Journal of Veterinary Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Assessment of Common Anaesthetic and Clinical Indices of Multimodal Therapy of Propofol, Xylazine, and Ketamine in Total Intravenous Anaesthesia in West African Dwarf Goat Sun, 19 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The assessment of anaesthetic and clinical indices of multimodal therapy of propofol, xylazine, and ketamine was done in West African Dwarf (WAD) goat. Sixteen healthy male WAD goats were assigned into four treatment groups, namely, control (group A) (ketamine 5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg), group B (propofol 5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg), group C (propofol 5 mg/kg + ketamine 5 mg/kg), and group D (propofol 2.5 mg/kg + ketamine 2.5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg). All drugs were administered intravenously. The multimodal therapy decreased significantly () the heart rate in groups A, B, and D. Also respiratory rate significantly () decreased in groups A, B, and D but significantly () increased at 20 min after induction in group C. However, temperature significantly () decreased in groups A, B, and C. The induction was good and smooth in groups B and D. Surgical anaesthetic time was longer in groups B and D and shorter in group C. The quality of recovery was good in groups B and D. Side effects such as salivation and apnoea were observed in all groups. In conclusion, the multimodal therapy could be used successfully. However, group D could be the best combination considering the parameters measured. Ukwueze Celestine Okwudili, Eze Chinedu Athanasius, and Udegbunam Rita Ijeoma Copyright © 2014 Ukwueze Celestine Okwudili et al. All rights reserved. Hemostatic Markers in Congestive Heart Failure Dogs with Mitral Valve Disease Thu, 16 Oct 2014 12:56:31 +0000 Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, D-dimer, antithrombin III (AT III), protein C (PC), factor VII (F.VII), and factor VIII (F.VIII), as well as hematocrit (HCT), platelets number (PLT), total plasma protein (TP), and albumin (ALB), were studied on fifty-eight congestive heart failure (CHF) dogs with mitral valve disease (MVD) and fifty control dogs. All of variables of MVD group, except APTT, were significantly different from control group. The variables were also compared among functional classes of CHF dogs and control dogs. It was determined that the higher the functional class of CHF dogs was, the greater the levels of fibrinogen and D-dimer were, whereas the lesser the activities of AT III and PC were presented. Additionally, TP had linear correlation with fibrinogen, D-dimer, HCT, and PLT (, 0.30, 0.43, and 0.38, resp., ). These findings suggested that fibrinogen and D-dimer were the factors predisposing hypercoagulability through an increase in blood viscosity. The hemorheological abnormalities would shift an overall hemostatic balance toward a more thrombotic state in CHF dogs with MVD. Kreangsak Prihirunkit, Amornrate Sastravaha, Chalermpol Lekcharoensuk, and Phongsak Chanloinapha Copyright © 2014 Kreangsak Prihirunkit et al. All rights reserved. Real-Time RT-PCR for the Detection of Lyssavirus Species Thu, 16 Oct 2014 10:02:32 +0000 The causative agents of rabies are single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses in the genus Lyssavirus of Rhabdoviridae, consisting of twelve classified and three as yet unclassified species including classical rabies virus (RABV). Highly neurotropic RABV causes rapidly progressive encephalomyelitis with nearly invariable fatal outcome. Rapid and reliable diagnosis of rabies is highly relevant for public and veterinary health. Due to growing variety of the genus Lyssavirus observed, the development of suitable molecular assays for diagnosis and differentiation is challenging. This work focused on the establishment of a suitable real-time RT-PCR technique for rabies diagnosis as a complement to fluorescent antibody test and rabies tissue culture infection test as gold standard for diagnosis and confirmation. The real-time RT-PCR was adapted with the goal to detect the whole spectrum of lyssavirus species, for nine of which synthesized DNA fragments were used. For the detection of species, seven probes were developed. Serial dilutions of the rabies virus strain CVS-11 showed a 100-fold higher sensitivity of real-time PCR compared to heminested RT-PCR. Using a panel of thirty-one lyssaviruses representing four species, the suitability of the protocol could be shown. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained by heminested PCR allowed correct classification of all viruses used. A. Deubelbeiss, M.