Journal of Thermodynamics
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© 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved.

Analysis of Effect of Heat Pipe Parameters in Minimising the Entropy Generation Rate
Wed, 03 Feb 2016 07:24:44 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2016/1562145/
Heat transfer and fluid flow in the heat pipe system result in thermodynamic irreversibility generating entropy. The minimum entropy generation principle can be used for optimum design of flat heat pipe. The objective of the present work is to minimise the total entropy generation rate as the objective function with different parameters of the flat heat pipe subjected to some constraints. These constraints constitute the limitations on the heat transport capacity of the heat pipe. This physical nonlinear programming problem with nonlinear constraints is solved using LINGO 15.0 software, which enables finding optimum values for the independent design variables for which entropy generation is minimum. The effect of heat load, length, and sink temperature on design variables and corresponding entropy generation is studied. The second law analysis using minimum entropy generation principle is found to be effective in designing performance enhanced heat pipe.
Rakesh Hari and Chandrasekharan Muraleedharan
Copyright © 2016 Rakesh Hari and Chandrasekharan Muraleedharan. All rights reserved.

Turbulent Forced Convection and Heat Transfer Characteristic in a Circular Tube with ModifiedTwisted Tapes
Mon, 01 Feb 2016 09:32:33 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2016/8235375/
Heat transfer, pressure loss, and thermal performance assessment in a circular tube heat exchanger with modifiedtwisted tapes are reported. The rectangular holes are punched out from the general twisted tape to reduce the pressure loss. The influences of the hole sizes (, LR = 0.30, 0.44, 0.78, and 0.88) and twisted ratios (, TR = 1, 1.5, 2, and 4) for the single and double twisted tapes are investigated with a numerical method at turbulent regime, Re = 3000–10,000. The finite volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm are used to investigate for the current research. The numerical results are reported in terms of flow structure and heat transfer behavior and compared with the smooth tube and the regular twisted tape. It is found that the modifiedtwisted tape provides higher heat transfer rate than the smooth tube due to the longitudinal vortex flows, created by the twisted tape. The longitudinal vortex flows help to increase fluid mixing. The rectangular punched holes of the twisted tape can reduce the pressure loss of the heating system. In addition, the maximum thermal enhancement factor is around 1.39 and 1.31 for the double twisted tape and single twisted tape, respectively, at Re = 3000, LR = 0.78, and TR = 1.
Amnart Boonloi and Withada Jedsadaratanachai
Copyright © 2016 Amnart Boonloi and Withada Jedsadaratanachai. All rights reserved.

Historical Prospective: Boltzmann’s versus Planck’s State Counting—Why Boltzmann Did Not Arrive at Planck’s Distribution Law
Wed, 27 Jan 2016 11:15:32 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2016/9137926/
Why does Planck (1900), referring to Boltzmann’s 1877 probabilistic treatment, obtain his quantum distribution function while Boltzmann did not? To answer this question, both treatments are compared on the basis of Boltzmann’s 1868 threelevel scheme (configuration—occupation—occupancy). Some calculations by Planck (1900, 1901, and 1913) and Einstein (1907) are also sketched. For obtaining a quantum distribution, it is crucial to stick with a discrete energy spectrum and to make the limit transitions to infinity at the right place. For correct state counting, the concept of interchangeability of particles is superior to that of indistinguishability.
Peter Enders
Copyright © 2016 Peter Enders. All rights reserved.

Density and Heat Capacity of Liquids from Speed of Sound
Wed, 20 Jan 2016 13:22:30 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2016/2035704/
Two different methods for deriving the density and isobaric heat capacity of liquids in the subcritical pressure range, from the speed of sound, are recommended. In each method, corresponding set of differential equations relating these properties is solved as the initial boundary value problem (IBVP). The initial values are specified at the lowest pressure of the range and the boundary values along the saturation line. In the first method, numerical integration is performed along the paths connecting the Chebyshev points of the second kind between the minimum and maximum temperature at each pressure. In the second method, numerical integration is performed along the isotherms distributed in the same way, with the temperature range being extended to the saturation line after each integration step. The methods are tested with the following substances: Ar, N2, CO2, and CH4. The results obtained for the density and isobaric heat capacity have the average absolute deviation from the reference data of 0.0005% and 0.0219%, respectively. These results served as the initial values for deriving the same properties in the transcritical pressure range up to the pressure approximately twice as large as the critical pressure. The results obtained in this pressure range have respective deviations of 0.0019% and 0.1303%.
Muhamed Bijedić and Sabina Begić
Copyright © 2016 Muhamed Bijedić and Sabina Begić. All rights reserved.

