About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Tropical Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 357948, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/357948
Review Article

Biologic and Genetics Aspects of Chagas Disease at Endemic Areas

1Department of Especial Education, UNESP São Paulo State University, 17525-900 Campus Marília, SP, Brazil
2Department of Biology, UNESP São Paulo State University, 15054-000 Campus São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil
3Medicine/Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80045-0511, USA
4University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Research Center 1 South Tower, Mail Stop 8117, Aurora, CO 80045-0511, USA

Received 12 August 2011; Accepted 28 November 2011

Academic Editor: Luis E. Cuevas

Copyright © 2012 Marilanda Ferreira Bellini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. R. Coura and J. C. P. Dias, “Epidemiology, control and surveillance of Chagas disease—100 years after its discovery,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 31–40, 2009. View at Scopus
  2. J. C. P. Dias, “A doença de Chagas como problema do Continente Americano,” http://www.fiocruz.br/chagas/cgi/cgilua.exe/sys/start.htm?sid=134.
  3. WHO, (Media Centre-Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)), http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs340/en/index.html.
  4. V. A. Neto and J. Pasternak, “Chagas disease centenary,” Revista de Saude Publica, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 381–382, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Develoux, F. X. Lescure, G. Le Loup, and G. Pialoux, “Chagas disease,” Revue de Medecine Interne, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 686–695, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. M. L. Avila, V. Tekiel, G. Moretti et al., “Gene discovery in Triatoma infestans,” Parasites and Vectors, vol. 4, no. 1, article 39, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  7. M. Lana and W. L. Tafuri, “Trypanosoma cruzi e doença de chagas,” in Parasitologia Humana, D. P. Neves, A. L. Melo, O. Genaro, and P. M. Linardi, Eds., pp. 73–96, Atheneu Editora, 10th edition, 2003.
  8. E. Cunha-Neto, R. Moliterno, V. Coelho et al., “Restricted heterogeneity of T cell receptor variable alpha chain transcripts in hearts of Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy patients,” Parasite Immunology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 171–179, 1994. View at Scopus
  9. E. Cunha-Neto, M. Duranti, A. Gruber et al., “Autoimmunity in Chagas disease cardiopathy: biological relevance of a cardiac myosin-specific epitope crossreactive to an immunodominant Trypanosoma cruzi antigen,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 92, no. 8, pp. 3541–3545, 1995. View at Scopus
  10. J. V. Souto and M. A. A. Ribeiro, “Saúde e vida on line/Doença de Chagas,” http://www.ib.unicamp.br/svol/chagas.htm.
  11. H. W. Pinotti, “Megaesôfago chagásico,” in Aparelho Digestivo, J. C. U. Coelho, Ed., vol. 1, pp. 61–67, MDESI, 1996.
  12. J. A. S. Gomes, L. M. G. Bahia-Oliveira, M. O. C. Rocha, O. A. Martins-Filho, G. Gazzinelli, and R. Correa-Oliveira, “Evidence that development of severe cardiomyopathy in human Chagas' disease is due to a Th1-specific immune response,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 1185–1193, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Z. Brener, “Why vaccines do not work in Chagas disease,” Parasitology Today, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 196–197, 1986. View at Scopus
  14. A. D.C. Passos and A. C. Silveira, “Summary of results from the national surveys,” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, vol. 44, supplement 2, pp. 47–50, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. A. C. Silveira, “Entomological survey (1975–1983),” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 26–32, 2011.
  16. A. C. Silveira, “New challenges and the future of control,” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, vol. 44, supplement 2, pp. 122–124, 2011.
  17. A. C. Silveira and J. C. P. Dias, “The control of vectorial transmission,” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 52–63, 2011.