-L. Zahno, M. Zanoni, D. Bruegger, and R. Zanoni Copyright © 2014 A. Deubelbeiss et al. All rights reserved. Seasonal Variation and Frequency Distribution of Ectoparasites in Crossbreed Cattle in Southeastern Brazil Wed, 08 Oct 2014 14:14:02 +0000 The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months), 40 heifers aged months were divided into groups A ( Holstein × 3/4 Gir) and B ( Holstein × Gir) and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low ( ticks/animal), with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans ( flies/animal) and D. hominis ( larvae/animal) on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals. Maria do Socorro Ferraz da Costa, Marcos Pezzi Guimarães, Walter dos Santos Lima, Ana Julia Ferraz da Costa, Elias Jorge Facury Filho, and Ricardo Nascimento Araujo Copyright © 2014 Maria do Socorro Ferraz da Costa et al. All rights reserved. Influence of a Diester Glucocorticoid Spray on the Cortisol Level and the CCR4+ CD4+ Lymphocytes in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis: Open Study Mon, 22 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This study investigated the influence of 0.00584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray (HCA; Cortavance Virbac SA, Carros, France) on blood serum cortisol levels and peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Patients were randomly divided into group I () and group II (). The dogs in group I were sprayed with HCA on the affected skin once a day for three weeks. The dogs in group II were treated once a day for 3 days followed by no treatment for 4 days for a total of three weeks. For the dogs in group I and group II the CADESI-03 scores before and after use of HCA showed significant reduction (). The postcortisol level after the use of HCA in group I showed 36.0% decrease and showed significant suppression (). By comparison, the use of HCA on group II did not show decrease in postcortisol levels. There was a tendency of suppression for hypothalamus—pituitary gland—adrenal gland system, but it was not serious influence. In addition, there was no influence on peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ lymphocytes percentage in dogs in group I after treatment with HCA. Masato Fujimura and Hironobu Ishimaru Copyright © 2014 Masato Fujimura and Hironobu Ishimaru. All rights reserved. Trypanosomosis, Its Risk Factors, and Anaemia in Cattle Population of Dale Wabera District of Kellem Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia Tue, 16 Sep 2014 12:02:24 +0000 Cross-sectional study was conducted in Dale Wabera district of Kellem Wollega zone, Western Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and to evaluate association of bovine trypanosomosis to anaemia. Blood samples collected from 384 randomly selected cattle were subjected to parasitological and haematological analysis. For the parasitological survey, blood samples were examined using a buffy coat technique. The packed cell volume (PCV) value of each animal was also measured using hematocrit reader. The overall prevalence of trypanosomosis was 2.86%. The most common trypanosome species identified were Trypanosoma congolense (63.64%) followed by T. vivax (27.27%) and T. brucei (9%). The prevalence showed no significant difference in susceptibility between sex categories, age groups, and different body conditioned animals. The overall anaemia prevalence in the area was 19.27%. The anaemia prevalence was significantly higher in trypanosome positive cattle (54.54%) than in noninfected animals (18.23%) (). The mean PCV value of the infected animals was lower () compared to noninfected animals (). There was statistically significant difference () in the PCV values of infected and noninfected animals. In conclusion, this study confirmed that trypanosomosis poses a threat to cattle production in the area and also contributed to the occurrence of anaemia. Habtamu Biyazen, Reta Duguma, and Mebratu Asaye Copyright © 2014 Habtamu Biyazen et al. All rights reserved. Biochemical Effects of Xylazine, Propofol, and Ketamine in West African Dwarf Goats Sun, 14 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Anaesthesia was induced in West African Dwarf (WAD) goats using different combinations of propofol (P), xylazine (X), and ketamine (K), and the biochemical effect of the drugs determined. Twenty male (WAD) goats were randomly assigned to five treatment groups viz. Control (C) (2.5 mL IV normal saline); group K + X (5 mg/kg IV ketamine + 0.05 mg/kg IV xylazine), group P + X (5 mg/kg IV propofol + 0.05 mg/kg IV xylazine), group P + K (propofol 5 mg/kg IV + ketamine 5 mg/kg IV), and group P + K + X (propofol 2.5 mg/kg IV + ketamine 2.5 mg/kg IV + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg IV), respectively. There was increase () in blood glucose in K + X, P + X and P + K + X. The serum cortisol level increased () in all groups except in P + X. ALT value increased () in K + X, P + K, and P + K + X. BUN increased () in K + X but decreased () in P + K + X. There was no significant variation () in serum creatinine. These biochemical changes were transient. P + K + X would be the best drug combinations considering the biochemical parameter measured. However, data on blood glucose, ALT, BUN, and cortisol levels in an anaesthsized goat should be interpreted with caution in order to avoid erroneous interpretation in these animals. Ukwueze Celestine Okwudili, Eze Athanasius Chinedu, and Ona Jonas Anayo Copyright © 2014 Ukwueze Celestine Okwudili et al. All rights reserved. Antibiotic Types and Handling Practices in Disease Management among Pig Farms in Ashanti Region, Ghana Thu, 11 Sep 2014 07:55:58 +0000 Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is affected by the type of antibiotics used and how they are handled. The types of antibiotics used by 110 pig farms in the Ashanti region and the handling practices of the farmers during disease management were assessed. Injectable tetracycline, sulphadimidine, benzylpenicillin, and dihydrostreptomycin containing antibiotics were overly used by the farmers especially in the management of diarrhea, rashes, and coughs. Unsafe storage and disposal practices observed among the farms reflected the abysmal knowledge on appropriate use of antibiotics. Misdiagnosis and inadequate protection during antibiotic handling in the farms increased the risk of antibiotic resistance development and spread. The factors affecting antibiotic resistance development and spread are rife in pig farms in Ashanti region and appropriate education and veterinary interventions are needed to prevent resistant bacteria from becoming endemic in pork and pig farm communities. John Osei Sekyere Copyright © 2014 John Osei Sekyere. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Broiler Chicken Farms in Western Iran Wed, 10 Sep 2014 08:25:28 +0000 The main goal of current study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler farms in Hamedan province, western Iran. Chicks and fecal samples were collected in all of the 220 broiler farms in this region. All viscera were examined for gross pathological changes. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%; E. acervulina (75.7%), E. tenella (54.3%), E. necatrix (28.6%), and E. maxima (20%) were determined. Mixed infections were observed in all of the positive farms. There was a statistical significant difference among infection rate and age groups, dysentery, history of colibacilosis and clostridiosis in farm, and history of coccidiostats consumption, unlike to breed . This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in broiler farms in this region. Further additional researches and design control strategies for improving management in farms are necessary. Jamal Gharekhani, Zivar Sadeghi-Dehkordi, and Mohammadali Bahrami Copyright © 2014 Jamal Gharekhani et al. All rights reserved. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table Tue, 26 Aug 2014 08:49:33 +0000 The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF), which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected () between FSF and daily milk yield; pregnancy rates were 42.20% and 41.67% for the SC-FTAI and NSE-IA groups, respectively (). The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required. Lilido Nelson Ramírez-Iglesia, Rafael María Roman Bravo, Adelina Díaz de Ramirez, and Leandro J. Torres Copyright © 2014 Lilido Nelson Ramírez-Iglesia et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Infection with Sporulated Oocysts of Eimeria maxima (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in Broiler Tue, 26 Aug 2014 05:52:47 +0000 Through this study we assessed the metabolic and pathological changes in broilers experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria maxima. To perform the experiment, we used 150 broiler strain cooB males, with ten days of age, were randomized according to weight and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the control group was inoculated with 0.5 mL of distilled water; the infected group inoculated with 0.5 mL of solution containing sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. The live performance was evaluated on day 0 (day of inoculation), 5°, 10°, 15°, 25°, and 35° dpi, being slaughtered by cervical dislocation, fifteen birds/group. Although the sum in meat production was higher in the control group, the weight of the heart and gizzard of the experimental animals showed no significant difference, while the liver had difference on day 5°, 15°, and 35° dpi. The pathologic evaluation showed congested mucosa and presence of large amounts of mucus at 6 dpi. Therefore, it is concluded that the dose of  E. maxima inoculated in the experimental group was enough to cause harm to the animal organism. Luciana da S. Brito, Elder N. Pereira, Augusta A. da Silva, Vinícius Bentivóglio Costa Silva, and Fagner L. da C. Freitas Copyright © 2014 Luciana da S. Brito et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Evaluation of Midventral and Flank Laparotomy Approaches in Goat Sun, 24 Aug 2014 08:54:57 +0000 The aim of the study was to compare two laparotomy approaches (flank and midventral). Ten () apparently healthy goats of different breeds and sex, average age of months, and average weight of  kg were used for the investigation. The goats were randomly divided into flank and midventral groups, each group comprising five goats (). Standard aseptic laparotomy was performed under lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia with mild sedation. Postsurgical wound score showed significant difference () in erythema at 18–24 hours and 10–14 days after surgery between the two approaches; significant difference of dehiscence between the two groups was also recorded at 10–14 days after surgery. Total white blood cells (WBC) and lymphocytes counts were significantly different () at the first and second week after surgery. There was significant difference of platelets critical value and platelets dimension width at the first and second week after surgery. Significant difference of packed cells volume between the two approaches was also recorded one week after surgery. It was concluded that midventral laparotomy approach can be conveniently and safely performed under aseptic precautions without fear of intra- and postoperative clinical problems. A. A. Abubakar, R. A. Andeshi, A. S. Yakubu, F. M. Lawal, and U. Adamu Copyright © 2014 A. A. Abubakar et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Effect of Heterologous and