Journal of Veterinary Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Participatory Epidemiology of Ethnoveterinary Practices Fulani Pastoralists Used to Manage Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Other Cattle Ailments in Niger State, Nigeria Mon, 23 Mar 2015 07:12:36 +0000 Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0%) are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0%) are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals). Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%), barks (31.6%), roots (10.6%), and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage. N. B. Alhaji and O. O. Babalobi Copyright © 2015 N. B. Alhaji and O. O. Babalobi. All rights reserved. Epidemiological Survey on Porcine Cysticercosis in Nay Pyi Taw Area, Myanmar Thu, 26 Feb 2015 09:57:15 +0000 Cross-sectional surveys were conducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs within Nay Pyi Taw area, Myanmar. Meat inspection in three slaughterhouses, ELISA test, and questionnaire surveys were conducted in this study. Three hundred pigs were inspected in slaughterhouses and 364 pigs were randomly selected and examined from 203 households from three townships in Nay Pyi Taw area. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in meat inspection was 23.67% (71/300). Seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs in the study area was 15.93% (58/364). Significant associated risk factors with T. solium cysticercosis were gender (; 95% ), increased age (; 95% ), husbandry system (; 95% ), feed type (; 95% ), not using anthelmintics in pigs (; 95% ), not using anthelmintics in owner (; 95% ), no hand-washing before feeding (; 95% ), and pork consumption of owner (; 95% ) in the study area. This is the first report of porcine cysticercosis in Myanmar. Tin Aye Khaing, Saw Bawm, Soe Soe Wai, Ye Htut, and Lat Lat Htun Copyright © 2015 Tin Aye Khaing et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Organs of Slaughtered Cattle by DNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction and Ziehl-Neelsen Techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria Tue, 03 Feb 2015 06:15:58 +0000 Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic, infectious, and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It also poses a public health threat and economic losses. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle, based on PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and PCR techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria. A Prospective study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (15%) tissues from different organs had suspected bTB lesions at PM. Out of the samples examined 35 (29.2%) were AFB positive by ZN and 10 (8.3%) were confirmed positive for M. bovis by PCR, with an overall prevalence of 29.16% and 8.33%, respectively. Female had a higher prevalence rate than male cattle at 16.66% and 12.5 % by ZN and 5.00% and 3.33% by PCR, respectively (, ). However, there was a statistically significant association (, ) between detection of bTB and the age of cattle. ZN revealed that cattle aged 6 years and above had the highest number of positive bTB cases 67.9%, while cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest 14.81%. PCR technique revealed that the cattle aged 6 and above years also had the highest percentage positive M. bovis cases of 22.84%, whereas cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest and the overall prevalence rate of 8.33%. The study found a high infection rate of bTB among cattle and majority of the lesions 54.2% were from lungs. The prevalence of bTB was higher in Bauchi metropolitan abattoir which supplies larger population of the state with beef. A. S. Sa’idu, E. C. Okolocha, A. A. Dzikwi, J. K. P. Kwaga, A. A. Gamawa, A. Usman, S. A. Maigari, and S. Ibrahim Copyright © 2015 A. S. Sa’idu et al. All rights reserved. Public Health Implications and Risk Factors Assessment of Mycobacterium bovis Infections among Abattoir Personnel in Bauchi State, Nigeria Sat, 31 Jan 2015 13:11:16 +0000 Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic infectious and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It poses a public health threat and economic losses due to abattoir condemnation of infected carcasses during meat inspection of slaughtered animals. Bovine tuberculosis is widespread in Africa including Nigeria affecting both cattle and humans, particularly Northern Nigeria. A prospective survey was conducted from June to August 2013 in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. A total of 150 structured close-ended questionnaires were administered to abattoir personnel to assess their level of awareness of bTB. This study was aimed at determining the level of public health awareness, attitude, and practices of abattoir workers of bTB in Bauchi State, Nigeria. There was a statistically significant association between respondents’ awareness of bTB and their occupational status, age, and duration of exposure to cattle carcasses (); the odds of being aware of bTB were 9.4, 7.3, and 2.1, respectively. In conclusion, these demonstrate the