Journal of Waste Management The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Advanced Design of Separated Household Waste Collection Systems on the Base of GIS Modelling Thu, 11 Sep 2014 09:14:34 +0000 The Hungarian waste management sector is under transformation now. The new (2012/CLXXXV) Law on the Waste applies requirements on the players of the waste market that will result in the reorganization of the whole waste management industrial sector. The aim of the system transformation is enhancing the proportion of separately treated waste in accordance with the EU directives. Emerging waste quantities to be separately treated means challenge for the existing logistic capacities (e.g., collector vehicles); thus evaluation of their actual efficiency and utilization seems to be useful in the course of the transformation. With this object in view, a new separated waste collection system planning approach and a software module were developed on the base of a geographic information system (GIS) platform. The software module was designed to help choose and localize the appropriate collection methods and define the logistically effective collector vehicle routes according to the settlement structures of urban environments. Richard Ladanyi Copyright © 2014 Richard Ladanyi. All rights reserved. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of Cadmium Resistant Pseudomonas sp. M3 from Industrial Wastewater Sun, 07 Sep 2014 09:29:26 +0000 The present study deals with the isolation, identification, and characterization of the cadmium resistant bacteria from wastewater collected from industrial area of Penang, Malaysia. The isolate was selected based on high level of the cadmium and antibiotic resistances. On the basis of morphological, biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogeny analysis revealed that the strain RZCd1 was authentically identified as Pseudomonas sp. M3. The industrial isolate showed more than 70% of the cadmium removal in log phase. The cadmium removal capacity of strain RZCd1 was affected by temperature and pH. At pH 7.0 and 35°C, strain RZCd1 showed maximum cadmium removal capacity. The minimal inhibitory concentration of strain RZCd1 against the cadmium was 550 µg/mL. The resistance against the cadmium was associated with resistance to multiple antibiotics: amoxicillin, penicillin, cephalexin, erythromycin, and streptomycin. The strain RZCd1 also gave thick bands of proteins in front of 25 kDa in cadmium stress condition after 3 h of incubation. So the identified cadmium resistant bacteria may be useful for the bioremediation of cadmium contaminated industrial wastewater. Syed Zaghum Abbas, Mohd Rafatullah, Norli Ismail, and Japareng Lalung Copyright © 2014 Syed Zaghum Abbas et al. All rights reserved. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, Ghana Tue, 02 Sep 2014 13:21:09 +0000 The rapid increase in urban population due to the influx of the citizenry in search for better conditions of life has resulted in poor environmental conditions in most urban and peri-urban settlements in the country. Municipal solid waste management (MSW) for that matter has become problematic within Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis as the city is being inundated with so much filth which has proven to be very difficult and seemingly impossible for the municipal authorities to tackle. This study investigates the nature of solid waste problem in Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis. A mixed methodological approach including field investigation, questionnaire survey, and structured and face-to-face interviews were employed in the gathering of data for the study. The key findings established to be the factors affecting effective solid waste management in the metropolis are irregular solid waste collection, inadequate operational funding, inappropriate technologies, inadequate staffing, inadequate skip, and lack of cooperation on the part of the citizenry. Bernard Fei-Baffoe, Eugene Atta Nyankson, and John Gorkeh-Miah Copyright © 2014 Bernard Fei-Baffoe et al. All rights reserved. Utilization of Brine Sludge in Nonstructural Building Components: A Sustainable Approach Thu, 21 Aug 2014 13:14:23 +0000 The characterization and influence of brine sludge on the properties of cement-fly ash-sludge binders are presented. The reaction products formed during the hydration of binder provide an interlocking framework to physically encapsulate the waste particles and are responsible for the development of strength. The utilization of brine sludge in making paver blocks and bricks and the effect of sludge concentration on the engineering properties of these products are also discussed. These results clearly exhibited that brine sludge up to 35 and 25% can safely be utilized for making paver blocks and bricks, respectively. The leachability studies confirm that the metals ions and impurities in the sludge are substantially fixed in the