Table 1: Summary of PCD studies in P. falciparum. Symbols indicate the following: Δ—change observed (increase or decrease indicated by ↑ or , resp.); ×—not done. SNAP—S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine.

PhenotypeStimulusStrainMorphological changesDNA fragmentationMitochondrial membrane potentialProtease involvementRef

ApoptosisAntimalaria drugsHB3
K1
Δ MicroscopyΔ↑ TUNEL × × [23]
BilirubinNF-54Δ Fluorescence microscopy × ΔJC-1 Spectrofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopyΔ↑ Caspase assay, spectrofluorimetry, DEVD substrate, and DEVD inhibitor[35]
× Δ↑ Laddering, Agarose gel and Southern blotting × × [12]
3D7Δ MicroscopyΔ↑ TUNEL by fluorescence microscopyΔ JC-1 Fluorescence microscopyΔ VAD inhibitor[26]
Chloroquine × Δ↑ TUNEL by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopyΔ JC-1 Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopyΔ↑ Caspase assay, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, VAD substrate, VAD, FA, FF, LLL, CA-074, and E64d inhibitors[34]
7G8Δ MicroscopyΔ↑ TUNEL by fluorescence microscopyΔ JC-1 fluorescence microscopyNO CHANGE
VAD inhibitor
[26]
K1 × × Δ JC-1 flow cytometry × [34]
Etoposide3D7
7G8
Δ↑ TUNEL by fluorescence microscopyΔ VAD inhibitor
NO CHANGE
VAD inhibitor
[26]
ChloroquineHB3Δ↑ TUNEL
OxidantsK1
EtoposideHB3Δ Microscopy × × ×
StarvationK1[23]
Heat3D7Δ↑ TUNEL by fluorescence microscopy[27]
Increased parasite densityDd2Δ↑ TUNEL by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopyΔ TMRE flow cytometryΔ↑ protease mRNA and protein[36]

Apoptosis/AutophagyChloroquine
S. nudum extracts
7G8Δ Microscopy, electron microscopyΔ↑ TUNEL by flow cytometryΔ DiOC6 Flow cytometry × [24]

AutophagyChloroquine
SNAP
Staurosporine
PSS1Δ Electron microscopyNO CHANGE TUNEL by flow cytometryΔ Rhodamine 123 Flow cytometryNO CHANGE
VAD inhibitor
[37]

NecrosisChloroquine
Staurosporine
Heat
CSC-1Δ Microscopy, electron microscopyNO CHANGE Agarose gel with SYBR Green stainingΔ DiOC6 Flow cytometryΔCaspase assay, Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, VAD, LETD, LEHD, and AEVD inhibitors[38]

UndefinedChloroquineLili × NO CHANGE Agarose gel and Southern blotting × [12]
EtoposideF32NO CHANGE MicroscopyNO CHANGE TUNEL by flow cytometryNO CHANGE
DiOC6 flow cytometry
AtovaquoneΔ DiOC6 flow cytometry × [25]
SNAPΔ MicroscopyΔ↑ Smear, Agarose gel with ethidium bromide staining
Artemisinin
Ceramide
Mefloquine
FCR3NO CHANGE Electron microscopyNO CHANGE TUNEL and agarose gels × NO CHANGE
Caspase 3 assay
[39]
Staurosporine3D7 × Δ↑ TUNEL by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopyΔ JC-1 Flow cytometryΔ↑ Caspase assay, flow cytometry, and VAD substrate NO CHANGE VAD inhibitor[34]