Treatment of Wastewater from a Dairy Industry Using Rice Husk as Adsorbent: Treatment Efficiency, Isotherm, Thermodynamics, and Kinetics Modelling
Wed, 20 Jan 2016 13:21:50 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2016/3746316/
Effluent from milk processing unit contains soluble organics, suspended solids, and trace organics releasing gases, causing taste and odor, and imparting colour and turbidity produced as a result of high consumption of water from the manufacturing process, utilities and service section, chemicals, and residues of technological additives used in individual operations which makes it crucial matter to be treated for preserving the aesthetics of the environment. In this experimental study after determination of the initial parameters of the raw wastewater it was subjected to batch adsorption study using rice husk. The effects of contact time, initial wastewater concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage, solution temperature and the adsorption kinetics, isotherm, and thermodynamic parameters were investigated. The phenomenon of adsorption was favoured at a lower temperature and lower pH in this case. Maximum removal as high as 92.5% could be achieved using an adsorbent dosage of 5 g/L, pH of 2, and temperature of 30°C. The adsorption kinetics and the isotherm studies showed that the pseudosecondorder model and the Langmuir isotherm were the best choices to describe the adsorption behavior. The thermodynamic parameters suggested that not only was the adsorption by rice husk spontaneous and exothermic in nature but also the negative entropy change indicated enthalpy driven process.
Uttarini Pathak, Papita Das, Prasanta Banerjee, and Siddhartha Datta
Copyright © 2016 Uttarini Pathak et al. All rights reserved.

Density and Optical Properties of {Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride + AqueousEthanol} Mixtures at 30°C
Mon, 18 Jan 2016 12:03:34 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2016/1575836/
The paper deals with the calculation of molar refraction () and polarizability () of antibiotic drug ciprofloxacin hydrochloride ( = 0.001–0.029 mol·dm−3) solutions in ethanolwater mixtures of different compositions (30, 50, and 70% v/v) from measured density () and refractive index () at 30°C. The effect of drug concentration and composition of ethanolwater mixtures on density and optical properties of drug solutions has been described.
S. D. Deosarkar, S. S. Birajdar, R. T. Sawale, M. P. Pawar, and A. M. Thakre
Copyright © 2016 S. D. Deosarkar et al. All rights reserved.

Enhancement of Integrated Solar Collector with Spherical Capsules PCM Affected by Additive Aluminum Powder
Sun, 17 Jan 2016 16:33:19 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2016/1604782/
This research aims to study, analyze, design, and construct a solar air heater combined with an appropriate phasechange material (PCM) unit. This solar air heater is analogous to a collector integrating a thermal storage unit and a solar thermal collector. In this study, such singlepass solar air heater in amalgamation with PCM was constructed, and several tests were conducted on this device. During the experiments for the solar collector with PCM (spherical capsules), the temperature varied between 30°C and 35°C, and the air mass flow rate ranged between 0.03 and 0.09 kg/s. Results confirmed the predicted experimental findings. With the use of paraffin waxaluminum composite, the thermal storage efficiency of the constructed solar air heater reached a maximum value of 71% at 0.05 kg/s mass flow rate, its charging time decreased by almost 70%, and its cooling rate increased. The thermal storage efficiency of the compound composite was 76.8% at 0.07 kg/s mass flow rate. The results also indicated that the time of charging decreased by almost 60% with the use of paraffin waxaluminum composite.
Fatah O. Al Ghuol, K. Sopian, and Shahrir Abdullah
Copyright © 2016 Fatah O. Al Ghuol et al. All rights reserved.