urgent need for public health authorities to intervene in bTB control. The risk of bTB transmission as indicated by the personnel’s practices and awareness levels in Bauchi State could be prevented through the use of protective clothing (PPEs). A. S. Sa’idu, E. C. Okolocha, A. A. Dzikwi, A. A. Gamawa, S. Ibrahim, J. K. P. Kwaga, A. Usman, and S. A. Maigari Copyright © 2015 A. S. Sa’idu et al. All rights reserved. Blood Density Is Nearly Equal to Water Density: A Validation Study of the Gravimetric Method of Measuring Intraoperative Blood Loss Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:47:28 +0000 Purpose. The gravimetric method of weighing surgical sponges is used to quantify intraoperative blood loss. The dry mass minus the wet mass of the gauze equals the volume of blood lost. This method assumes that the density of blood is equivalent to water (1 gm/mL). This study’s purpose was to validate the assumption that the density of blood is equivalent to water and to correlate density with hematocrit. Methods. 50 µL of whole blood was weighed from eighteen rats. A distilled water control was weighed for each blood sample. The averages of the blood and water were compared utilizing a Student’s unpaired, one-tailed t-test. The masses of the blood samples and the hematocrits were compared using a linear regression. Results. The average mass of the eighteen blood samples was 0.0489 g and that of the distilled water controls was 0.0492 g. The t-test showed and . The hematocrit values ranged from 24% to 48%. The linear regression value was 0.1767. Conclusions. The value comparing the blood and distilled water masses suggests high correlation between the two populations. Linear regression showed the hematocrit was not proportional to the mass of the blood. The study confirmed that the measured density of blood is similar to water. Dominic J. Vitello, Richard M. Ripper, Michael R. Fettiplace, Guy L. Weinberg, and Joseph M. Vitello Copyright © 2015 Dominic J. Vitello et al. All rights reserved. Ex Vivo Anatomical Characterization of Handsewn or Stapled Jejunocecal Anastomosis in Horses by Computed Tomography Scan Thu, 04 Dec 2014 00:10:05 +0000 The aim of this study is to compare handsewn and stapled jejunocecal anastomosis with different stomal lengths in terms of anatomical differences. Group 1 underwent a two-layer handsewn jejunocecal side-to-side anastomosis (HS); Group 2 received a stapled jejunocecal side-to-side anastomosis (GIA). Each group was divided into two subgroups (HS80 and HS100, GIA80 and GIA100). Specimens were inflated and CT scanned. The stomal/jejunal area ratio and blind end pouch volume/area were measured and compared. Effective length of the stoma was measured and compared with the initial length. Stomal/jejunal area ratio was 1.1 for both 80 techniques, 1.6 for the GIA100, and 1.9 for the HS100 technique. Both HS and GIA techniques produced a blind end pouch and exhibited a mean increase of the final stomal length ranging from 6 to 11% greater than the original stomal length. All techniques will exhibit a length increase of the final stomal length compared to the intended stomal length, with a consequent increase in stomal area. Stapled techniques consistently produced a large distal blind end pouch. Length of a jejunocecal anastomosis should be selected in accordance with the diameter of afferent jejunum, and the 80 mm stomal length could be deemed sufficient in horses. Gessica Giusto, Bryan Iotti, Federica Sammartano, Alberto Valazza, and Marco Gandini Copyright © 2014 Gessica Giusto et al. All rights reserved. High Infestation by Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in Arapaima gigas Cultured in the Amazon Region, Peru Sun, 30 Nov 2014 12:53:04 +0000 The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Dawestrema cycloancistrioides in semi-intensive fish farming of fingerlings of Arapaima gigas. Between September and November 2013, 60 individuals of A. gigas born in captivity, were collected in three concrete ponds, from a semi-intensive fish farm in the Peruvian Amazon. For the study of sclerotized structures, parasites were fixed in a solution of ammonium picrate glycerine and mounted in Canada balsam. To visualize internal structures, parasites were fixed in hot formaldehyde solution (4%) for staining with Gomori’s trichrome. The parasitic indexes calculated were prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance. This study identified a high infestation of a monogenean D. cycloancistrioides in gills of A. gigas. The prevalence was 100%. The mean intensity and mean abundance of the parasite were 144.9 of parasites per individual. This study confirms the necessity of constant monitoring of fish in order to reduce fish mortality. Patrick D. Mathews, Antonio F. Malheiros, Narda D. Vasquez, and Milton D. Chavez Copyright © 2014 Patrick D. Mathews et al. All rights reserved. Subcutaneous Implants of Buprenorphine-Cholesterol-Triglyceride Powder in Mice Thu, 27 Nov 2014 09:48:50 +0000 Subcutaneous drug implants are convenient systems for the long-term delivery of drugs in animals. Lipid carriers are logical tools because they generally