matrix and do not readily leach from there. The utilization of brine sludge in construction materials could serve as an alternative solution to disposal and reduce pollution. Mridul Garg and Aakanksha Pundir Copyright © 2014 Mridul Garg and Aakanksha Pundir. All rights reserved. Community Mapping and Theory of Planned Behavior as Study Tools for Solid Waste Management Thu, 21 Aug 2014 06:05:19 +0000 Many cities have encountered problems with uncollected solid waste. Separate disposal of recyclable waste is viewed as the most effective procedure in waste management. However, this requires the cooperation of the people in the community. Community mapping is the most effective tool for understanding a community but it does not address possible ways to change people’s behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior was the basis for this study of recycling behavior as it offers methods for changing people’s habits. However, the theory does not provide guidance on how to facilitate the use of recycling bins in the community. Many recycling projects have been unsuccessfully implemented due to the fact that most people do not want waste bins placed near their houses. Therefore, both of these effective tools were combined in this study, which propose an effective implementation method for community solid waste management. Chainarong Apinhapath Copyright © 2014 Chainarong Apinhapath. All rights reserved. Validation of Two-Phase Flow Model for Leachate Recirculation in Bioreactor Landfills Wed, 20 Aug 2014 10:39:51 +0000 A numerical two-phase flow model is presented to determine the moisture distribution and pore water and gas pressures within unsaturated municipal solid waste (MSW) in bioreactor landfills during leachate recirculation. The numerical model used is the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC), which is based on finite difference approach. The model governing equations and mathematical formulations is briefly explained. Validation of the model is examined by simulating the published laboratory and field studies and published modeling studies. Overall, the two-phase flow model is found to produce results comparable with those of the published studies. This assures that the model can be used for the prediction of moisture distribution and for the rational design of leachate recirculation systems in bioreactor landfills. Krishna R. Reddy, Rajiv K. Giri, and Hanumanth S. Kulkarni Copyright © 2014 Krishna R. Reddy et al. All rights reserved. Valorization and Miscellaneous Prospects of Waste Musa balbisiana Colla Pseudostem Sun, 17 Aug 2014 09:31:19 +0000 Resourceful utilization of the enormous quantum of agrowastes generated via agricultural practices can be supportive in waste management, environmental upgradation, and subsequent material and energy recovery. In this regard, the present study aimed at highlighting waste banana (Musa balbisiana Colla) pseudostem (an agrowaste) as a potential bio-based feedstock with miscellaneous applications. The pseudostem was characterized by carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen (CHN) analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TGDTA), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were estimated as a part of biochemical characterization. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were carried out as a part of antioxidant characterization. The waste banana pseudostem biomass (WBPB) was also tried successfully as a natural filler in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymer composite. Thermal properties and water uptake test of the WBPB polymer composite were accessed as a part of composite characterization. The pseudostem had calorific value (15.22 MJ/kg), high holocellulose (58.67%), high free radical scavenging potential (69.9%), and a low ash content (6.8%). Additionally, the WBPB polymer composite showed improved water resistance and thermostability. The study suggests feasibility of WBPB as a prospective bioenergy feedstock, primary antioxidant source, and reinforcing agent in polymer composites. Krishna Gogoi, Mayur Mausoom Phukan, Nipu Dutta, Salam Pradeep Singh, Pitambar Sedai, Bolin Kumar Konwar, and Tarun Kumar Maji Copyright © 2014 Krishna Gogoi et al. All rights reserved. Knowledge on Hospital Waste Management among Senior Staff Nurses Working in a Selected Medical College Hospital of Bangladesh Sun, 17 Aug 2014 08:37:23 +0000 Background. Healthcare wastes include all types of wastes generated by healthcare establishments. Waste disposal problem is growing with an ever-increasing number of hospitals, clinics, and diagnostic laboratories in Bangladesh and also in Faridpur town. Aim and Objective. The outcomes of this study will contribute to increase proper waste management practice among nurses in Bangladesh. Methods. A descriptive type of cross sectional study design was used to assess the level of knowledge regarding hospital waste management