Elastodynamic Response of Thermal Laser Pulse in Micropolar Thermoelastic Mass Diffusion Medium
Mon, 04 Jan 2016 13:12:37 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2016/6163090/
The present investigation deals with the deformation in micropolar thermoelastic diffusion medium due to inclined load subjected to thermal laser pulse. Normal mode analysis technique is used to solve the problem. The inclined load is assumed to be a linear combination of a normal load and a tangential load. The closed form expressions of normal stress, tangential stress, couple stress, temperature distribution, and mass concentration are obtained. A computer program has been developed to derive the physical quantities numerically. The variation of normal stress, tangential stress, coupled stress, temperature change, and mass concentration is depicted graphically to show the effect of relaxation times and mass concentration. Some particular cases of interest are deduced from the present investigation.
Rajneesh Kumar and Arvind Kumar
Copyright © 2016 Rajneesh Kumar and Arvind Kumar. All rights reserved.

ThermalHydraulics Study of a 75 kWth Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor for 99Mo Production
Mon, 28 Dec 2015 08:47:48 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2015/268034/
is a very useful radioisotope, which is used in nearly 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures. is produced from 99Mo decay. A potentially advantageous alternative to meeting current and future demand for 99Mo is the use of Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHR). In this paper, a thermalhydraulics study of the core of a 75 kWth AHR conceptual design based on the ARGUS reactor for 99Mo production is presented. As the ARGUS heat removal systems were designed for working at 20 kWth, the main objective of the thermalhydraulics study was evaluating the heat removal systems in order to show that sufficient cooling capacity exists to prevent fuel solution overheating. The numerical simulations of an AHR model were carried out using the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code ANSYS CFX 14. Evaluation shows that the ARGUS heat removal systems working at 75 kWth are not able to provide sufficient cooling capacity to prevent fuel solution overheating. To solve this problem, the number of coiled cooling pipes inside the core was increased from one to five. The results of the CFD simulations with this modification in the design show that acceptable temperature distributions can be obtained.
Daniel Milian Pérez, Daniel E. Milian Lorenzo, Lorena P. Rodriguez Garcia, Manuel Cadavid Rodríguez, Carlos A. Brayner de Oliveira Lira, Carlos R. García Hernández, and Jesús Salomón Llanes
Copyright © 2015 Daniel Milian Pérez et al. All rights reserved.

Scaling Model of LowTemperature Transport Properties for Molecular and Ionic Liquids
Sun, 06 Dec 2015 09:57:14 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2015/208486/
The universal scaling concept is applied to the lowtemperature range of any liquid states and substances located between the melting () and normal boiling () points far away from the critical region. The physical reason to develop such approach is the revealed collapse of all lowtemperature isotherms onto the single universal one argued by the model of fluctuational thermodynamics (FT) proposed recently by author. The pressure reduced by the molecular parameters of the effective shortrange LennardJones (LJ) potential depends here only on the reduced density. To demonstrate the extraordinary predictive abilities of the developed lowtemperature scaling model it has been applied to the prediction of equilibrium and transport (kinetic and dynamic viscosity, selfdiffusion, and thermal conductivity) properties not only for molecular liquids but also for molten organic salts termed ionic liquids (ILs). The best argument in favor of the proposed methodology is the appropriate consistency with the scarce experiments prediction of transport coefficients for ILs on the base of universal scaling function constructed for the simplest LJlike liquid argon. The only input data of any substance for prediction are the linear approximations of dependent density and isobaric heat capacity taken from the standard measurements at atmospheric pressure.
Vitaly B. Rogankov
Copyright © 2015 Vitaly B. Rogankov. All rights reserved.

Effect of LongitudinalExternalFins on Fluid Flow Characteristics for WingShaped Tubes Bundle in Crossflow
Thu, 05 Nov 2015 06:55:36 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2015/542405/
A numerical study is conducted to clarify fluidflow characteristics, pressure drop coefficient (), and the average skin friction coefficient () for wingshapedtubes bundle with longitudinal fins at downstream side of the tube using the commercial CFD FLUENT software package. The airside ranges from 1800 to 9700. The tubes are employed with various fin heights () and fin thicknesses () such as 2 mm ≤ ≤ 12 mm and 1.5 mm ≤ ≤ 3.5 mm at the considered range. Results indicate that increases with for all . decreases with for all values for 1800 ≤ ≤ 4200 and then increases for 4200 ≤ ≤ 10000. Lowest values of , , and pumping power (PP) occurred at = 6 mm. Values of for = 6 mm are lower than those of NOF and = 2 mm by about 73 % and 32 %, respectively, at = 4000. decreases with . has negligible effect on . increases for 1.5 mm ≤ ≤ 2.5 mm while decreases with 2.5 mm < ≤ 3.5 mm for the considered range except for = 1850.
Sayed Ahmed E. Sayed Ahmed, Osama M. Mesalhy, and Mohamed A. Abdelatief
Copyright © 2015 Sayed Ahmed E. Sayed Ahmed et al. All rights reserved.