allow for higher doses and low toxicity. The present study used an US Food and Drug Administration Target Animal Safety test system to evaluate the safety of a subcutaneous implant of a cholesterol-triglyceride-buprenorphine powder in 120 BALB/c mice. Mice were evaluated in 4- and 12-day trials with 1- and 5-fold doses of the intended 3 mg/kg dose of drug. One male mouse treated with three 3 mg/kg doses and surgery on days 0, 4, and 8 died on day 9. The cause of death was not determined. In the surviving 119 mice there was no evidence of skin reaction at the site of the implant. Compared to control animals treated with saline, weight measurements, clinical pathology, histopathology, and clinical observations were unremarkable. These results demonstrate that the lipid carrier is substantially safe. Cholesterol-triglyceride-drug powders may provide a valuable research tool for studies of analgesic and inflammatory drug implants in veterinary medicine. L. DeTolla, R. Sanchez, E. Khan, B. Tyler, and M. Guarnieri Copyright © 2014 L. DeTolla et al. All rights reserved. Biological Pathotyping of Newcastle Disease Viruses in Sudan 2008–2013 Wed, 26 Nov 2014 14:11:50 +0000 The biological properties and pathogenicity of seven Newcastle disease virus field isolates were studied. These isolates were recovered from different outbreaks in Sudan (5 from chickens and 2 from pigeons) during 2008–2013. Based on intracerebral pathogenicity index, four NDV isolates were characterized as velogenic (their ICPI ranged 2.0–1.6) and three isolates were characterized as mesogenic (ICPI ranged 1.2–1.3). The mean death time for all isolates ranged from 54 to 76.8 hours. The elution time of the viruses from chicken erythrocytes and the ability to haemagglutinate mammalian red blood cells differed considerably in their reactions. Egbal Sidahmed Abdelrahim Bilal, Iman Mohammed Elnasri, Aymen Mohamed Alhassan, Khalda Abdelaziz Khalifa, Jedddha Ibrahim Elhag, and Selma Osman Ahmed Copyright © 2014 Egbal Sidahmed Abdelrahim Bilal et al. All rights reserved. Acute Phase Response and Neutrophils : Lymphocyte Ratio in Response to Astaxanthin in Staphylococcal Mice Mastitis Model Wed, 19 Nov 2014 06:46:59 +0000 The purpose of the study was to determine the immunotherapeutic effect of astaxanthin (AX) on total clinical score (TCS), C-reactive protein (CRP), and neutrophil : lymphocyte ratio in mice mastitis model challenged with pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-four lactating mice were divided in 4 equal groups: group I mice served as normal healthy control, group II, positive control, were challenged with pathogenic S. aureus, group III mice were challenged and treated with AX, and group IV were treated with amoxicillin plus sulbactum. The TCS was higher in postchallenged mice; however it was significantly higher in group II untreated mice as compared to group III and group IV mice. The neutrophil was higher and lymphocyte count was lower in group II mice at 120 hrs post challenge (PC). The CRP was positive in all the challenged group at 24 hrs PC, but it remained positive till 120 hrs PC in group II. The parameters are related to enhancement of the mammary defense and reduction of inflammation. Hence AX may be used alone or as an adjunct therapy with antibiotic for amelioration of mastitis. Development of such therapy may be useful to reduce the antibiotic burden in management of intramammary infection. Tshering Dolma, Reena Mukherjee, B. K. Pati, and U. K. De Copyright © 2014 Tshering Dolma et al. All rights reserved. Occurrence of Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Antibodies in Double-Spurred Francolins in Nigeria Tue, 18 Nov 2014 11:32:50 +0000 The double-spurred francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus has been identified as a good candidate for future domestication due to the universal acceptability of its meat and its adaptability to anthropogenically altered environments. Therefore, in investigating the diseases to which they are susceptible, serum samples from 56 francolins in a major live-bird market (LBM) in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, were screened for antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) viruses. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed 25.0% and 35.7% prevalence of ND virus (NDV) antibodies, respectively, while 5.4% and 57.1% prevalence of IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies was detected by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and ELISA, respectively. This first report on the occurrence of NDV and IBDV antibodies in apparently healthy, unvaccinated double-spurred francolins from a LBM suggests that they were subclinically infected with either field or vaccine viruses and could thus serve as possible reservoirs of these viruses to domestic poultry. Furthermore, if they are to be domesticated for intensive rearing, a vaccination plan including ND and IBD should be developed and implemented. Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu, Adebowale Idris Adebiyi, Ibukunoluwa Olaniyan, Phyllis Ezewele, and Oluwasanmi Aina Copyright © 2014 Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model Wed, 12 Nov 2014 09:55:35 +0000 Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5–1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both. S. Rochelle Lewis, Siobhan P. Ellison, John J. Dascanio, David S. Lindsay, Robert M. Gogal Jr., Stephen R. Werre, Naveen Surendran, Meghan E. Breen, Bettina M. Heid, Frank M. Andrews, Virginia A. Buechner-Maxwell, and Sharon G. Witonsky Copyright © 2014 S. Rochelle Lewis et al. All rights reserved. The Immunology of Mammary Gland of Dairy Ruminants between Healthy and Inflammatory Conditions Mon, 10 Nov 2014 06:36:54 +0000 The health of dairy animals, particularly the milk-producing mammary glands, is essential to the dairy industry because of the crucial hygienic and economic aspects of ensuring production of high quality milk. Due to its high prevalence, mastitis is considered the most important threat to dairy industry, due to its impacts on animal health and milk production and thus on economic benefits. The MG is protected by several defence mechanisms that prevent microbial penetration and surveillance. However, several factors can attenuate the host immune response (IR), and the possession of various virulence and resistance factors by different mastitis-causing microorganisms greatly limits immune defences and promotes establishment of intramammary infections (IMIs). A comprehensive understanding of MG immunity in both healthy and inflammatory conditions will be an important key to understand the nature of IMIs caused by specific pathogens and greatly contributes to the development of effective control methods and appropriate detection techniques. Consequently, this review aims to provide a detailed overview of antimicrobial defences in the MG under healthy and inflammatory conditions. In this sense, we will focus on pathogen-dependent variations in IRs mounted by the host during IMI and discuss the potential ramifications of these variations. Mohamed Ezzat Alnakip, Marcos Quintela-Baluja, Karola Böhme, Inmaculada Fernández-No, Sonia Caamaño-Antelo, Pillar Calo-Mata, and Jorge Barros-Velázquez Copyright © 2014 Mohamed Ezzat Alnakip et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Calodium hepaticum and Cysticercus fasciolaris in Urban Rats and Their Histopathological Reaction in the Livers Thu, 06 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Humans can get infected with several zoonotic diseases from being in close contact with rats. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and histopathological changes caused by Calodium hepaticum and Cysticercus fasciolaris in infected livers of wild caught urban rats. Of the 98 urban rats (Rattus rattus diardii and Rattus norvegicus) autopsied, 64.3% were infected; 44.9% were infected with Caladium hepatica, 39.3% were infected with Cysticercus fasciolaris, and 20.4% were infected with both parasites. High infection rates suggest that urban rats are common reservoir for both parasites, which are potentially a threat to man. Calodium hepaticum infections were identified by the presence of ova or adults in the liver parenchyma. They appear as yellowish white nodules, measuring 1–7 mm in diameter or in streaks scattered widely over the serosal surface of the liver. Cysticercus fasciolaris infections are recognized morphologically by their shape (round or oval) and are creamy white in colour. Histological studies of Calodium hepaticum showed areas of granulomatous lesions with necrotic areas around the dead ova and adults. In almost all cases, the rats appeared robust, looked healthy, and showed no visible signs of hepatic failure despite the fact that more than 64.0% of their livers were infected by either one or both parasites. Bharathalingam Sinniah, Muniandy Narasiman, Saequa Habib, and Ong Gaik Bei Copyright © 2014 Bharathalingam Sinniah et al. All rights reserved. Morphometric Identification, Gross and Histopathological Lesions of Eimeria Species in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in Zaria, Nigeria Wed, 05 Nov 2014 06:40:58 +0000 The objective of the study was to identify the species, gross and histopathological lesions of Eimeria in Japanese quails in Zaria. A total of 400 fresh faecal samples were collected and 10 quail birds were purchased from a quail farm. The faecal samples were processed using simple floatation technique. Oocysts shape indices of sporulated oocysts were determined. The intestines were observed for gross lesions and segments were analyzed using Giemsa stain and Haematoxylin and Eosin stain and then observed microscopically for the developmental stages of the parasite. Four species of Eimeria were identified in the study. Eimeria bateri of shape index of 1.36 conformed to the guidelines used while the other three Eimeria species with shape indices of 1.48, 1.03, and 1.40 were not confirmed. The main gross lesion seen was nonhaemorrhagic ballooning of the caeca. Intestinal scrapping smear revealed a developmental stage of the parasite (merozoites) in the jejunum. Histopathology also revealed a developmental stage (schizont) of the parasite in the caecum and desquamation of the epithelial