  18. D. A. Leiby, E. J. Read, B. A. Lenes et al., “Seroepidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas' disease, in US blood donors,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 176, no. 4, pp. 1047–1052, 1997. View at Scopus
  19. C. A. Buscaglia and J. M. Di Noia, “Trypanosoma cruzi clonal diversity and the epidemiology of Chagas' disease,” Microbes and Infection, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 419–427, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. I. Picollo, C. Vassena, P. S. Orihuela, S. Barrios, M. Zaidemberg, and E. Zerba, “High resistance to pyrethroid insecticides associated with ineffective field treatments in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Northern Argentina,” Journal of Medical Entomology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 637–642, 2005. View at Scopus
  21. F. Lardeux, S. Depickère, S. Duchon, and T. Chavez, “Insecticide resistance of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) vector of Chagas disease in Bolivia,” Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1037–1048, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. B. A. Burleigh and A. M. Woolsey, “Cell signalling and Trypanosoma cruzi invasion,” Cellular Microbiology, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 701–711, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. M. Macedo and S. D. J. Pena, “Genetic variability of Trypanosoma cruzi: implications for the pathogenesis of Chagas disease,” Parasitology Today, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 119–124, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. M. Macedo, C. R. Machado, R. P. Oliveira, and S. D. J. Pena, “Trypanosoma cruzi: genetic structure of populations and relevance of genetic variability to the pathogenesis of chagas disease,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2004. View at Scopus
  25. S. A. Drigo, E. Cunha-Neto, B. Ianni et al., “TNF gene polymorphisms are associated with reduced survival in severe Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy patients,” Microbes and Infection, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 598–603, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. S. A. Drigo, E. Cunha-Neto, B. Ianni et al., “Lack of association of tumor necrosis factor-α polymorphisms with Chagas disease in Brazilian patients,” Immunology Letters, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 109–111, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. R. Ramasawmy, E. Cunha-Neto, K. C. Faé et al., “BAT1, a putative anti-inflammatory gene, is associated with chronic chagas cardiomyopathy,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 193, no. 10, pp. 1394–1399, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. R. Ramasawmy, K. C. Faé, E. Cunha-Neto et al., “Polymorphisms in the gene for lymphotoxin-α predispose to chronic chagas cardiomyopathy,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 196, no. 12, pp. 1836–1843, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. R. Ramasawmy, E. Cunha-Neto, K. C. Fae et al., “Heterozygosity for the S180L variant of MAL/TIRAP, a gene expressing an adaptor protein in the toll-like receptor pathway, is associated with lower risk of developing chronic chagas cardiomyopathy,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 199, no. 12, pp. 1838–1845, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. J. E. Calzada, Y. Beraún, C. I. González, and J. Martín, “Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) gene polymorphisms and Chagas disease susceptibility in Peruvian and Colombian patients,” Cytokine, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 149–153, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. A. B. W. Boldt, P. R. Luz, and I. J. T. Messias-Reason, “MASP2 haplotypes are associated with high risk of cardiomyopathy in chronic Chagas disease,” Clinical Immunology, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 63–70, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  32. D. Cruz-Robles, J. P. Chvez-Gonzlez, M. M. Cavazos-Quero, O. Prez-Mndez, P. A. Reyes, and G. Vargas-Alarcn, “Association between IL-1B and IL-1RN gene polymorphisms and chagas' disease development susceptibility,” Immunological Investigations, vol. 38, no. 3-4, pp. 231–239, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. J. M. Vera-Cruz, E. Magallón-Gastelum, G. Grijalva, A. R. Rincón, C. Ramos-García, and J. Armendáriz-Borunda, “Molecular diagnosis of Chagas' disease and use of an animal model to study parasite tropism,” Parasitology Research, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 480–486, 2003. View at Scopus
  34. A. Acosta-Serrano, I. C. Almeida, L. H. Freitas-Junior, N. Yoshida, and S. Schenkman, “The mucin-like glycoprotein super-family of Trypanosoma cruzi: structure and biological roles,” Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 143–150, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. de Melo-Jorge and M. PereiraPerrin, “The Chagas' Disease parasite Trypanosoma cruzi exploits nerve growth factor receptor TrkA to infect mammalian hosts,” Cell Host and Microbe, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 251–261, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. M. V. Chuenkova and M. PereiraPerrin, “Trypanosoma cruzi targets Akt in host cells as an intracellular antiapoptotic strategy,” Science Signaling, vol. 2, no. 97, pp. 1–6, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. W. B. Dias, F. D. Fajardo, A. V. Graça-Souza et al., “Endothelial cell signalling induced by trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma cruzi,” Cellular Microbiology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 88–99, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. P. A. Manque, C. Probst, M. C. Pereira et al., “Trypanosoma cruzi infection induces a global host cell response in Cardiomyocytes,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 1855–1862, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  39. M. Tibayrenc, P. Ward, A. Moya, and F. J. Ayala, “Natural populations of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, have a complex multiclonal structure,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 115–119, 1986. View at Scopus
  40. M. Tibayrenc and F. Ayala, “Isozyme variability in Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease: genetic, taxonomical and epidemiological significance,” Evolution, vol. 42, pp. 277–292, 1988.