Homologous Seminal Plasma on Motility and Chromatin Integrity of Stallion Spermatozoa Selected by Single Layer Centrifugation Wed, 20 Aug 2014 06:00:00 +0000 The effect on sperm motility and chromatin integrity of adding homologous or heterologous equine seminal plasma (SP) to fresh stallion spermatozoa selected by single layer centrifugation (SLC) was studied. No statistical difference in mean progressive motility was seen after adding SP at time 0 h, although there were differences for individual stallions. The proportion of spermatozoa with high velocity was increased compared to untreated SLC-selected spermatozoa (), with significant differences between individuals (). When the SLC samples were stored for 24 h before adding SP, a significant increase in mean progressive motility was seen for SLC + homologous SP () and for SLC + heterologous SP (). Whether homologous SP or heterologous SP had a greater effect on progressive motility depended on the individual. Adding either type of SP caused a significant increase in chromatin damage compared to SLC after storage for 24 h (homologous SP, ; heterologous SP, ). These preliminary data showed that storage of SLC-spermatozoa mixed with SP should be avoided because of the risk of increased chromatin damage. If SP is to be added to take advantage of a transient increase in progressive motility for a particular individual stallion, different combinations of SP and spermatozoa should be tested first to optimize the effect. J. M. Morrell and A. Johannisson Copyright © 2014 J. M. Morrell and A. Johannisson. All rights reserved. Hepatic Necrosis and Degenerative Myopathy Associated with Cassava Feeding in Pigs Tue, 12 Aug 2014 12:55:39 +0000 Forty-three deaths were recorded among pigs fed boiled cassava meal at a private piggery over a period of two years. There were signs of sudden death in some cases with blood exuding from the external nares, vomiting, muscular weakness and pain or reluctance to move, emaciation, and stunted growth. The necropsy lesions included skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration and necrosis, icterus, hepatic necrosis, and oedema of the dependent parts. The deaths and clinical signs are thought to be due to a non cyanide toxic principle in cassava, possibly the coumarins (scopoletin), which is found in high levels in cassava diet even after heat treatment. Therefore, the use of proper processing technology to obtain cassava products of high quality is recommended. Gloria Daniel-Igwe Copyright © 2014 Gloria Daniel-Igwe. All rights reserved. Lactation Curve Pattern and Prediction of Milk Production Performance in Crossbred Cows Sun, 13 Jul 2014 10:05:40 +0000 Data pertaining to 11728 test-day daily milk yields of normal and mastitis Karan Fries cows were collected from the institute herd and divided as mastitis and nonmastitis and parity-wise. The data of lactation curves of the normal and mastitis crossbred cows was analyzed using gamma type function. FTDMY in normal and mastitis cows showed an increasing trend from TD-1 to TD-4 and a gradual decrease thereafter until the end of lactation (TD-21) in different parities. The FTDMY was maximum (peak yield) in the fourth parity. Parity-wise lactation curve revealed a decrease in persistency, steeper decline in descending slope (c), and steeper increase in ascending slope (b) from 1st to 5th and above parity. The higher coefficient of determination and lower root mean square error (RMSE) indicated goodness and accuracy of the model for the prediction of milk prediction performance under field conditions. Clinical mastitis resulted in a significantly higher loss of milk yield . The FTDMY was maximum in the fourth parity in comparison to the rest of parity. It is demonstrated that gamma type function can give the best fit lactation curve in normal and mastitis infected crossbred cows. Suresh Jingar, R. K. Mehla, Mahendra Singh, and A. K. Roy Copyright © 2014 Suresh Jingar et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Cefquinome (Cobactan 2.5%) following Repeated Intramuscular Administrations in Sheep and Goats Mon, 19 May 2014 12:10:26 +0000 The comparative pharmacokinetic profile of cefquinome was studied in sheep and goats following repeated intramuscular (IM) administrations of 2 mg/kg body weight. Cefquinome concentrations in serum were determined by microbiological assay technique using Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341) as test organism. Following intramuscular injection of cefquinome in sheep and goats, the disposition curves were best described by two-compartment open model in both sheep and goats. The pharmacokinetics of cefquinome did not differ significantly between sheep and goats; similar intramuscular dose rate of cefquinome should therefore be applicable to both species. On comparing the data of serum levels of repeated intramuscular injections with first intramuscular injection, it was revealed that repeated intramuscular injections of cefquinome have cumulative effect in both species sheep and goats. The in vitro serum protein-binding tendency was 15.65% in sheep and 14.42% in goats. The serum concentrations of cefquinome along 24 h after injection in this study were exceeding the MICs of different susceptible microorganisms responsible for serious disease problems. These findings indicate successful use of cefquinome in sheep and goats. Mohamed El-Hewaity, Amera Abd El Latif, Ahmed Soliman, and Mohamed Aboubakr Copyright © 2014 Mohamed El-Hewaity et al. All rights reserved. Phenotypical and Genotypical Properties of an Arcanobacterium pluranimalium Strain Isolated from a Juvenile Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) Wed, 30 Apr 2014 07:32:54 +0000 The present study was designed to characterize phenotypically and genotypically an Arcanobacterium pluranimalium strain (A. pluranimalium 4868) following necropsy from a juvenile giraffe. The species identity could be confirmed by phenotypical investigations and by MALDI-TOF MS analysis, by sequencing the 16S rDNA, pluranimaliumlysin encoding gene pla, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoding gene gap with sequence similarities to A. pluranimalium reference strain DSM 13483T of 99.2%, 89.9%, and 99.1%, respectively. To our knowledge, the present study is the first phenotypic and genotypic characterization of an A. pluranimalium strain isolated from a giraffe. Karin Risse, Karen Schlez, Tobias Eisenberg, Christina Geiger, Anna Balbutskaya, Osama Sammra, Christoph Lämmler, and Amir Abdulmawjood Copyright © 2014 Karin Risse et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Sweet Orange Fruit Waste Diets and Acidifier on Haematology and Serum Chemistry of Weanling Rabbits Sun, 06 Apr 2014 07:02:40 +0000 A total of thirty-five mixed breed (35) rabbits of average weight of 700 g aged 5-6 weeks were allocated to seven treatments in a completely randomised design to investigate the effect of sweet orange fruit waste (SOFW) and acidomix acidifier on haematology and serum chemistry. The diets were 0% SOFW, 10% SOFW with 0.5% acidomix, 10% SOFW with 0.7 acidomix, 15% SOFW with 0.5% acidifier, 15% SOFW with 0.7% acidifier, 20% SOFW with 0.5% acidifier, and 20% SOFW with 0.7% acidifier. Blood samples were analyzed for haemoglobin (hb) concentration, white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), differential WBC count (lymphocyte, basophil, eosinophil, monocyte, and neutrophil), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate amino transferase (AST), total protein, albumin, and globulin. There was no interaction between SOFW and acidifier for the haematological and most of the serum chemistry parameters but significant difference was observed in ALT; however the values were within the normal range. SOFW had no significant effect on all haematological and serum chemistry parameters. Acidomix had significant effect () on haemoglobin concentration; rabbits fed 0.5% acidomix diets had higher values which were within the normal range. It is therefore concluded that SOFW with acidifier up to 20% had no detrimental effect on serum chemistry and haematology. Oluremi Martha Daudu, Rahamatu Usman Sani, Iyetunde Ifeyori Adedibu, Lawrence Anebi Ademu, Gideon Shaibu Bawa, and Taiye Sunday Olugbemi Copyright © 2014 Oluremi Martha Daudu et al. All rights reserved. Disparities in Spatial Prevalence of Feline Retroviruses due to Data Aggregation: A Case of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem Thu, 20 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The knowledge of the spatial distribution feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections, which are untreatable, can inform on their risk factors and high-risk areas to enhance control. However, when spatial analysis involves aggregated spatial data, results may be influenced by the spatial scale of aggregation, an effect known as the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). In this study, area level risk factors for both infections in 28,914 cats tested with ELISA were investigated by multivariable spatial Poisson regression models along with MAUP effect on spatial clustering and cluster detection (for postal codes, counties, and states) by Moran’s test and spatial scan test, respectively. The study results indicate that the significance and magnitude of the association of risk factors with both infections varied with aggregation scale. Further more, Moran’s test only identified spatial clustering at postal code and county levels of aggregation. Similarly, the spatial scan test indicated that the number, size, and location of clusters varied over aggregation scales. In conclusion, the association between infection and area was influenced by the choice of spatial scale and indicates the importance of study design and data analysis with respect to specific research questions. Bimal K. Chhetri, Olaf Berke, David L. Pearl, and Dorothee Bienzle Copyright © 2014 Bimal K. Chhetri et al. All rights reserved. Further Studies on Arcanobacterium phocisimile: a Novel Species of Genus Arcanobacterium Thu, 06 Feb 2014 10:03:45 +0000 Arcanobacterium phocisimile, a newly described species with the type strain A. phocisimile  isolated from a vaginal swab of a harbour seal and four additional A. phocisimile strains also isolated from four harbour seals could reliably be identified by phenotypic properties, by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and by sequencing the genomic targets 16S rDNA and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region and the genes rpoB and gap. The A. phocisimile strains investigated in the present study were isolated together with several other bacterial species indicating that the pathogenic importance of A. phocisimile remains unclear. However, the detection of peptidic spectra by MALDI-TOF MS and the presented phenotypic and genotypic approach might help to identify A. phocisimile in future. Osama Sammra, Anna Balbutskaya, Muaz Hijazin, Samy Nagib, Jörg Alber, Christoph Lämmler, Amir Abdulmawjood, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff, Markus Timke, Markus Kostrzewa, and Ursula Siebert Copyright © 2014 Osama Sammra et al. All rights reserved. S100β Levels in CSF of Nonambulatory Dogs with Intervertebral Disk Disease Treated with Electroacupuncture Sun, 29 Dec 2013 11:46:42 +0000 The aim of the study was to investigate S100β levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of nonambulatory dogs with intervertebral disk disease treated with electroacupuncture: 10 dogs with thoracolumbar disk extrusion graded 3 to 5 (EA group) and 7 dogs without neurologic dysfunction (control group). All dogs regained ambulation. S100β was detected by Western blot analysis where EA group dogs were evaluated at two time points (M1 = before EA and M2 = when the dogs return ambulation) and at one time point from control group. In EA group dogs M1-S100β levels were significantly higher than in control group. EA group dogs were divided into subgroups A (—early motor recovery; days) and B (—late motor recovery; days). M1-S100β levels were similar between subgroups A and B. However, M2-S100β levels were significantly higher in subgroup B than in subgroup A. An elevated S100β levels were observed in dogs with late motor recovery. S100β may be associated with neuroplasticity following spinal cord injuries with intervertebral disk extrusion. Further studies with larger numbers of subjects and control group with affected dogs are necessary to investigate the relationship between neurotrophic factors and electroacupuncture stimulation. Ayne Murata Hayashi, Ana Carolina Brandão Campos Fonseca Pinto, Silvia Renata Gaido Cortopassi, Valdecir Marvulle, Jessica Ruivo Maximino, Gerson Chadi, and Julia Maria Matera Copyright © 2013 Ayne Murata Hayashi et al. All rights reserved. Profile of Some Trace Elements in the Liver of Camels, Sheep, and Goats in the Sudan Sat, 07 Dec 2013 11:56:12 +0000 One hundred camels (Camelus dromedaries) and fifty sheep and goats being adult, male, and apparently healthy field animals were studied to provide data regarding the normal values of some hepatic trace elements. Liver samples were collected during postmortem examination, digested, and analyzed for Cu, Zn, Fe, Co, and Mn using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that the differences in mean liver concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Co between camels, sheep, and goats were statistically significant (). Hepatic Cu, Fe, and Co concentrations were higher in camels than in sheep and goats. All liver samples were adequate for Fe and Co, whereas only camel liver was adequate for Cu. In camels, hepatic Zn concentration was inadequately lower than that in sheep and goats. No difference in Mn concentration was detected between camels, sheep, and goats. All liver samples were inadequate compared to free-ranging herbivores. In camels, significant correlation (, value = 0.04) was detected between Zn and Co, whereas in sheep significant correlation (, value = 0.026) was detected between Zn and Mn. No significant correlation between trace elements was detected in goats. Ibrahim Abdullah Ibrahim, Ali Mahmoud Shamat, Mohammed Osman Hussien, and Abdel Rahim Mohammed El Hussein Copyright © 2013 Ibrahim Abdullah Ibrahim et al. All rights reserved. Escherichia fergusonii Associated with Pneumonia in a Beef Cow Mon, 02 Dec 2013 14:43:56 +0000 An adult Angus cow developed hyperthermia, prostration, and respiratory distress, dying 36 hours after the onset of clinical signs. The main finding during postmortem examination was a severe focally extensive pneumonia. Icterus and a chronic mastitis were also noticed. Histologic examination of the lungs detected fibrinonecrotic pneumonia, with large number of oat cells and intralesional Gram-negative bacterial colonies. Samples from lung lesions were collected, and a pure growth of Escherichia fergusonii was obtained. E. fergusonii is a member of Enterobacteriaceae, related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. In veterinary medicine, E. fergusonii has been reported in calves and sheep with clinical cases suggestive of salmonellosis; in a horse and a goat with enteritis and septicemia; and in ostriches with fibrinonecrotic typhlitis. To our knowledge, this report represents the first description of E. fergusonii associated with an acute pneumonia in cattle. Guillermo M. Rimoldi and Robert B. Moeller Jr. Copyright © 2013 Guillermo M. Rimoldi and Robert B. Moeller. All rights reserved. A Limited Sampling, Simple, and Useful Method for Determination of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Cats by Using a New Accurate HPLC Method to Measure Iohexol Plasmatic Concentrations Tue, 12 Nov 2013 14:35:19 +0000 Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is still a highly underutilized tool in cats because available methods are not easy to be performed in clinical practice. Iohexol (IOX) has been shown to be a useful and reliable marker of GFR both in animals and in humans. The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid and reliable method for measuring IOX in feline plasma and to evaluate the accuracy of limited sampling models to