, Charoon Klaichoi, Nattadon Rungruangkitkrai, Nattaya Punrattanasin, Kamolkan Sriharuksa, and Monthon Nakpathom Copyright © 2013 Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Phase-Change Materials on Thermo-Physiological Comfort in Warm Environment Tue, 23 Apr 2013 15:00:06 +0000 The purpose of this research work is to investigate the influence of phase-change materials (PCMs) on thermo-physiological comfort of different male business clothing systems evaluated in warm environment. The impact of particular business clothing on the thermo-physiological comfort of the wearer during different physical activity and environmental conditions (between 25°C and 10°C with step of 5°C), artificially created in a climate chamber, was determined experimentally, as a change of three physiological parameters of a human being: mean skin temperature, heart rate, and the amount of evaporated and condensed sweat. A questionnaire and an assessment scale were also used before, during, and after each experiment in order to evaluate the wearer’s subjective feeling of comfort. The results of the performed research work show that male business clothing systems in combination with PCMs do not affect the thermal-physiological comfort of the wearer in warm environment significantly, except at an ambient temperature of 15°C, where clothing systems in combination with PCMs produce a small heating effect. Furthermore, it was concluded that clothing systems in combination with PCMs indicate a small temporary thermal effect that is reflected in a slight rising or lowering of mean skin temperature during activity changes. Damjana Celcar Copyright © 2013 Damjana Celcar. All rights reserved. Ultraviolet Protection by Fabric Engineering Wed, 03 Apr 2013 11:48:20 +0000 Background. The increasing emission of greenhouse gases has evoked the human being to save the ozone layer and minimize the risk of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Various fabric structures have been explored to achieve desired ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) in various situations. Objective. In this study, the effect of various filament configurations like twisted, flat, intermingled, and textured in multifilament yarns on fabric in different combinations is assessed in order to engineer a fabric of better ultraviolet protection factor (UPF). Methods. In order to engineer a fabric having optimum UV protection with sufficient comfort level in multifilament woven fabrics, four different yarn configurations, intermingled, textured, twisted, and flat, were used to develop twelve different fabric samples. The most UV absorbing and most demanding fibre polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was considered in different filament configuration. Results. The combinations of intermingled warp with flat, intermingled, and textured weft provided excellent UVR protection comparatively at about 22.5 mg/cm2 fabric areal density. The presence of twisted yarn reduced the UV protection due to enhanced openness in fabric structure. Conclusion. The appropriate combination of warp and weft threads of different configuration should be selected judiciously in order to extract maximum UV protection and wear comfort attributes in multifilament woven PET fabrics. Mukesh Kumar Singh and Annika Singh Copyright © 2013 Mukesh Kumar Singh and Annika Singh. All rights reserved.