Table 2: Association of baseline characteristics with prevalent anemia among 10,259 patients initiating first-line ART at the Themba Lethu Clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Univariate analysisMultivariate analysis
Crude PR95% CIAdjusted PR95% CI

Sex
 Male1.00Referent1.00Referent
 Female1.59 1.47–1.711.771.64–1.90
CD4 count (cells/mL)
 0–492.011.72–2.351.481.28–1.73
 50–1991.371.17–1.601.191.02–1.38
 >2001.00Referent1.00Referent
BMI (kg/m2)
 <18.51.821.70–1.941.571.46–1.70
 ≥18.51.00Referent1.00Referent
Age (years)
 18–351.831.37–2.451.59 1.19–2.11
 36–552.101.58–2.801.541.16–2.04
 >551.00Referent1.00Referent
WHO stage
 I and II1.00Referent1.00Referent
 III and IV 2.312.15–2.481.961.81–2.12
ART regimen
 d4T in regimen1.00Referent1.00Referent
 AZT in regimen0.560.42–0.740.560.42–0.75
TB diagnosis
 No1.00Referent1.00Referent
 Yes1.791.68–1.921.141.06–1.22

Abbreviations: PR: prevalence ratio, 95% CI: 95% confidence interval, ART: antiretroviral therapy, BMI: body mass index, EFV: efavirenz, 3TC: lamixudine, d4T: stavudine,  AZT: zidovudine, NVP: nevirapine, IQR: interquartile range, TB: tuberculosis.