establish a low-cost and clinically suitable GFR test. IOX concentrations were determined by using a new HPLC-UV method. GFR was assessed as plasma clearance of IOX, which was calculated by dividing dose administered by area under the curve of plasmatic concentration versus time (AUC), and indexed to body weight (BW). Correlation and agreement analysis between the GFR values obtained by a seven-point clearance method and the GFR values determined by the application of simplified sample combinations indicated that the 3-blood sample clearance model (5, 30, and 60 min) was the best simplified method because it provided an accurate GFR value in only one hour. The reported method is a simple and accurate way of GFR determination, which may be easily used in a clinical setting. Meucci Valentina, Guidi Grazia, Melanie Pierre, Breghi Gloria, and Lippi Ilaria Copyright © 2013 Meucci Valentina et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Different Amounts of Supplemental Selenium and Vitamin E on the Incidence of Retained Placenta, Selenium, Malondialdehyde, and Thyronines Status in Cows Treated with Prostaglandin F2α for the Induction of Parturition Thu, 07 Nov 2013 14:04:46 +0000 The incidence of retained placenta (RP) in cows increases in cases of parturition induced by prostaglandin F2α. We analyzed the effects of different doses of supplemental selenium and vitamin E on the incidence of RP, blood selenium, plasma thyronines, and malondialdehyde concentration. Thirty-three clinically healthy, multiparous Holstein-Frisian cows were assigned to 3 groups and supplemented with a single intramuscular injection of sodium selenite (SS) and tocopherol acetate (TAc) between days 250 to 255 of gestation: control—unsupplemented; group A—10 mg SS + 400 mg TAc; group B—20 mg SS + 800 mg TAc. Parturition was induced using PGF2α not before day 275 of gestation. The RP incidence was reduced from 66.7% in the control to 38.2 and 30.8% in groups A and B, respectively. Blood selenium and glutathione peroxidase activity in treated groups were significantly higher compared to control, with no significant difference between groups A and B. Plasma malondialdehyde in group B was significantly lower than that in control and group A, while thyronines levels were not affected. Comparison of RP and non-RP cows, independently of supplement treatment, revealed higher blood selenium and glutathione peroxidase activity and lower MDA and thyroxine in non-RP animals, while triiodothyronine level did not differ. Ivan B. Jovanović, Miljan Veličković, Dragan Vuković, Svetlana Milanović, Olivera Valčić, and Dragan Gvozdić Copyright © 2013 Ivan B. Jovanović et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Essential Oils and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Canine Skin Equivalents: Skin Lipid Assessment and Morphological Evaluation Wed, 06 Nov 2013 16:04:53 +0000 A canine skin equivalent model has been validated for the assessment of a topical formulation effects. Skin equivalents were developed from freshly isolated cutaneous canine fibroblasts and keratinocytes, after enzymatic digestion of skin samples () from different breeds. Fibroblasts were embedded into a collagen type I matrix, and keratinocytes were seeded onto its surface at air-liquid interface. Skin equivalents were supplemented with essential oils and polyunsaturated fatty acid formulation or with vehicle. Skin equivalents were histopathologically and ultrastructurally studied, and the three main lipid groups (free fatty acids, cholesterol, and ceramides) were analyzed. Results showed that the culture method developed resulted in significant improvements in cell retrieval and confluence. Treated samples presented a thicker epidermis with increased number of viable cell layers, a denser and compact stratum corneum, and a more continuous basal membrane. Regarding lipid profile, treated skin equivalents showed a significant increase in ceramide content () when compared to untreated () samples. Ultrastructural study evidenced a compact and well-organized stratum corneum in both treated and control skin equivalents. In conclusion, cell viability and ceramides increase, after lipid supplementation, are especially relevant for the treatment of skin barrier disruptions occurring in canine atopic dermatitis. S. Cerrato, L. Ramió-Lluch, D. Fondevila, D. Rodes, P. Brazis, and A. Puigdemont Copyright © 2013 S. Cerrato et al. All rights reserved. Reproductive Parameters of the Dogo Argentino Bitch Mon, 28 Oct 2013 15:11:52 +0000 The Dogo Argentino (DA) is the first and only breed from Argentina recognized worldwide. Although its morphologic features have been well established, its normal reproductive parameters are not clearly known. The aim of this study was to determine the main DA bitch reproductive parameters. One hundred and forty-nine surveys were obtained from breeders from Córdoba province, Argentina: one for each intact DA bitch from 1 to 14 years old. The DA bitch reached puberty at an average of 8.93 months. The mean duration of vulval bleeding found in this study was 11.11 days. The clinical signs characteristic for proestrous-estrous were vulval edema (89.93%), bleeding during the time of mating (32.21%), holding the tail to the side (95.30%), and docility during mating (85.91%). DA bitches had a whelping rate of 84%. Out of 299 pregnancies, 89.30% exhibited a normal parturition, 