lining with areas of necrosis. Further study is required using molecular techniques to properly identify the unknown species of Eimeria that were detected in the study. H. A. Umar, I. A. Lawal, O. O. Okubanjo, and A. M. Wakawa Copyright © 2014 H. A. Umar et al. All rights reserved. Gastrointestinal Helminths in Slaughtered Cattle in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:34:40 +0000 As part of an ongoing project to investigate the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminths of cattle in Nigeria, we carried out a systematic random sampling of cattle slaughtered in a major abattoir in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. Using sedimentation and floatation methods, we analyzed fecal samples from 397 animals between March and May 2013. Overall, 163 (41.6%) of the animals had at least one gastrointestinal helminth egg, comprising a total of eight helminths from different genera (i.e., four nematodes, three trematodes, and one cestode), with nematode infection being the highest (71.54%). In addition, eggs of four helminths of zoonotic importance were also obtained. Among the cattle examined, the Bunaji breed was the most infected (46%; 69/150). Furthermore, female animals (; 95% CI: 0.60–1.84) and animals with moderate body condition (; 95% CI: 0.80–1.79) are more likely to be positive to helminth infection. Our findings reveal that there were helminth infections of both zoonotic and socioeconomic importance among the cattle screened. Considering the impact of the infections on animal production and public health, we advocate that effective prophylactic measures be adopted as a first step to curtail helminth infections of cattle in Nigeria. Olubukola Deborah Adedipe, Emmanuel Chibuike Uwalaka, Victor Oluwatoyin Akinseye, Oyeduntan Adejoju Adediran, and Simeon Idowu Babalola Cadmus Copyright © 2014 Olubukola Deborah Adedipe et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Common Anaesthetic and Clinical Indices of Multimodal Therapy of Propofol, Xylazine, and Ketamine in Total Intravenous Anaesthesia in West African Dwarf Goat Sun, 19 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The assessment of anaesthetic and clinical indices of multimodal therapy of propofol, xylazine, and ketamine was done in West African Dwarf (WAD) goat. Sixteen healthy male WAD goats were assigned into four treatment groups, namely, control (group A) (ketamine 5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg), group B (propofol 5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg), group C (propofol 5 mg/kg + ketamine 5 mg/kg), and group D (propofol 2.5 mg/kg + ketamine 2.5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg). All drugs were administered intravenously. The multimodal therapy decreased significantly () the heart rate in groups A, B, and D. Also respiratory rate significantly () decreased in groups A, B, and D but significantly () increased at 20 min after induction in group C. However, temperature significantly () decreased in groups A, B, and C. The induction was good and smooth in groups B and D. Surgical anaesthetic time was longer in groups B and D and shorter in group C. The quality of recovery was good in groups B and D. Side effects such as salivation and apnoea were observed in all groups. In conclusion, the multimodal therapy could be used successfully. However, group D could be the best combination considering the parameters measured. Ukwueze Celestine Okwudili, Eze Chinedu Athanasius, and Udegbunam Rita Ijeoma Copyright © 2014 Ukwueze Celestine Okwudili et al. All rights reserved. Hemostatic Markers in Congestive Heart Failure Dogs with Mitral Valve Disease Thu, 16 Oct 2014 12:56:31 +0000 Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, D-dimer, antithrombin III (AT III), protein C (PC), factor VII (F.VII), and factor VIII (F.VIII), as well as hematocrit (HCT), platelets number (PLT), total plasma protein (TP), and albumin (ALB), were studied on fifty-eight congestive heart failure (CHF) dogs with mitral valve disease (MVD) and fifty control dogs. All of variables of MVD group, except APTT, were significantly different from control group. The variables were also compared among functional classes of CHF dogs and control dogs. It was determined that the higher the functional class of CHF dogs was, the greater the levels of fibrinogen and D-dimer were, whereas the lesser the activities of AT III and PC were presented. Additionally, TP had linear correlation with fibrinogen, D-dimer, HCT, and PLT (, 0.30, 0.43, and 0.38, resp., ). These findings suggested that fibrinogen and D-dimer were the factors predisposing hypercoagulability through an increase in blood viscosity. The hemorheological abnormalities would shift an overall hemostatic balance toward a more thrombotic state in CHF dogs with MVD. Kreangsak Prihirunkit, Amornrate Sastravaha, Chalermpol Lekcharoensuk, and Phongsak Chanloinapha Copyright © 2014 Kreangsak Prihirunkit et al. All rights reserved. Real-Time RT-PCR for the Detection of Lyssavirus Species Thu, 16 Oct 2014 10:02:32 +0000 The causative agents of rabies are single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses in the genus Lyssavirus of Rhabdoviridae, consisting of twelve classified and three as yet unclassified species including classical rabies virus (RABV). Highly neurotropic RABV causes rapidly progressive encephalomyelitis with nearly invariable fatal outcome. Rapid and reliable diagnosis of rabies is highly relevant for public and veterinary health. Due to growing variety of the genus Lyssavirus observed, the development of suitable molecular assays for diagnosis and differentiation is challenging. This work focused on the establishment of a suitable real-time RT-PCR technique for rabies diagnosis as a complement to fluorescent antibody test and rabies tissue culture infection test as gold standard for diagnosis and confirmation. The real-time RT-PCR was adapted with the goal to detect the whole spectrum of lyssavirus species, for nine of which synthesized DNA fragments were used. For the detection of species, seven probes were developed. Serial dilutions of the rabies virus strain CVS-11 showed a 100-fold higher sensitivity of real-time PCR compared to heminested RT-PCR. Using a panel of thirty-one lyssaviruses representing four species, the suitability of the protocol could be shown. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained by heminested PCR allowed correct classification of all viruses used. A. Deubelbeiss, M.-L. Zahno, M. Zanoni, D. Bruegger, and R. Zanoni Copyright © 2014 A. Deubelbeiss et al. All rights reserved. Seasonal Variation and Frequency Distribution of Ectoparasites in Crossbreed Cattle in Southeastern Brazil Wed, 08 Oct 2014 14:14:02 +0000 The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months), 40 heifers aged months were divided into groups A ( Holstein × 3/4 Gir) and B ( Holstein × Gir) and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low ( ticks/animal), with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans ( flies/animal) and D. hominis ( larvae/animal) on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals. Maria do Socorro Ferraz da Costa, Marcos Pezzi Guimarães, Walter dos Santos Lima, Ana Julia Ferraz da Costa, Elias Jorge Facury Filho, and Ricardo Nascimento Araujo Copyright © 2014 Maria do Socorro Ferraz da Costa et al. All rights reserved. Influence of a Diester Glucocorticoid Spray on the Cortisol Level and the CCR4+ CD4+ Lymphocytes in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis: Open Study Mon, 22 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This study investigated the influence of 0.00584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray (HCA; Cortavance Virbac SA, Carros, France) on blood serum cortisol levels and peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Patients were randomly divided into group I () and group II (). The dogs in group I were sprayed with HCA on the affected skin once a day for three weeks. The dogs in group II were treated once a day for 3 days followed by no treatment for 4 days for a total of three weeks. For the dogs in group I and group II the CADESI-03 scores before and after use of HCA showed significant reduction (). The postcortisol level after the use of HCA in group I showed 36.0% decrease and showed significant suppression (). By comparison, the use of HCA on group II did not show decrease in postcortisol levels. There was a tendency of suppression for hypothalamus—pituitary gland—adrenal gland system, but it was not serious influence. In addition, there was no influence on peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ lymphocytes percentage in dogs in group I after treatment with HCA. Masato Fujimura and Hironobu Ishimaru Copyright © 2014 Masato Fujimura and Hironobu Ishimaru. All rights reserved. Trypanosomosis, Its Risk Factors, and Anaemia in Cattle Population of Dale Wabera District of Kellem Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia Tue, 16 Sep 2014 12:02:24 +0000 Cross-sectional study was conducted in Dale Wabera district of Kellem Wollega zone, Western Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and to evaluate association of bovine trypanosomosis to anaemia. Blood samples collected from 384 randomly selected cattle were subjected to parasitological and haematological analysis. For the parasitological survey, blood samples were examined using a buffy coat technique. The packed cell volume (PCV) value of each animal was also measured using hematocrit reader. The overall prevalence of trypanosomosis was 2.86%. The most common trypanosome species identified were Trypanosoma congolense (63.64%) followed by T. vivax (27.27%) and T. brucei (9%). The prevalence showed no significant difference in susceptibility between sex categories, age groups, and different body conditioned animals. The overall anaemia prevalence in the area was 19.27%. The anaemia prevalence was significantly higher in trypanosome positive cattle (54.54%) than in noninfected animals (18.23%) (). The mean PCV value of the infected animals was lower () compared to noninfected animals (). There was statistically significant difference () in the PCV values of infected and noninfected animals. In conclusion, this study confirmed that trypanosomosis poses a threat to cattle production in the area and also contributed to the occurrence of anaemia. Habtamu Biyazen, Reta Duguma, and Mebratu Asaye Copyright © 2014 Habtamu Biyazen et al. All rights reserved. Biochemical Effects of Xylazine, Propofol, and Ketamine in West African Dwarf Goats Sun, 14 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Anaesthesia was induced in West African Dwarf (WAD) goats using different combinations of propofol (P), xylazine (X), and ketamine (K), and the biochemical effect of the drugs determined. Twenty male (WAD) goats were randomly assigned to five treatment groups viz. Control (C) (2.5 mL IV normal saline); group K + X (5 mg/kg IV ketamine + 0.05 mg/kg IV xylazine), group P + X (5 mg/kg IV propofol + 0.05 mg/kg IV xylazine), group P + K (propofol 5 mg/kg IV + ketamine 5 mg/kg IV), and group P + K + X (propofol 2.5 mg/kg IV + ketamine 2.5 mg/kg IV + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg IV), respectively. There was increase () in blood glucose in K + X, P + X and P + K + X. The serum cortisol level increased () in all groups except in P + X. ALT value increased () in K + X, P + K, and P + K + X. BUN increased () in K + X but decreased () in P + K + X. There was no significant variation () in serum creatinine. These biochemical changes were transient. P + K + X would be the best drug combinations considering the biochemical parameter measured. However, data on blood glucose, ALT, BUN, and cortisol levels in an anaesthsized goat should be interpreted with caution in order to avoid erroneous interpretation in these animals. Ukwueze Celestine Okwudili, Eze Athanasius Chinedu, and Ona Jonas Anayo Copyright © 2014 Ukwueze Celestine Okwudili et al. All rights reserved. Antibiotic Types and Handling Practices in Disease Management among Pig Farms in Ashanti Region, Ghana Thu, 11 Sep 2014 07:55:58 +0000 Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is affected by the type of antibiotics used and how they are handled. The types of antibiotics used by 110 pig farms in the Ashanti region and the handling practices of the farmers during disease management were assessed. Injectable tetracycline, sulphadimidine, benzylpenicillin, and dihydrostreptomycin containing antibiotics were overly used by the farmers especially in the management of diarrhea, rashes, and coughs. Unsafe storage and disposal practices observed among the farms reflected the abysmal knowledge on appropriate use of antibiotics. Misdiagnosis and inadequate protection during antibiotic handling in the farms increased the risk of antibiotic resistance development and spread. The factors affecting antibiotic resistance development and spread are rife in pig farms in Ashanti region and appropriate education and veterinary interventions are needed to prevent resistant bacteria from becoming endemic in pork and pig farm communities. John Osei Sekyere Copyright © 2014 John Osei Sekyere. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Broiler Chicken Farms in Western Iran Wed, 10 Sep 2014 08:25:28 +0000 The main goal of current study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler farms in Hamedan province, western Iran. Chicks and fecal samples were collected in all of the 220 broiler farms in this region. All viscera were examined for gross pathological changes. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%; E. acervulina (75.7%), E. tenella (54.3%), E. necatrix (28.6%), and E. maxima (20%) were determined. Mixed infections were observed in all of the positive farms. There was a statistical significant difference among infection rate and age groups, dysentery, history of colibacilosis and clostridiosis in farm, and history of coccidiostats consumption, unlike to breed . This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in broiler farms in this region. Further additional researches and design control strategies for improving management in farms are necessary. Jamal Gharekhani, Zivar Sadeghi-Dehkordi, and Mohammadali Bahrami Copyright © 2014 Jamal Gharekhani et al. All rights reserved. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table Tue, 26 Aug 2014 08:49:33 +0000 The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF), which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected () between FSF and daily milk yield; pregnancy rates were 42.20% and 41.67% for the SC-FTAI and NSE-IA groups, respectively (). The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required. Lilido Nelson Ramírez-Iglesia, Rafael María Roman Bravo, Adelina Díaz de Ramirez, and Leandro J. Torres Copyright © 2014 Lilido Nelson Ramírez-Iglesia et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Infection with Sporulated Oocysts of Eimeria maxima (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in Broiler Tue, 26 Aug 2014 05:52:47 +0000 Through this study we assessed the metabolic and pathological changes in broilers experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria maxima. To perform the experiment, we used 150 broiler strain cooB males, with ten days of age, were randomized according to weight and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the control group was inoculated with 0.5 mL of distilled water; the infected group inoculated with 0.5 mL of solution containing sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. The live performance was evaluated on day 0 (day of inoculation), 5°, 10°, 15°, 25°, and 35° dpi, being slaughtered by cervical dislocation, fifteen birds/group. Although the sum in meat production was higher in the control group, the weight of the heart and gizzard of the experimental animals showed no significant difference, while the liver had difference on day 5°, 15°, and 35° dpi. The pathologic evaluation showed congested mucosa and presence of large amounts of mucus at 6 dpi. Therefore, it is concluded that the dose of  E. maxima inoculated in the experimental group was enough to cause harm to the animal organism. Luciana da S. Brito, Elder N. Pereira, Augusta A. da Silva, Vinícius Bentivóglio Costa Silva, and Fagner L. da C. Freitas Copyright © 2014 Luciana da S. Brito et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Evaluation of Midventral and Flank Laparotomy Approaches in Goat Sun, 24 Aug 2014 08:54:57 +0000 The aim of the study was to compare two laparotomy approaches (flank and midventral). Ten () apparently healthy goats of different breeds and sex, average age of months, and average weight of  kg were used for the investigation. The goats were randomly divided into flank and midventral groups, each group comprising five goats (). Standard aseptic laparotomy was performed under lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia with mild sedation. Postsurgical wound score showed significant difference () in erythema at 18–24 hours and 10–14 days after surgery between the two approaches; significant difference of dehiscence between the two groups was also recorded at 10–14 days after surgery. Total white blood cells (WBC) and lymphocytes counts were significantly different () at the first and second week after surgery. There was significant difference of platelets critical value and platelets dimension width at the first and second week after surgery. Significant difference of packed cells volume between the two approaches was also recorded one week after surgery. It was concluded that midventral laparotomy approach can be conveniently and safely performed under aseptic precautions without fear of intra- and postoperative clinical problems. A. A. Abubakar, R. A. Andeshi, A. S. Yakubu, F. M. Lawal, and U. Adamu Copyright © 2014 A. A. Abubakar et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Effect of Heterologous and Homologous Seminal Plasma on Motility and Chromatin Integrity of Stallion Spermatozoa Selected by Single Layer Centrifugation Wed, 20 Aug 2014 06:00:00 +0000 The effect on sperm motility and chromatin integrity of adding homologous or heterologous equine seminal plasma (SP) to fresh stallion spermatozoa selected by single layer centrifugation (SLC) was studied. No statistical difference in mean progressive motility was seen after adding SP at time 0 h, although there were differences for individual stallions. The proportion of spermatozoa with high velocity was increased compared to untreated SLC-selected spermatozoa (), with significant differences between individuals (). When the SLC samples were stored for 24 h before adding SP, a significant increase in mean progressive motility was seen for SLC + homologous SP () and for SLC + heterologous SP (). Whether homologous SP or heterologous SP had a greater effect on progressive motility depended on the individual. Adding either type of SP caused a significant increase in chromatin damage compared to SLC after storage for 24 h (homologous SP, ; heterologous SP, ). These preliminary data showed that storage of SLC-spermatozoa mixed with SP should be avoided because of the risk of increased chromatin damage. If SP is to be added to take advantage of a transient increase in progressive motility for a particular individual stallion, different combinations of SP and spermatozoa should be tested first to optimize the effect. J. M. Morrell and A. Johannisson Copyright © 2014 J. M. Morrell and A. Johannisson. All rights reserved. Hepatic Necrosis and Degenerative Myopathy Associated with Cassava Feeding in Pigs Tue, 12 Aug 2014 12:55:39 +0000 Forty-three deaths were recorded among pigs fed boiled cassava meal at a private piggery over a period of two years. There were signs of sudden death in some cases with blood exuding from the external nares, vomiting, muscular weakness and pain or reluctance to move, emaciation, and stunted growth. The necropsy lesions included skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration and necrosis, icterus, hepatic necrosis, and oedema of the dependent parts. The deaths and clinical signs are thought to be due to a non cyanide toxic principle in cassava, possibly the coumarins (scopoletin), which is found in high levels in cassava diet even after heat treatment. Therefore, the use of proper processing technology to obtain cassava products of high quality is recommended. Gloria Daniel-Igwe Copyright © 2014 Gloria Daniel-Igwe. All rights reserved.