among senior staff nurses working in Faridpur Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh. All respondents () were selected by random sampling. Results. In the answer of knowledge about general waste only 4% () gave all correct answers. In the answer of knowledge about infectious waste 63.2% () gave one correct answer, of knowledge about pharmaceutical waste only 8% () gave all correct answers, and of knowledge about biomedical waste only 7.2% () gave all correct answers. In the answer of knowledge about color coded bins collecting waste 53.6% () cannot give any correct answer and only 46.4% () gave all correct answers and of knowledge about the safe disposal of hospital waste 16% () could not give any correct answer. However, against all questions were 5 options. Conclusion. Knowledge about hospital waste and its management is very poor among senior staff nurses. As a recommendation to improve this situation continuous training should be made compulsory for healthcare personnel specially staff nurses working in Bangladesh. Mohammad Nasir Uddin, Mohammad Rashedul Islam, and Khadiza Yesmin Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Nasir Uddin et al. All rights reserved. Bacterial Treatment and Metal Characterization of Biomedical Waste Ash Wed, 13 Aug 2014 09:21:44 +0000 Biomedical waste ash generated due to the incineration of biomedical waste contains large amounts of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which is disposed of in regular landfills, and results in unfavorable amounts of hazardous materials seeping into the ground and may pollute surface water and groundwater. Therefore, it is essential to remove the toxicity of ash before disposal into landfills or reutilization. Environmental characteristic analysis of BMW ash showed increased hardness (1320 mg/L) and chloride (8500 mg/L) content in leachate compared to World Health Organization (WHO) and Environment Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines for drinking water (hardness, 300 mg/L; chloride, 250 mg/L). The alkalinity and pH of the ash leachate were 400 mg/L and 8.35, respectively. In this paper, study was carried out to investigate the metal tolerance level of bacterial isolates isolated from soil. The isolate Bacillus sp. KGMDI can tolerate up to 75 mg/L of metal concentration (Mn, Mo, Cr, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in enriched growth medium. This shows that the isolated culture is capable of growing in presence of high concentration of heavy metals and acts as potential biological tool to reduce the negative impact of BMW ash on the environment during landfilling. Shelly Heera, Kunal, and Anita Rajor Copyright © 2014 Shelly Heera et al. All rights reserved. Two-Stage Dry Anaerobic Digestion of Beach Cast Seaweed and Its Codigestion with Cow Manure Thu, 17 Jul 2014 07:37:33 +0000 Two-stage, dry anaerobic codigestion of seaweed and solid cow manure was studied on a laboratory scale. A methane yield of 0.14 L/g VSadded was obtained when digesting solid cow manure in a leach bed process and a methane yield of 0.16 L/g VSadded and 0.11 L/g VSadded was obtained from seaweed and seaweed/solid manure in a two-stage anaerobic process, respectively. The results showed that it was beneficial to operate the second stage methane reactor for the digestion of seaweed, which produced 83% of the methane, while the remainder was produced in the first leach bed reactor. Also, the two-stage system was more stable for the codigestion for seaweed and manure when compared to their separate digestion. In addition, the initial ammonia inhibition observed for manure digestion and the acidification of the leach bed reactor in seaweed digestion were both avoided when the materials were codigested. The seaweed had a higher Cd content of 0.2 mg Cd/kg TS than the manure, 0.04 mg Cd/kg TS, and presents a risk of surpassing limit values set for fertiliser quality of seaweed digestate. Evaluation of the heavy metal content of seaweed or a mixture of seaweed and manure digestate is recommended before farmland application. Valentine Nkongndem Nkemka, Jorge Arenales-Rivera, and Marika Murto Copyright © 2014 Valentine Nkongndem Nkemka et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Enterprise Profile and Composition of Solid Waste Generated in the Informal Sector of Gweru, Zimbabwe Wed, 11 Jun 2014 07:00:16 +0000 This paper examines the characteristics of solid waste generated in the informal sector enterprises of Gweru, the third largest city in Zimbabwe. Samples from the informal sector enterprises were collected in plastic bags and labelled with unique identity marks. The segregated components were measured to determine percentages of total weight of a sample. The data collected during the two seasons were analysed statistically using ANOVA to identify key similarities and differences. The major components of the waste stream include food and vegetable wastes in the