6.69% presented dystocia, 2.68% needed Cesarean section, and 1.34% aborted. In conclusion, the reproductive parameters of the DA bitch are similar to those identified for other large breeds. DA often showed a prolonged vulval bleeding longer than proestrus. Its high whelping rate, its low incidence of dystocia, and its good maternal ability define the DA as a good reproductive breed with normal reproductive functions. Marina Caffaratti, Griselda González, Nora Gorla, and Corina Guendulain Copyright © 2013 Marina Caffaratti et al. All rights reserved. Frequency and Clinical Epidemiology of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Dogs Infested with Ticks from Sinaloa, Mexico Thu, 24 Oct 2013 09:31:08 +0000 Ehrlichia canis is a rickettsial intracellular obligate bacterial pathogen and agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. The prevalence of this disease in veterinary medicine can vary depending on the diagnostic method used and the geographic location. One hundred and fifty-two canine blood samples from six veterinary clinics and two shelters from Sinaloa State (Mexico) were analyzed in this study. All animals were suspected of having Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME). The diagnostic methods used were the ELISA (Snap4Dx, IDEXX) together with blood smear and platelet count. From all dogs blood samples analyzed, 74.3% were positive to E. canis by ELISA and 40.1% were positive by blood smear. The sensitivity and specificity observed in the ELISA test were 78.8% and 86.7%. In addition, thrombocytopenia was presented in 87.6% of positive dogs. The predominant clinical manifestations observed were fever, anorexia, depression, lethargy, and petechiae. Consequently, this is the first report in which the morulae were visualized in the blood samples, and E. canis-specific antibodies were detected in dogs from Sinaloa, Northwest of Mexico. Carolina Guadalupe Sosa-Gutierrez, Maria Teresa Quintero Martinez, Soila Maribel Gaxiola Camacho, Silvia Cota Guajardo, Maria D. Esteve-Gassent, and María-Guadalupe Gordillo-Pérez Copyright © 2013 Carolina Guadalupe Sosa-Gutierrez et al. All rights reserved. Whole Body Computed Tomography with Advanced Imaging Techniques: A Research Tool for Measuring Body Composition in Dogs Thu, 10 Oct 2013 15:09:40 +0000 The use of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate obesity in canines is limited. Traditional CT image analysis is cumbersome and uses prediction equations that require manual calculations. In order to overcome this, our study investigated the use of advanced image analysis software programs to determine body composition in dogs with an application to canine obesity research. Beagles and greyhounds were chosen for their differences in morphology and propensity to obesity. Whole body CT scans with regular intervals were performed on six beagles and six greyhounds that were subjected to a 28-day weight-gain protocol. The CT images obtained at days 0 and 28 were analyzed using software programs OsiriX, ImageJ, and AutoCAT. The CT scanning technique was able to differentiate bone, lean, and fat tissue in dogs and proved sensitive enough to detect increases in both lean and fat during weight gain over a short period. A significant difference in lean : fat ratio was observed between the two breeds on both days 0 and 28 (). Therefore, CT and advanced image analysis proved useful in the current study for the estimation of body composition in dogs and has the potential to be used in canine obesity research. Dharma Purushothaman, Barbara A. Vanselow, Shu-Biao Wu, Sarah Butler, and Wendy Yvonne Brown Copyright © 2013 Dharma Purushothaman et al. All rights reserved. Sternal Aspiration of Bone Marrow in Dogs: A Practical Approach for Canine Leishmaniasis Diagnosis and Monitoring Sat, 28 Sep 2013 16:33:41 +0000 Bone-marrow aspirate material is commonly considered as one of the most sensitive tissues for a reliable diagnosis of leishmaniasis. The procedure herein described may permit less experienced veterinarians to be familiar with a quick and safe assessment method for leishmaniasis diagnosis in their patients. Animals are positioned in right lateral recumbency, and the area corresponding to the second, third, or fourth sternebra is identified and aseptically prepared. A 18-gauge needle connected to a 10 mL syringe is driven through the skin, up to the bone wall, and firmly pushed forward while rotating. Entry into the sternebra’s cavity is clearly perceived by the fall of resistance offered by the cortex. Some 2,500 sternal bone-marrow samplings were safely and efficiently performed on 887 dogs of different breeds and aging from 6 months to 14 years, during eight years of clinical activity for routine diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis in pets or for the efficacy evaluation of anti-Leishmania immunobiologicals in dogs naturally exposed to parasite transmission. Most of the samples (1716) were from 387 dogs enrolled for anti-Leishmania vaccine studies. The safety of the method was particularly assessed on these dogs that as per study protocol were submitted to repeated bone-marrow aspirations (2–4 per year) in follow-up examinations. Rosa Paparcone, Eleonora Fiorentino, Silvia Cappiello, Manuela Gizzarelli, Luigi Gradoni, Gaetano Oliva, and Valentina Foglia Manzillo Copyright © 2013 Rosa Paparcone et al. All rights reserved.