Thermodynamic Modeling of Surface Tension of Aqueous Electrolyte Solution by Competitive Adsorption Model
Mon, 02 Nov 2015 12:18:10 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2015/319704/
Thermodynamic modeling of surface tension of different electrolyte systems in presence of gas phase is studied. Using the solidliquid equilibrium, Langmuir gassolid adsorption, and ENRTL activity coefficient model, the surface tension of electrolyte solutions is calculated. The new model has two adjustable parameters which could be determined by fitting the experimental surface tension of binary aqueous electrolyte solution in single temperature. Then the values of surface tension for other temperatures in binary and ternary system of aqueous electrolyte solution are predicted. The average absolute deviations for calculation of surface tension of binary and mixed electrolyte systems by new model are 1.98 and 1.70%, respectively.
Mohamad Javad Kamali, Zakarya Kamali, and Gholamhossein Vatankhah
Copyright © 2015 Mohamad Javad Kamali et al. All rights reserved.

Thermoacoustic Instability in a Rijke Tube with a Distributed Heat Source
Tue, 27 Oct 2015 09:48:58 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2015/949384/
A Rijke tube with a distributed heat source is investigated. Driven by the widely existing thermoacoustic instability in lean premixed gas turbine combustors, this work aims to explore the physicochemical underpinning and assist in the elucidation and analysis of this problem. The heat release model consists of a row of distributed heat sources with individual heat release rates. The integrated heat release rate is then coupled with the acoustic perturbation for thermoacoustic analysis. A continuation approach is employed to conduct the bifurcation analysis and capture the nonlinear behaviour inherent in the system. Unlike the conventional approach by the Galerkin method, the acoustic equations are originally discretized using the Method of Lines (MOL) to build up a dynamic system. The model is first validated and shown to yield good predictions with available experimental data. Influences of multiple heat sources, time delay, and heat release distribution are then studied to reveal the extensive nonlinear characteristics involved in the case of a distributed heat source. It is found that distributed heat source plays an important role in determining the stability of a thermoacoustic system.
Xiaochuan Yang, Ali Turan, and Shenghui Lei
Copyright © 2015 Xiaochuan Yang et al. All rights reserved.

The Influence of the Punched Delta Wings on Flow Pattern and Heat Transfer Characteristic in a FinandOvalTube Heat Exchanger
Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:57:41 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2015/368960/
3D numerical investigations are performed to study the heat transfer, friction factor, and thermal performance of a finandoval heat exchanger with punched delta wings for a range of 500 ≤ Re ≤ 2500 (based on the hydraulic diameter). The influences of the punched angles, 20°, 30°, and 45°, flow directions, wing tips pointing downstream and upstream, and pitch ratios, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, are investigated. The results show that the use of the punched delta wings in the finandovaltube heat exchanger leads to an enhancement in the heat transfer and friction loss as compared to the plain fin for all cases (/ and higher than 1). The enhancements of the heat transfer and friction factor are around 1.01–1.22 and 1.37–2.65 times higher than the base case, respectively. The punched delta wings create the vortex flows through the test section that helps enhance the strength of the impinging flow on the tube walls. The impingement of the fluid flow is an important key to augment the heat transfer rate and thermal performance in the heat exchanger.
Amnart Boonloi
Copyright © 2015 Amnart Boonloi. All rights reserved.