market areas (from 18 to 51% of total weight), metals in the industrial areas (from 19 to 36%), and paper in the residential suburbs and markets (9–11% of total weight). The biodegradable waste stream dominates in the market areas of Kudzanai and Kombayi where it constitutes an average of 57.1% of waste generated in these areas. Establishing biodegradability of solid waste is essential because the majority of environmental and health problems associated with waste generated in the enterprises are caused by the biodegradable components. In order to come up with a sustainable and comprehensive waste management plan for the informal sector of Gweru, an up-to-date database on the composition and characteristics of the waste is a primary requirement. Steven Jerie Copyright © 2014 Steven Jerie. All rights reserved. Human Hair “Waste” and Its Utilization: Gaps and Possibilities Sun, 27 Apr 2014 12:56:11 +0000 Human hair is considered a waste material in most parts of the world and its accumulation in waste streams causes many environmental problems; however, it has many known uses. Preventing waste of such a material requires both addressing the problems in the current usage and developing its utilization systems at locations where they are missing. With focus on developing systematic utilization of human hair waste, this paper first reviews the possible uses of human hair gathered from large scale trades, local/traditional knowledge, upcoming innovations, and scientific research; along with the socioeconomic systems that have evolved around the known uses. Concerns and gaps in these systems are identified and possible directions to address these gaps are discussed. For expanding hair utilization to new contexts, important considerations such as knowledge, skill, and technology requirements and potential markets are discussed. Finally, a policy framework for socially and environmentally healthy utilization of human hair is outlined. This study shows that human hair is a highly versatile material with significant potential in several critical areas such as agriculture, medical applications, construction materials, and pollution control. Moreover, these uses are diverse enough for entrepreneurs ranging from unskilled to highly technical individuals and for the wide variety of human hair waste available in different locations. Ankush Gupta Copyright © 2014 Ankush Gupta. All rights reserved. Performance Assessment of Solid Waste Management following Private Partnership Operations in Lagos State, Nigeria Thu, 17 Apr 2014 13:30:14 +0000 The strategy of delivering modern, high quality public services and promoting competition in the waste management sector leads to formation of private sector participation (PSP) to handle solid waste management in Lagos State. The findings depict that quality of service among the PSP operators recorded high success in the high income areas than those of the low and medium income areas. On the average, industry productivity was 6.63 tonnes per day per vehicle. 18 out of 30 companies in the study area were above this average and in meeting increased productivity, year of experience in operations, number of trips made, number of times trucks were serviced, and adhering to regulatory agency requirement were among the factors influencing company’s productivity in the state. The study, therefore, recommends that regulatory agency should be more aggressive in playing its statutory roles of managing the PSP operators. Agboje Ifeoma Anestina, Adeoti Adetola, and Irhivben Bright Odafe Copyright © 2014 Agboje Ifeoma Anestina et al. All rights reserved. Wastes to Reduce Emissions from Automotive Diesel Engines Mon, 10 Feb 2014 15:59:19 +0000 The objective of the study was actually the investigation of the effect of various treatments on the ability of urine in absorbing greenhouse gases. Urine alone or mixed with olive-oil-mill waste waters (O), poultry litter (P), or sewage sludge (S) was used on the absorption of CO2 and NOx from diesel exhaust. The absorption coefficient (0.98–0.29 g CO2/grNH4) was similar to other solvents such as ammonia and amines. The ranges of CO2 absorption(1.7–5.6) g/l and NO reduction (0.9–3.7) g/l in six hours indicate that on average 20 litres of urine could be needed to capture CO2 and vehicle emissions from each covered kilometre. The best results of CO2 absorption and reduction were for urine mixed with O, P and urine alone. These wastes could be used to capture CO2 and from automotive diesel engines to reduce gas emissions. The proposed strategy requires further research to increase CO2 absorption and reduce the risks associated with waste-water reuse. Manuel Jiménez Aguilar Copyright © 2014 Manuel Jiménez Aguilar. All rights reserved. Metabolism of Chicken Feathers and Concomitant Electricity Generation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Employing Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) Thu, 09 Jan 2014 