About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Thyroid Research
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 935141, 4 pages
Clinical Study

Local Reference Ranges of Thyroid Volume in Sudanese Normal Subjects Using Ultrasound

1College of Medical Radiologic Science, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Baladya Street, P.O. Box 1908, Khartoum 11111, Sudan
2College of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, The National Ribat University, Nile Street, Burri, P.O. Box 55, Khartoum 11111, Sudan
3Radiation and Isotope Center, Khartoum (RICK), Algaser Street, P.O. Box 846, Khartoum 11111, Sudan

Received 29 June 2011; Revised 30 July 2011; Accepted 31 July 2011

Academic Editor: Fausto Bogazzi

Copyright © 2011 Mohamed Yousef et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Archie and M. Alexander, “The thyroid, the parathyroid, the salivary glands and the cervical lymphnodes,” in The NICER Year Book 1996, B. Goldberg and H. Petterson, Eds., pp. 399–429, The NICER Institude, Oslo, Norway, 1996.
  2. B. O. Iko, “Grey scale ultrasonography of the thyroid gland, Nigeria,” Tropical and Geographical Medicine, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 1986. View at Scopus
  3. T. Anele, “Ultrasound volumetric measurement of normal thyroid in Nigerians,” The West African Journal of Ultrasound, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 10–12, 2001.
  4. S. P. Ryan and N. M. J. Nicholas, “The thyroid and parathyroid glands,” in Anatomy for Diagnostic Imaging, S. P. Ryan and N. M. J. Nicholas, Eds., pp. 35–37, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1994.
  5. A. Tahir, A. Ahidjo, and H. Yusuph, “Ultrasonic assessment of thyroid gland size in Maiduguri, Nigeria,” The West African Journal of Ultrasound, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 26–31, 2001.
  6. J. Massol, L. Pazart, S. Aho, G. Strauch, J. Leclere, and P. Durieux, “Management of thyroid nodules: preliminary results of a practice survey with 685 general and specialist practitioners,” Annales d'Endocrinologie, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 220–225, 1993. View at Scopus
  7. J. N. Bruneton, C. Balu-Maestro, P. Y. Marcy, P. Melia, and M. Y. Mourou, “Very high frequency (13 MHz) ultrasonographic examination of the normal neck: detection of normal lymph nodes and thyroid nodules,” Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 87–90, 1994. View at Scopus
  8. World Health Organization, “Indicators for assessing iodine deficiency disorders and their control through salt iodization,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1994, [Document no. WHO/NUT94.6].
  9. “Recommended normative values for thyroid volume in children aged 6–15 years: World Health Organization and International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 75, pp. 95–97, 1997.
  10. M. C. Brown and R. Spencer, “Thyroid gland volume estimated by use of ultrasound in addition to scintigraphy,” Acta Radiologica: Oncology, Radiation, Therapy Physics and Biology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 337–341, 1978. View at Scopus
  11. J. Brunn, U. Block, G. Ruf, I. Bos, W. P. Kunze, and P. C. Scriba, “Volumetric analysis of thyroid lobes by real-time ultrasound,” Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 106, no. 41, pp. 1338–1340, 1981. View at Scopus
  12. J. L. Jamesone and A. P. Weetman, “Disorders of the thyroid gland,” in Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, E. Braunwald, A. S. Fauci, D. L. Kasper, S. L. Hauser, D. L. Longo, and J. L. Jameson, Eds., pp. 2060–2061, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 15th edition, 2001.
  13. S. Schlögl, E. Werner, M. Lassmann et al., “The use of three-dimensional ultrasound for thyroid volumetry,” Thyroid, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 569–574, 2001. View at Scopus
  14. W. Shabana, E. Peeters, P. Verbeek, and M. M. Osteaux, “Reducing inter-observer variation in thyroid volume calculation using a new formula and technique,” The European Journal of Ultrasound, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 207–210, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Robbins, et al., “Thyroid anatomy,” in Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, C. W. Cummings, J. M. Fredrickson, L. A. Harker, C. J. Krause, and D. E. Schuller, Eds., pp. 2445–2449, Mosby, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 3rd edition, 1998.
  16. “Endocrinal system: thyroid,” in Gray's Anatomy, R. Warwick and P. L. Williams, Eds., pp. 1373–1375, Longman Group, Edinburgh, UK, 35th edition, 1973.
  17. N. G. Rasmussen, P. J. Hornnes, and L. Hegedus, “Ultrasonographically determined thyroid size in pregnancy and post partum: the goitrogenic effect of pregnancy,” The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 160, no. 5, pp. 1216–1220, 1989. View at Scopus
  18. M. Nelson, G. G. Wickus, R. H. Caplan, and E. A. Beguin, “Thyroid gland size in pregnancy. An ultrasound and clinical study,” Journal of Reproductive Medicine, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 888–890, 1987. View at Scopus
  19. L. Hegedus, S. Karstrup, and N. G. Rasmussen, “Evidence of cyclic alterations of thyroid size during the menstrual cycle in healthy women,” The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 155, no. 1, pp. 142–145, 1986. View at Scopus
  20. Y. L. Hsiao and T. C. Chang, “Ultrasound evaluation of thyroid abnormalities and volume in Chinese adults without palpable thyroid glands,” Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 140–144, 1994.
  21. P. Langer, “Normal thyroid size versus goiter—postmortem thyroid weight and ultrasonographic volumetry versus physical examination,” Endocrinologia Experimentalis, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 67–76, 1989.
  22. F. Azizi, M. Malik, E. Bebars, H. Delshad, and A. Bakir, “Thyroid volumes in school children of the Emirates,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 56–60, 2003.
  23. G. Ivanac, B. Rožman, F. Škreb, B. Brkljačić, and L. Pavić, “Ultrasonographic measurement of the thyroid volume,” Collegium Antropologicum, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 287–291, 2004. View at Scopus
  24. A. Ahidjo, A. Tahir, and M. Tukur, “Ultrasound determination of thyroid gland volume among adult Nigerians,” The Internet Journal of Radiology, vol. 4, no. 2, 2006.
  25. J. P. Chanoine, V. Toppet, R. Lagasse, M. Spehl, and F. Delange, “Determination of thyroid volume by ultrasound from the neonatal period to late adolescence,” The European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 150, no. 6, pp. 395–399, 1991. View at Scopus
  26. A. Adibi, M. Sirous, A. Aminorroaya et al., “Normal values of thyroid gland in Isfahan, an iodine replete area,” Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 55–60, 2008. View at Scopus