Influence of Exhaust Gas Recirculation, and Injection Timing on the Combustion, Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Cylinder Head Porous Medium Engine
Mon, 12 Oct 2015 11:03:36 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2015/927896/
Homogeneous combustion has the potential of achieving both nearzero emissions and low specific fuel consumption. However, the accomplishment of homogeneous combustion depends on the air flow structure inside the combustion chamber, fuel injection conditions, and turbulence as well as ignition conditions. Various methods and procedures are being adopted to establish the homogeneous combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this research work, a highly porous ceramic structure was introduced into the combustion chamber (underside of the cylinder head). The influence of operating parameters such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection timing on the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of such developed engine was investigated in this research work.
Chidambaram Kannan and Thulasi Vijayakumar
Copyright © 2015 Chidambaram Kannan and Thulasi Vijayakumar. All rights reserved.

Effect of Condenser Fouling on Performance of Vapor Compression Refrigeration System
Mon, 05 Oct 2015 08:54:08 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2015/756452/
Effect of condenser fouling is evaluated on the performance of a vapour compression system with refrigerants HFO1234yf and HFO1234ze as an alternative to HFC134a. The condenser coolant temperature has been varied between 35 and 40°C to evaluate the effect of fouling at different condenser temperatures. A simulation model is developed in EES for computing the results. The results have been computed by varying condenser conductance. The same has been validated with literature available before calculating the results. It is observed that the condenser fouling has larger effect on compressor power (%) as it increases up to 9.12 for R1234yf and 7.41 for R1234ze, whereas for R134a its value increases up to 7.38. The cooling capacity (%) decreases up to 13.25 for R1234yf and 8.62 for R1234ze, whereas for R134a its value decreases up to 8.76. The maximum percentage of decrease in value of COP is up to 19.29 for R1234yf and 14.47 for R1234ze, whereas for R134a its value decreases up to 14.49. The secondlaw efficiency is also observed to decrease with decrease in the condenser conductance. The performance of HFO1234ze is found to be better under fouled conditions in comparison to R134a and R1234yf.
Naveen Solanki, Akhilesh Arora, and S. C. Kaushik
Copyright © 2015 Naveen Solanki et al. All rights reserved.

Volumetric Behavior of Binary Mixtures of Alkoxyethanols and Some Selected Amines at 298.15 K
Mon, 23 Feb 2015 12:49:40 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2015/782138/
Densities of binary mixtures of 2methoxyethanol (2MeOEtOH) and 2ethoxyethanol (2EtOEtOH) with hexylamine (HLA), diethylamine (DEA), triethylamine (TEA), tertbutylamine (TBA), aniline (ANL), and benzylamine (BLA) have been determined at varying compositions of the alkoxyalkanols at 298.15 K. The excess molar volumes, VE, of the binary mixtures were calculated from the experimental density data of the mixtures and the component single solvents. The calculated excess molar volumes were fitted into the RedlichKister polynomial to obtain the fitting coefficients and standard deviations. The excess molar volumes of the binary mixtures of all the solvent systems investigated were negative over the entire range of the solvents composition. The negative values were attributed to stronger hydrogen bond formations between the unlike molecules of mixtures than those between the like molecules of the pure components. The magnitude of the excess molar volumes of the binary mixtures of 2methoxyethanol and the aliphatic amines were in the order TBA > TEA > DEA > HEA. For the two aromatic amines, the magnitudes were in the order BLA > ANL. For binary mixtures of the amines and 2ethoxyethanol, the magnitudes were in the order DEA > TEA > TBA > HEA at compositions where the mole fraction of 2EtOEtOH was ≤0.5 and TBA > TEA > DEA > HEA above 0.5 mole fraction of 2EtOEtOH.
Ayasen Jermaine Kemeakegha, Grace Agbizu Cookey, and WelfordAbbey Lolo Izonfuo
Copyright © 2015 Ayasen Jermaine Kemeakegha et al. All rights reserved.

Symmetry Properties of Reciprocity Relations and Conditions for Minimum Entropy Production Law (In)validity
Mon, 23 Feb 2015 12:21:41 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2015/952343/
Consequences of symmetry properties of the phenomenological kinetic coefficients in OnsagerCasimir reciprocity relations for the minimum entropy production law validity are studied. The usually accepted symmetry requirement of the all cross kinetic coefficients for the validity of this law is found to be too strict.
Marian Štrunc and Milena Kheilová
Copyright © 2015 Marian Štrunc and Milena Kheilová. All rights reserved.