08:12:54 +0000 Keratinolytic potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SDS3 has been evaluated for the metabolism of chicken feathers. Results indicated that strain SDS3 showed complete metabolism of 0.1 and 0.5% (w/v) chicken feathers in minimal medium. Feathers were metabolized up to 80% at 1% (w/v) concentration. Maximum soluble protein ( μg/mL) and keratinase ( U/mL) were observed in the presence of 1% chicken feathers after five days of incubation. The effect of carbon and nitrogen sources showed that feather degradation was stimulated by complex carbon/nitrogen sources such as starch, malt extract, tryptone, and beef extract and was inhibited by simple carbon and nitrogen sources. Electricity production by employing chicken feathers as a substrate in microbial fuel cell (MFC) was evaluated. It was observed that maximum voltage corresponding to 141 mV was observed after 14 days of incubation. Maximum power density of 1206.78 mW/m2 and maximum current density of 8.6 mA/m2 were observed. The results clearly indicate that chicken feathers can be successfully employed as a cheap substrate for electricity production in MFC. This is the first report showing employment of chicken feathers as substrate in MFC. Venkatesh Chaturvedi and Pradeep Verma Copyright © 2014 Venkatesh Chaturvedi and Pradeep Verma. All rights reserved. An Integrated Approach of Using Polystyrene Foam as an Attachment System for Growth of Mixed Culture of Cyanobacteria with Concomitant Treatment of Copper Mine Waste Water Tue, 31 Dec 2013 10:59:58 +0000 Cyanobacteria have tremendous applications in areas such as production of biofuels and pharmaceutically important pigments and are used as an adsorbent for the removal of toxic metabolites. However, large scale production of Cyanobacteria is not economically feasible due to high cost involved in separation of biomass. In this context, different attachment systems have been developed for the growth of Cyanobacteria on a solid support. In this study, a simple and economical attachment system using polystyrene foam for growth of Cyanobacteria has been presented. Results clearly indicate that high biomass yield can be obtained in attached system when compared to suspended system. In attachment system, the biomass yield showed 21.4%, total protein content showed 29.2%, chlorophyll content showed 11.1%, and carotenoid content showed 13.1% increase as compared to the suspended system. The attachment system can also support the growth of Cyanobacteria in presence of copper mine waste water with concomitant removal of copper ions. These results were corroborated by COD analysis, which indicated significant reduction. Further, copper removal was high in attached system as compared to suspended system. It appears that attachment system offers protection for growing Cyanobacteria and can be effectively employed for growing Cyanobacteria in presence of waste water coming from different sources. Venkatesh Chaturvedi, Monika Chandravanshi, Manoj Rahangdale, and Pradeep Verma Copyright © 2013 Venkatesh Chaturvedi et al. All rights reserved. Vermicomposting: Tool for Sustainable Ruminant Manure Management Thu, 26 Dec 2013 19:09:37 +0000 Ruminants are important sources of meat and milk. Their production is associated with manure excretion. Estimates of over 3,900,000 million metric tonnes of manure are produced daily from ruminants worldwide. Storage and spread of this waste on land pose health risks and environmental problems. Efficient and sustainable way of handling ruminant manure is required. Composting and vermicomposting are considered two of the best techniques for solid biomass waste management. This paper presents vermicomposting as an effective tool for ruminant manure management. Vermicomposting is a mesophilic biooxidation and stabilisation process of organic materials that involves the joint action of earthworm and microorganism. Compared with composting, vermicomposting has higher rate of stabilisation and it is greatly modifying its physical and biochemical properties, with low C : N ratio and homogenous end product. It is also costeffective and ecofriendly waste management. Due to its innate biological, biochemical and physicochemical properties, vermicomposting can be used to promote sustainable ruminant manure management. Vermicomposts are excellent sources of biofertiliser and their addition improves the physiochemical and biological properties of agricultural soils. In addition, earthworms from the vermicomposting can be used as source of protein to fishes and monogastric animals. Vermicompost can also be used as raw materials for bioindustries. A. Nasiru, N. Ismail, and M. H. Ibrahim Copyright © 2013 A. Nasiru et al. All rights reserved. Impact of ISO 14001 Environmental Management System on Key Environmental Performance Indicators of Selected Gold Mining Companies in Ghana Tue, 10 Dec 2013 17:37:20 +0000 The impact of ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) on waste management, noise level, air quality, energy consumption, and number of reported environmental incidents as key environmental performance indicators was assessed. The assessment was based on annual and monthly environmental data and report from the selected gold mining companies (Gold Field Ghana Limited (GFGL) and AngloGold Ashanti (AGA)) before and after the implementation of the management system. Interviews with environmental managers and staff as well as field observations were also conducted. The results show that the implementation of ISO 14001 EMS by the two gold mining companies led to significant environmental improvements, particularly in waste management, reported environmental incidents, and energy consumption. Segregation of waste was adopted in both companies to ensure appropriate disposal mechanisms to mitigate pollution. Energy consumption significantly decreased in AGA following certification because of the energy conservation policy adopted by the company. In addition, the implementation of the standard brought significant increase in the total number of reported environmental incidents due to the incident reporting protocol inherent in the environmental management system. In all, it was clear that the management system is related to the environmental objectives and targets of the individual organisations and commitment towards fulfilment of the set objectives. Bernard Fei-Baffoe, Godsgood K. Botwe-Koomson, Isaac Fimpong Mensa-Bonsu, and Eric Appiah Agyapong Copyright © 2013 Bernard Fei-Baffoe et al. All rights reserved. Removal of Olive Mill Wastewater Phenolics with the Use of a Polyphenol Oxidase Homogenate from Potato Peel Waste Mon, 09 Dec 2013 14:27:40 +0000 Olive mill wastewater (OMW) originating from a two-phase olive oil producing plant was treated with a crude polyphenol oxidase (PPO) homogenate, prepared from potato waste peels. The treatments carried out were based on a 23-full-factorial, central composite design (CCD) in order to identify optimal operational conditions with regard to polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration, pH, and treatment duration. The treatment performance was assessed by estimating the % reduction in total polyphenol (TP) concentration. The model obtained produced a satisfactory fitting of the data (, ). The utilisation of the predictive model enabled the theoretical calculation of the optimal set of conditions, which were ,  h, and [PEG] = 900 mg L−1. Under these conditions, the optimal theoretical % removal calculated was . Examination of the treated samples with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the potato homogenate afforded changes in the polyphenolic profile. Based on the experimental evidence, oxidation pathways were proposed. Florin Daniel Demian and Dimitris P. Makris Copyright © 2013 Florin Daniel Demian and Dimitris P. Makris. All rights reserved. Utilization of Six Sigma in Quality Improvement of Recycled Aggregates Concrete Sat, 30 Nov 2013 12:13:56 +0000 The use of recycled demolished concrete in producing new concrete is an established method to improve sustainability through reducing the environmental impact of using virgin aggregates and through reducing construction waste. Six sigma is a set of tools and strategies for process improvement. In this paper, the six sigma DMAIC methodology is utilized to optimize the design parameters in order to improve and assure the quality of the resulting recycled aggregate concrete. The project aims to produce concrete with compressive strength of 25 MPa without using additives. Five parameters were used in the initial analysis that were reduced to three after refinement. The refined parameters are the ratio of recycled coarse aggregates, the ratio of recycled fine aggregates, and the water/cement ratio. It was concluded that the optimum values for the three parameters are 26%, 30%, and 0.5, in order. Mohamad Terro, Moetaz El-Hawary, Rana Al-Fares, and Mark Goldstein Copyright © 2013 Mohamad Terro et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Technology for Treating Wastewater Contaminated with Nitric Acid Tue, 02 Jul 2013 08:17:53 +0000 The production process of nitroaromatic hazardous compounds, with the generation of acidic wastewater, represents a significant danger for the health and safety of the workers and the environment. The present study is focused on the development of an efficient installation to treat acidic wastewater resulting from the synthesis process of nitroaromatic compound, considering workers safety and environmental criteria. In this research, a detailed study of the different alternatives that can be used for effective and safe treatment of acidic wastewater was performed. The analysis of several technological schemes for the acidic wastewaters neutralization and the selection of the most feasible alternative from a technical-economic point of view were carried