  41. S. Brisse, C. Barnabé, and M. Tibayrenc, “Identification of six Trypanosoma cruzi phylogenetic lineages by random amplified polymorphic DNA and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis,” International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 35–44, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. J. Westenberger, N. R. Sturm, and D. A. Campbell, “Trypanosoma cruzi 5S rRNA arrays define five groups and indicate the geographic origins of an ancestor of the heterozygous hybrids,” International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 337–346, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. N. Añez, G. Crisante, F. M. Da Silva et al., “Predominance of lineage I among Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from Venezuelan patients with different clinical profiles of acute Chagas' disease,” Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1319–1326, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. B. Zingales, S. G. Andrade, M. R. S. Briones et al., “A new consensus for Trypanosoma cruzi intraspecific nomenclature: second revision meeting recommends TcI to TcVI,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 104, no. 7, pp. 1051–1054, 2009. View at Scopus
  45. S. F. Brenière, M. F. Bosseno, F. Noireau et al., “Integrate study of a Bolivian population infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 289–295, 2002. View at Scopus
  46. E. Lages-Silva, E. Crema, L. E. Amirez, A. M. Macedo, S. D. Pena, and E. Chiari, “Relationship between Trypanosoma cruzi and human chagasic megaesophagus: blood and tissue parasitism,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 435–441, 2001. View at Scopus
  47. E. Lages-Silva, L. E. Ramírez, A. L. Pedrosa et al., “Variability of kinetoplast DNA gene signatures of Trypanosoma cruzi II strains from patients with different clinical forms of Chagas' disease in Brazil,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 2167–2171, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  48. M. Virreira, G. Serrano, L. Maldonado, and M. Svoboda, “Trypanosoma cruzi: typing of genotype (sub)lineages in megacolon samples from bolivian patients,” Acta Tropica, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 252–255, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  49. F. da Silva Manoel-Caetano, C. M. A. Carareto, A. A. Borim, K. Miyazaki, and A. E. Silva, “kDNA gene signatures of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood and oesophageal mucosa from chronic chagasic patients,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 102, no. 11, pp. 1102–1107, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  50. R. Del Puerto, J. E. Nishizawa, M. Kikuchi et al., “Lineage analysis of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi parasites and their association with clinical forms of chagas disease in Bolivia,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 4, no. 5, article e687, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  51. N. O. Fowler and M. Gueron, “Primary myocardial disease,” Circulation, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 830–836, 1965. View at Scopus
  52. I. M. Barbash and J. Leor, “Myocardial regeneration by adult stem cells,” Israel Medical Association Journal, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 283–287, 2006. View at Scopus
  53. E. Cunha-Neto, L. G. Nogueira, P. C. Teixeira et al., “Immunological and non-immunological effects of cytokines and chemokines in the pathogenesis of chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 252–258, 2009. View at Scopus
  54. F. Köberle, “Chagas' disease and chagas' syndromes: the pathology of American trypanosomiasis,” Advances in Parasitology, vol. 6, no. C, pp. 63–116, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. M. de Rezende and A. O. Luquetti, “Chagasic megavisceras,” in Chagas’ Disease and the Nervous System, vol. 547, pp. 149–171, Pan American Health Organization, 1994.
  56. W. C. Van Voorhis and H. Eisen, “Fl-160. A surface antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi that mimics mammalian nervous tissue,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 641–652, 1989. View at Scopus
  57. R. E. Kraichely and G. Farrugia, “Achalasia: physiology and etiopathogenesis,” Diseases of the Esophagus, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 213–223, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  58. D. Pajecki, B. Zilberstein, M. A. A. Dos Santos et al., “Megaesophagus microbiota: a qualitative and quantitative analysis,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 723–729, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. I. Gockel, P. Kämmerer, T. Junginger et al., “Image cytometric DNA analysis of mucosal biopsies in patients with primary achalasia,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 12, no. 18, pp. 3020–3025, 2006. View at Scopus
  60. H. W. Pinotti, C. E. Domene, I. Cecconello, and B. Zilberstein, “Chagasic megaesophagus,” in The Digestive System, J. C. U. Coelho, Ed., pp. 61–67, MEDSI, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1996.
  61. B. L. D. M. Brücher, H. J. Stein, H. Bartels, H. Feussner, and J. R. Siewert, “Achalasia and esophageal cancer: incidence, prevalence, and prognosis,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 745–749, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. M. Crawford, “The gastrointestinal tract,” in Robins and Cotran, Pathologic Basis of Disease, V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, and N. Fausto, Eds., pp. 775–787, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 6th edition, 2004.
