Table 1: Baseline characteristics among patients initiating first-line ART and the risk factors for incident anemia at the Themba Lethu Clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Baseline characteristicsRisk factors for incident anaemia
Overall ( ) Anaemia ( )Univariate analysis
Multivariate analysis
No.%No.%cHR 95% CIaHR95% CI

Sex
 Male39043873818.91.00Referent1.00Referent
 Female6355621909301.561.28–1.921.781.45–2.19
CD4 count (cells/mL)
  0–49363935.5120633.11.791.23–2.591.721.18–2.52
 50–199575456.1129822.61.150.80–1.661.170.89–1.68
 >2008668.414316.51.00Referent1.00Referent
BMI (kg/m2)
 <18.5203919.982340.41.741.39–2.171.701.35–2.14
 ≥18.5822080.1182422.21.00Referent1.00Referent
Age (years)
 18–35448343.7125023.91.240.71–2.19
 36–55539752.6133327.51.120.64–1.96
 >553793.76413.11.00Referent
WHO stage
 I and II556754.389916.11.00Referent1.00Referent
 III and IV 469245.7174837.21.401.16–1.681.241.02–1.51
ART regimen
 d4T based993796.9733796.41.00Referent1.00Referent
 AZT based3223.12753.62.031.39–2.962.191.50–3.20
TB diagnosis
 No822380.1183322.31.00Referent
 Yes203619.9814401.411.12–1.77

Abbreviations: cHR: crude hazard ratio, aHR: adjusted hazard ratio, HR: hazard ratio, 95% CI: 95% confidence interval, ART: antiretroviral therapy, Hb.: hemoglobin, BMI: body mass index, EFV: efavirenz, AZT: zidovudine, NVP: nevirapine, IQR: interquartile range, TB: Tuberculosis. 95% CI: 95% confidence interval; HR was estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models.