out. The simulation and mathematical modeling developed in this research represent a significant advance in the knowledge of this process for working in a much more secure form. The technological scheme of the process was defined, and the design of the main and auxiliary equipment as well as the piping system was carried out using different computational programs. Finally, this paper proposes a technological design for the treatment of acidic wastewater generated by the production process of nitroaromatic compound, which represents the basic criteria for the further design, construction, and equipment installation of the plant. Liz Mabel Ríos Hidalgo, Luis M. Peralta-Suárez, and Yailen Busto Yera Copyright © 2013 Liz Mabel Ríos Hidalgo et al. All rights reserved. Recycling Glass Cullet from Waste CRTs for the Production of High Strength Mortars Mon, 03 Jun 2013 18:11:44 +0000 The present paper reports on the results of some experiments dealing with the recycling of mixed cathode ray tube (CRT) glass waste in the production of high-strength mortars. Waste CRT glass cullet was previously milled, and sieved, and the only fine fraction was added to the fresh mortar in order to replace part of the natural aggregate. The addition of superplasticizer was also investigated. All hydrated materials displayed high compressive strength after curing. Samples containing CRT mixed glass showed a more rapid increase of strength with respect to the reference compositions, and materials with a superplasticizer content of 1% showed the best overall performance due to the favourable influence of the small glass particles which increase the amount of silicate hydrated produced. The induced coupled plasma (ICP) analysis made on the solutions, obtained from the leaching tests, confirmed the low elution of hazardous elements from the monolithic materials produced and consequently their possible environmental compatibility. Stefano Maschio, Gabriele Tonello, and Erika Furlani Copyright © 2013 Stefano Maschio et al. All rights reserved. Phytotoxicity Evolution of Biowastes Undergoing Aerobic Decomposition Sun, 28 Apr 2013 14:03:14 +0000 This study is mainly focused on the phytotoxicity improvement within five to six weeks of thermophilic composting of biowastes. Two sets of experiments were conducted involving both sawdust and rice husk as bulking agents, which were composted in self-heating reactors with potato-peel industrial waste and grass clippings as organic materials. The main variables observed over time were temperature, oxygen uptake rate (OUR), biodegradability, and germination index (GI). The effects of compost water extracts on seed germination and primary root growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) were measured to calculate the germination index (GI). The biodegradability was well assessed by measuring lignin content, using the Klason method. The experimental results showed that initial compositions strongly determined the profiles of phytotoxicity and the period of maturation. The phytotoxicity assessment in the experiments with sawdust revealed that after 39 days of composting, the GI attained the maximum value of 30%, but using rice husk, it was possible to reach 70% in the same period of time. Our findings showed that, at a certain point, higher cumulative OUR led to lower germination index, and proportional relationship between the cumulative OUR and GI was observed, after thermophilic phase. M. R. Soares, C. Matsinhe, S. Belo, M. J. Quina, and R. Quinta-Ferreira Copyright © 2013 M. R. Soares et al. All rights reserved. The Effective Electrolytic Recovery of Dilute Copper from Industrial Wastewater Tue, 09 Apr 2013 11:36:33 +0000 Electroplating copper industry was discharged huge amount wastewater and cause serious environmental and health damage in Taiwan. This research applied electrical copper recovery system to recover copper metal. In this work, electrotreatment of a industrial copper wastewater ([Cu] = 30000 mg L−1) was studied with titanium net coated with a thin layer of RuO2/IrO2 (DSA) reactor. The optimal result for simulated copper solution was 99.9% copper recovery efficiency in current density 0.585 A/dm2 and no iron ion. Due to high concentration of iron and chloride ions in real industrial wastewater, the copper recovery efficiency was down to 60%. Although, the copper recovery efficiency was not high as simulated copper solution, high environmental economic value was included in the technology. The possibility of pretreating the wastewater with iron is the necessary step, before the electrical recovery copper system. Teng-Chien Chen, Ricky Priambodo, Ruo-Lin Huang, and Yao-Hui Huang Copyright © 2013 Teng-Chien Chen et al. All rights reserved. Heat-Resistant Ceramic Pigments on the Base of Waste Vanadium Catalyst and Alumina Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:16:34 +0000 Ceramic pigments on the base of technogenic silica-containing material—waste vanadium catalyst were obtained in this work. Corundum is identified along with the predominant mullite phase in the composition of pigments. The ions of nickel, chromium, and iron are embedded in the structure if the concentration of the corresponding oxide in the initial mixture does not exceed 10 wt.