Gibbs Thermodynamics of the RenningerWilemski Problem
Wed, 11 Feb 2015 11:32:01 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2015/639572/
The RenningerWilemski problem in nucleation is analyzed. The Gibbs dividing surfaces method with external parameters is used to enrich the initial model. It is shown that both the traditional (Doyle) model and the RenningerWilemski model are not complete ones and, namely, the Gibbs dividing surface approach can solve this problem. It is shown that the application of the Gibbs approach also requires some model constructions. The simplified Gibbs model is proposed. It is shown that the simplified Gibbs model gives for the height of activation barrier the same numerical results as the RenningerWilemski model.
Victor Kurasov
Copyright © 2015 Victor Kurasov. All rights reserved.

Shear Thickening in Concentrated Soft Sphere Colloidal Suspensions: A Shear Induced Phase Transition
Thu, 08 Jan 2015 06:33:05 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2015/153854/
A model of shear thickening in dense suspensions of Brownian soft sphere colloidal particles is established. It suggests that shear thickening in soft sphere suspensions can be interpreted as a shear induced phase transition. Based on a Landau model of the coagulation transition of stabilized colloidal particles, taking the coupling between order parameter fluctuations and the local strainfield into account, the model suggests the occurrence of clusters of coagulated particles (subcritical bubbles) by applying a continuous shear perturbation. The critical shear stress of shear thickening in soft sphere suspensions is derived while reversible shear thickening and irreversible shear thickening have the same origin. The comparison of the theory with an experimental investigation of electrically stabilized colloidal suspensions confirms the presented approach.
Joachim Kaldasch, Bernhard Senge, and Jozua Laven
Copyright © 2015 Joachim Kaldasch et al. All rights reserved.

Thermoacoustic, Volumetric, and Viscometric Investigations in Binary Liquid System of Cyclohexanone with Benzyl Benzoate at T = 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15 K
Mon, 29 Dec 2014 09:42:26 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2014/487403/
Ultrasonic velocities (), densities (), and viscosities () of binary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with benzyl benzoate, including pure liquids, over the entire composition range have been measured at 308.15 K, 313.15 K, and 318.15 K. Using the experimental results, parameters such as molar volume (), isentropic compressibility (), intermolecular free length (), acoustic impedance (), internal pressure (), enthalpy (), Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow (), and excess/deviation properties of these including partial molar volumes ( and ), excess partial molar volumes ( and ), partial molar volume of the components at infinite dilution (, ), and excess partial molar volume at infinite dilution (and ) have been computed. The observed negative values of , , , and and positive values of , , , , and for all the liquid mixtures studied clearly indicate the presence of strong dipoledipoletype interactions, fitting of smaller molecules into bigger molecules. Further theoretical values of sound velocity and viscosity in the mixtures have been evaluated using various theories and have been compared with experimental values to verify the applicability of such theories to the systems studied.
Sk. Md Nayeem, M. Kondaiah, K. Sreekanth, and D. Krishna Rao
Copyright © 2014 Sk. Md Nayeem et al. All rights reserved.

Towards the Equation of State for Neutral (C2H4), Polar (H2O), and Ionic ([bmim][BF4], [bmim][PF6], [pmmim][Tf2N]) Liquids
Tue, 16 Dec 2014 13:31:51 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2014/496835/
Despite considerable effort of experimentalists no reliable vaporliquid coexistence at very small pressures and liquidsolid coexistence at high pressures have been until now observed in the working range of temperature / for ionic liquids. The measurements of highpressure properties in lowtemperature stable liquid are relatively scarce while the strong influence of their consistency on the phase equilibrium prediction is obvious. In this work we discuss the applicability of fluctuationalthermodynamic methodology and respective equation of state to correlate the properties of any (neutral, polar, ionic) liquids since our ultimate goal is the simple reference predictive model to describe vaporliquid, liquidliquid, and liquidsolid equilibria of mixtures containing above components. It is shown that the inconsistencies among existing volumetric measurements and the strong dependence of the mechanical and, especially, caloric derived properties on the shape of the functions chosen to fit the experimental data can be resolved in the framework of fluctuationalthermodynamic equation of state. To illustrate its results the comparison with the known experimental data for [bmim][BF4] and [bmim][PF6] as well as with the latticefluid equation of state and the methodology of thermodynamic integration is represented. It corroborates the thermodynamic consistency of predictions and excellent correlation of derived properties over the wide range of pressures /.
Vitaly B. Rogankov and Valeriy I. Levchenko
Copyright © 2014 Vitaly B. Rogankov and Valeriy I. Levchenko. All rights reserved.