  63. A. V. Safatle-Ribeiro, U. Ribeiro Jr., P. Sakai et al., “Integrated p53 histopathologic/genetic analysis of premalignant lesions of the esophagus,” Cancer Detection and Prevention, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 13–23, 2000. View at Scopus
  64. O. Chino, H. Kijima, H. Shimada et al., “Clinicopathological studies of esophageal carcinoma in achalasia: analyses of carcinogenesis using histological and immunohistochemical procedures,” Anticancer Research, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 3717–3722, 2000. View at Scopus
  65. A. Bektas, M. H. Yasa, I. Kuzu, I. Dogan, S. Ünal, and N. Örmeci, “Flow cytometric DNA analysis, and immunohistochemical p53, PCNA and histopathologic study in primary achalasia: preliminary results,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 48, no. 38, pp. 408–412, 2001. View at Scopus
  66. M. B. Lehman, S. B. Clark, A. H. Ormsby, T. W. Rice, J. E. Richter, and J. R. Goldblum, “Squamous mucosal alterations in esophagectomy specimens from patients with end-stage achalasia,” American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1413–1418, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. T. Iwata, N. Kurita, M. Nishioka et al., “p53 and MIB-1 expression of esophageal carcinoma concominant with achalasia,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 54, no. 77, pp. 1430–1432, 2007. View at Scopus
  68. M. F. Bellini, K. R. M. Leite, P. M. Cury, and A. E. Silva, “p53, p16 and Fhit proteins expressions in chronic esophagitis and Chagas disease,” Anticancer Research, vol. 28, no. 6 A, pp. 3793–3799, 2008. View at Scopus
  69. F. D. S. Manoel-Caetano, A. A. Borim, A. Caetano, P. M. Cury, and A. E. Silva, “Cytogenetic alterations in chagasic achalasia compared to esophageal carcinoma,” Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol. 149, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. F. Bellini, A. J. Manzato, A. E. Silva, and M. Varella-Garcia, “Chromosomal imbalances are uncommon in chagasic megaesophagus,” BMC Gastroenterology, vol. 10, article 20, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  71. F. D. S. Manoel-Caetano, A. F. P. Silveira, and A. E. Silva, “Gene mutations in esophageal mucosa of chagas disease patients,” Anticancer Research, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1243–1248, 2009. View at Scopus
  72. M. F. Bellini, P. M. Cury, and A. E. Silva, “Expression of Ki-67 antigen and caspase-3 protein in benign lesions and esophageal carcinoma,” Anticancer Research, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 2845–2849, 2010. View at Scopus
  73. J. C. M. dos Santos Jr., “Megacólon—parte II: doença de chagas,” Revista Brasileira de Coloproctologia, vol. 4, pp. 266–277, 2002.
  74. A. B. M. da Silveira, E. M. Lemos, S. J. Adad, R. Correa-Oliveira, J. B. Furness, and D. D'Avila Reis, “Megacolon in Chagas disease: a study of inflammatory cells, enteric nerves, and glial cells,” Human Pathology, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1256–1264, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  75. A. B. M. da Silveira, M. A. R. Freitas, E. C. de Oliveira et al., “Glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 colocalization in the enteroglial cells in dilated and nondilated portions of colon from chagasic patients,” Human Pathology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 244–251, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  76. A. B. M. da Silveira, M. A. R. Freitas, E. C. de Oliveira et al., “Substance P and NK1 receptor expression in the enteric nervous system is related to the development of chagasic megacolon,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 102, no. 11, pp. 1154–1156, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  77. A. B. M. da Silveira, F. Fortes de Araújo, M. A. R. Freitas et al., “Characterization of the presence and distribution of Foxp3+ cells in chagasic patients with and without megacolon,” Human Immunology, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 65–67, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  78. A. Barcelos Morais Da Silveira, E. C. De Oliveira, S. G. Neto et al., “Enteroglial cells act as antigen-presenting cells in chagasic megacolon,” Human Pathology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 522–532, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  79. A. L. Ostermayer, A. D. C. Passos, A. C. Silveira, A. W. Ferreira, V. Macedo, and A. R. Prata, “The National Survey of seroprevalence for evaluation of the control of Chagas disease in Brazil (2001–2008),” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, vol. 44, no. 2, supplement, pp. 108–121, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. M. E. de Carvalho, R. A. da Silva, D. M.V. Wanderley, and J. M.S. Barata, “Chagas disease Control Program in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: serological and entomological aspects of primary school-children surveys,” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, vol. 44, supplement 2, pp. 95–106, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar