Table 2: Association of baseline characteristics with prevalent anemia among 10,259 patients initiating first-line ART at the Themba Lethu Clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Univariate analysisMultivariate analysis
Crude PR95% CIAdjusted PR95% CI

 Female1.59 1.47–1.711.771.64–1.90
CD4 count (cells/mL)
BMI (kg/m2)
Age (years)
 18–351.831.37–2.451.59 1.19–2.11
WHO stage
 I and II1.00Referent1.00Referent
 III and IV 2.312.15–2.481.961.81–2.12
ART regimen
 d4T in regimen1.00Referent1.00Referent
 AZT in regimen0.560.42–0.740.560.42–0.75
TB diagnosis

Abbreviations: PR: prevalence ratio, 95% CI: 95% confidence interval, ART: antiretroviral therapy, BMI: body mass index, EFV: efavirenz, 3TC: lamixudine, d4T: stavudine,  AZT: zidovudine, NVP: nevirapine, IQR: interquartile range, TB: tuberculosis.