Table 1: Characteristics of the empirical studies used.

NumberAuthor Location number on reference listYear of publicationMethodsStudy objectivesStudy populationCountry

1Greeff et al.[2]2008Qualitative research design focus group discussionTo increase understanding of disclosure as a circumstance that is affected by HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination 225Five African countries (Tanzania, Lesotho, South Africa, Swaziland, and Malawi)

2Campbell et al.[6]2007Qualitative research In-depth interview including focused group discussionStudy on complex interplay of psychological and social forces that drive HIV/AIDS stigma120South Africa

3Neville and Rubin[7]2007Semistructured focused group discussionIdentity of typical targets of disclosure of positive sero-status, commonly used avenues for disclosure, motivations for disclosure and nondisclosure of sero-status40Kenya

4Strebel et al.[13]2006Interview and focus group discussionConstruction of gender identities and roles, how women and men understand gender-based violence and what they believe about links between gender relations and HIV/AIDS risk78South Africa

5Simbayi et al.[16]2007Quantitative studyExamination of internalized AIDS stigmas among PLWHA1063South Africa

6Wood and Lambert[17]2008Participant observation, semistructured interview, focused group discussionsDescription of family and community responses to HIV/AIDS epidemic: use of indirect communication152South Africa

7Muula[18]2005Theoretical reviewWhat should HIV/AIDS be called in Malawi?Malawi

8Uys et al.[19]2005Focus group discussionIdentification of terminology used to talk about HIV/AIDS and PLWHA261Five African countries (Lesotho, South Africa, Malawi, Swaziland, and Tanzania)

9Visser et al.[20]2009QuestionnaireAssessment of stigmatizing attitudes among members of a community compared with perceived stigma within the community and the extent to which stigmatizing attitudes are affected by sociodemographic characteristics1077South Africa
10Iwelunmor[21]2006Focus group discussionFamily system responses to HIV and AIDS204South Africa

11Ulasi et al.[22]2009QuestionnairePredictors of stigma and the perception of communities toward PLWHA104Ghana

12Hartwig et al.[23]2006Focused group discussionA case study providing insights into how some local church leaders view HIV stigma, and changes some of them have made in their own church leadership behavior15Tanzania

13Okoror et al.[24]2007Focused group discussionRole of food as an instrument in expressing and experiencing stigma used by HIV-positive women and their families249South Africa

14Otolok-Tanga et al.[25]2007Semistructured interviewExploration of Uganda-based key decision-makers about the past, present and optimal future roles of faith-based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS work, including actions to promote or dissuade stigma and discrimination150Uganda

15Chimwaza and Watkins[26]2004Quantitative and interviewFocus on the caregivers’ diagnoses of the illness of their patients, the type and duration of the care they provided, the support they received from relatives and other members of the community, and the extent to which caregiving was experienced as an emotional, physical and financial burden15Malawi

16Duffy[27]2005Focused group discussion, interviewPerspective on HIV-related stigma28Zimbabwe

17Petros et al.[28]2006Focus group discussion, interviewExploring the concept and practice of “othering’’ in relation to HIV and AIDS today418South Africa

18Kalichman et al.[29]2005QuestionnaireDevelopment of a brief measure of AIDS-related stigma that could be readily used in multiple settings and contexts1371South Africa
19Plummer et al.[30]2006Qualitative research (participant observation)Examination of beliefs about general illness, STI and AIDS treatment practicesParticipant observationTanzania

20Muyinda et al.[31]1997Qualitative research (in-depth interview)Knowledge, attitudes and practices of families caring for PLWHA in relation to stigma-related conditions127Uganda

21Hatchett et al.[32]2004Qualitative research (interview)Exploration of traditional and modern health-seeking in Malawi46Malawi

22Thorsen et al.[33]2008Qualitative research (interview, nonparticipant observation)Potential facilitation of stigmatization through inadvertent disclosure of HIV + status via PMTCT program components and attributes42Malawi

23Daniel and Oladapo[34]2006Quantitative study (questionnaire)Assessment of acceptability of prenatal HIV screening among pregnant women attending primary healthcare centres in a suburban population333Nigeria

24Hutchinson and Mahlalela[35]2006Quantitative (survey data using questionnaire)Examination of patterns and determinants of use of VCT services3374South Africa

25Nyblade et al.[36]2001Quantitative (questionnaire), laboratory and counselling dataAssessment of self-selection in those who chose to participate in VCT and those who chose not to participate in the start-up phase of a long-term VCT program10 950Uganda

26Maedot et al.[37]2007Case control studyIdentification of factors that determine VCT uptake among pregnant women attending ANC services402Ethiopia

27Kalichman and Simbayi[38]2003Quantitative research (venue intercept study)Examination of the relationship between HIV testing, history, attitudes toward testing and AIDS stigma500South Africa

28Nachega et al.[39]2005Quantitative research (questionnaire)Investigation of knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of PLWHA regarding HIV/AIDS and ART in an HIV outpatient clinic105South Africa
29Turan et al.[40]2008Qualitative research (in-depth interview)How HIV-related fears may affect where women deliver and the difficulties maternity workers face caring for HIV-positive women with unknown HIV status37Kenya

30Orner et al.[41]2008Qualitative research (focused group discussion, in-depth interview)Exploration of perceptions and experiences of PLWHA of reproductive age in relation to HIV/AIDS care and treatment8South Africa

31Akani and Erhabor[42]2006Quantitative research (questionnaire)Evaluation of rate, patterns, barriers to HIV sero-status disclosure187Nigeria

32Blackstock[43]2005Narrative case studyCuring stigma—the limits of antiretroviral access1Ghana

33Kayombo et al.[44]2005Qualitative research (interview)Role of traditional healers in supporting orphans, how they get the orphans, the basic needs they can provide, techniques used for psychosocial support and problems encountered when taking the orphans25Tanzania

34Mshana et al.[45]2006Qualitative research (focused group discussion, interview)Identify and mitigate barriers to seek ART between the stages of testing for HIV and enrolling in the new government ART program18Tanzania

35Campbell et al.[46]2005Qualitative research (focused group discussion, interview)Identification of forms taken by stigma and its effects; identification of material, symbolic and contexts associated with stigmatisation of PLWHA99South Africa

36Thomas[47]2006Qualitative research (interview, diaries)Exploration of how illness, the daily and long-term duties of caring amongst a sample of households in the Caprivi region12Namibia
37Skinner and Mfecane[48]2004Qualitative research (focused group discussion, interviews)South Africa

38Amuyunzu-Nyamongo et al.[49]2007Quantitative (survey) and qualitative (in-depth interview)Examination of complex relationship between gender, poverty, susceptibility to HIV and vulnerability to AIDS through drawing on the lived experiences of infected women and exploring the coping strategies they adopt; how the specific conditions of informal settlements influence these challenges and support mechanisms390 (survey) 20 (interview)Kenya

39Mill[50]2003Qualitative research (in-depth interview, focused group discussion)Findings related to breaking the news of HIV infection to women and their maintenance of secrecy following diagnosis56Ghana

40Antelman et al.[51]2001Quantitative researchExamination of sociodemographic and behavioral factors predictive of an HIV-positive test result1078Tanzania

41Maman et al.[52]2001Qualitative research (interview)Presentation of individual, relational and environmental factors that influence the decision to test for HIV-1 and to share test results with partners62Tanzania

42Ndinya-Achola et al.[53]1995Quantitative researchThe right not to know HIV test result after being tested5274Kenya

43Sanjobo et al.[54]2008Qualitative research (interview, focus group discussion)Exploration of patients’ and health care professionals’ perceived barriers to and facilitation of patients’ adherence to ART72Zambia

44Ncama et al.[55]2008Quantitative researchExamination of characteristics related to social support and antiretroviral medication adherence149South Africa
45Weiser et al.[56]2006Quantitative researchAssessment of knowledge of and attitudes toward routine testing in Botswana with a focus on human rights concerns related to policy; factors associated with whether respondents had heard of routine testing and had positive attitudes toward the policy; the prevalence and correlations of HIV testing, barriers to and facilitation of testing and reported experiences of testing 11 months after introduction of routine testing1268Botswana