Entropy Growth Is the Manifestation of Spontaneity
Sun, 07 Dec 2014 08:22:59 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2014/387698/
Every student of thermodynamics grasps entropy growth in terms of dissipation of energy. The real nature of energy and entropy is subtle. This critical review of the evolution of thermodynamic thought uncovers the remarkable advance on our understanding of energy made by Kelvin with his dissipation of energy proposition. Maxwell and Planck, however, pointed out that dissipation of energy does not exhaust growth of entropy (i.e., the idea of spontaneity), and in fact, as it is shown here, Kelvin’s proposition of dissipation of energy (1852) is subsumed under the principle of the increase of entropy (Clausius, 1865). It is necessary, therefore, for thermodynamics to become a coherent conceptual system, to introduce spontaneity as an independent concept. Instead of the heatwork dyad framework, the introduction of spontaneity entails energy transformation to be viewed in terms of a triad framework of heat (from the reservoir)workspontaneity. Spontaneity is the new energy in the triad framework, and it is also clear that energy commodity (fungible energy or energy carriers) is only one kind of spontaneity, stock spontaneity; the other kind is ongoing spontaneity, the consideration of which is necessary for comprehending problems of homeostasis in both the organic and inorganic worlds.
LinShu Wang
Copyright © 2014 LinShu Wang. All rights reserved.

Separation of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Triton X114 Surfactant
Tue, 02 Dec 2014 12:55:39 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2014/670186/
In this study, the interaction energy between Triton X114 surfactant + methylene blue or water and methylene blue + water was investigated using HartreeFock (HF) theory with 6 basis set. The results of structures and interaction energies show that these complexes have good physical and chemical interactions at atom and molecular levels. However, the Triton X114 surfactant + methylene blue complex shows stronger molecular interaction compared to other complexes systems. The order of the interaction energy is 4303.472023 (Triton X114 surfactant + water) > 1222.962 (methylene blue + water) > 3573.28 (Triton X114 surfactant + methylene blue) kJ·mole−1. Subsequently, the cloud point extraction was carried out for 15 ppm of methylene blue in a mixture at 313.15 and 323.15 K over the surfactant concentration range from 0.01 M to 0.1 M. From the measured data, the excess molar volume was calculated for both phases. The results show a positive deviation in the dilute phase and a negative deviation in the surfactant rich phase. It is confirmed that the interaction between Triton X114 and methylene blue is stronger than other complex systems due to the presence of chemical and structural orientation. The concentration of dyes and surfactant in the feed mixture and temperature effect in both phases has been studied. In addition, the thermodynamics feasibility and efficiency of the process have also been investigated.
Arunagiri Appusamy, Prabisha Purushothaman, Kalaichelvi Ponnusamy, and Anantharaj Ramalingam
Copyright © 2014 Arunagiri Appusamy et al. All rights reserved.

Thermohydraulic Performance of a Series of InLine Noncircular Ducts in a Parallel Plate Channel
Sun, 21 Sep 2014 09:21:24 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2014/670129/
Heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics for twodimensional laminar flow at low Reynolds number for five inline ducts of various nonconventional crosssections in a parallel plate channel are studied in this paper. The governing equations were solved using finitevolume method. Commercial CFD software, ANSYS Fluent 14.5, was used to solve this problem. A total of three different nonconventional, noncircular crosssection ducts and their characteristics are compared with those of circular crosssection ducts. Shape2 ducts offered minimum flow resistance and maximum heat transfer rate most of the time. Shape3 ducts at Re < 100 and Shape2 ducts at Re > 100 can be considered to give out the optimum results.
Siddharth D. Mhaske, Soby P. Sunny, Sachin L. Borse, and Yash B. Parikh
Copyright © 2014 Siddharth D. Mhaske et al. All rights reserved.

Second Law Analysis for ThirdGrade Fluid with Variable Properties
Mon, 08 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2014/452168/
This paper investigates the entropy generation in a thirdgrade fluid flow with variable properties through a channel. Approximate solutions to the nonlinear boundaryvalue problem are obtained using Adomian decomposition method (ADM). Variation of important parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, entropy generation and irreversibility ratio are presented graphically and discussed.
Samuel O. Adesanya
Copyright © 2014 Samuel O. Adesanya. All rights reserved.

Effect of Initial Stress on the Propagation Characteristics of Waves in FiberReinforced Transversely Isotropic Thermoelastic Material under an Inviscid Liquid Layer
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 05:16:48 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2014/134276/
The present investigation deals with the propagation of waves in fiberreinforced transversely isotropic thermoelastic solid half space with initial stresses under a layer of inviscid liquid. The secular equation for surface equation in compact form is derived after developing the mathematical model. The phase velocity and attenuation coefficients of plane waves are studied numerically for a particular model. Effects of initial stress and thickness of the layer on the phase velocity, attenuation coefficient, and specific loss of energy are predicted graphically in the certain model. A particular case of Rayleigh wave has been discussed and the dispersion curves of the phase velocity and attenuation coefficients have also been presented graphically. Some other particular cases are also deduced from the present investigation.
Rajneesh Kumar, Sanjeev Ahuja, and S. K. Garg
Copyright © 2014 Rajneesh Kumar et al. All rights reserved.

Thermodynamic Properties of Vapors from Speed of Sound
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 07:46:46 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2014/231296/
A numerical procedure for deriving the thermodynamic properties , , and of the vapor phase in the subcritical temperature range from the speed of sound is presented. The set of differential equations connecting these properties with the speed of sound is solved as the initialvalue problem in domain . The initial values of and are specified along the isotherm with the highest temperature, at a several values of [0.1, 1.0]. The values of are generated by the reference equation of state, while the values of are derived from the speed of sound, by solving another set of differential equations in domain in the transcritical temperature range. This set of equations is solved as the initialboundaryvalue problem. The initial values of and are specified along the isochore in the limit of the ideal gas, at several isotherms distributed according to the Chebyshev points of the second kind. The boundary values of are specified along the same isotherm and along another isotherm with a higher temperature, at several values of . The procedure is tested on Ar, N2, CH4, and CO2, with the mean AADs for , , and at 0.0003%, 0.0046%, and 0.0061%, respectively (0.0007%, 0.0130%, and 0.0189% along the saturation line).
Muhamed Bijedić and Sabina Begić
Copyright © 2014 Muhamed Bijedić and Sabina Begić. All rights reserved.

Pedagogical Visualization of a Nonideal Carnot Engine
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 06:32:05 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2014/217187/
We have implemented a visualization tool for the demonstration of a nonideal Carnot engine, operating at finite time. The cycle time can be varied using a slide bar and the pressurevolume, temperatureentropy, powertime, and efficiencytime diagrams change interactively and are shown on one screen. We have evaluated the visualization tool among engineering students at university level during an introductory course on thermodynamics and we review and discuss the outcome of the evaluation.
Jonas Johansson
Copyright © 2014 Jonas Johansson. All rights reserved.

Studies on Thermophysical Properties of CaO and MgO by Ray Attenuation
Tue, 15 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2014/123478/
The study on temperature dependent γray attenuation and thermophysical properties of CaO and MgO has been carried out in the temperature range 300 K–1250 K using different energies of γbeam, namely, Am (0.0595 MeV), Cs (0.66 MeV), and Co (1.173 MeV and 1.332 MeV) on γray densitometer fabricated in our laboratory. The linear attenuation coefficients (μl) for the pellets of CaO and MgO as a function of temperature have been determined using γbeam of different energies. The coefficients of temperature dependence of density have been reported. The variation of density and linear thermal expansion of CaO and MgO in the temperature range of 300 K–1250 K has been studied and compared with the results available in the literature. The temperature dependence of linear attenuation coefficients, density, and thermal expansion has been represented by second degree polynomial. Volume thermal expansion coefficients have been reported.
A. S. Madhusudhan Rao and K. Narender
Copyright © 2014 A. S. Madhusudhan Rao and K. Narender. All rights reserved.