%. In this case, the oxide is not identified in a free form according to the results of X-ray diffraction analysis. Spinel CoAl2O4 is formed in cobalt pigments. The developed pigments keep the firing temperature up to 1200°C. The obtained pigments may be recommended for ceramic paints and colored glazes for building materials. M. B. Sedelnikova, N. V. Liseenko, Y. I. Pautova, and V. M. Pogrebenkov Copyright © 2013 M. B. Sedelnikova et al. All rights reserved. Investigation into River Sediments Toxicity as a Result of Inappropriate Waste Disposal Tue, 12 Mar 2013 13:46:27 +0000 Sediments of the São Francisco River basin (Brazil) were investigated to determine the environmental consequences of incorrect disposal of wastes generated by a zinc industry. Surface sediments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemically analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Total organic carbon (TOC), acid volatile sulfides (AVSs), and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs) were also determined. AVS/SEM procedure was employed to assess the bioavailability of the metals in sediments. XRD analyses indicated that the main phases in the sediments were kaolinite and quartz. The total concentration of Zn and Pb, near the old industrial discharge point, indicated high levels of contamination according to the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). According to the AVS/SEM criteria, despite the high levels of zinc and lead in the sediments, the toxicity resulting from these metals is unlikely in most of the samples. However, in one of the samples, collected near the old industrial discharge point, the toxicity is uncertain—according to the USEPA criteria. Lívia R. Souza and Ana Cláudia Q. Ladeira Copyright © 2013 Lívia R. Souza and Ana Cláudia Q. Ladeira. All rights reserved. Production of Hydrocarbon Liquid by Thermal Pyrolysis of Paper Cup Waste Thu, 07 Mar 2013 08:56:13 +0000 The paper cup waste was pyrolysed in a stainless steel semibatch reactor at a temperature range of 325°C to 425°C and at a heating rate of 20°C min−1 with an aim to study the physical and chemical characteristics of the obtained hydrocarbon liquid and to determine its feasibility as a commercial fuel. The maximum liquid yield was 52% at 400°C. The functional groups present in the liquid are aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, alkenes, and alkanes. It was found that the pyrolytic liquid contains around 18 types of compounds having carbon chain length in the range of C6–C20. The obtained liquid can be used as valuable chemicals feedstock. Bijayani Biswal, Sachin Kumar, and R. K. Singh Copyright © 2013 Bijayani Biswal et al. All rights reserved. Adsorption of Cu (II) on the Surface of Nonconventional Biomass: A Study on Forced Convective Mass Transfer in Packed Bed Column Thu, 07 Mar 2013 08:14:33 +0000 The present investigation has dealt with the adsorption of Cu (II) across liquid phase on the nonconventional adsorbent. The nonconventional adsorbent used in the present work was Cedrus deodara sawdust obtained from local carpenter's shop. The maximum uptake capacities of Copper (II) ions at saturation and breakthrough point were 55.63 mg/g and 53.18 mg/g for an initial concentration of 93 mg/L of copper, respectively. The fitting of the experimental data in Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models indicated the suitability of Langmuir isotherm in terms of very low statistical error functions that is, and sum of square errors (SSE) and higher values of linear regression coefficient. The goodness of fit of the breakthrough curve in Bohardt-Adams, Wolborska, Modified dose response, and Thomas model indicated the suitability of Thomas model with higher linear regression coefficient and lower values of statistical error functions. The flow rate and bed height affected the hydrodynamic parameters of the packed bed reactor significantly. Vishal Mishra, Chandrajit Balomajumder, and Vijay Kumar Agarwal Copyright © 2013 Vishal Mishra et al. All rights reserved. Contribution of Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste to the Social Inclusion in Brazil Wed, 06 Mar 2013 15:35:14 +0000 This paper proposes the selective collection and recycling as alternative ways to promote the social inclusion in Brazil and help the country to eradicate extreme poverty and misery and achieve the first of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG1) of the UN. This work is based on the data from a Brazilian metropolitan city of Campinas and is extended to Brazil. The results show that the municipality of Campinas collects monthly 8000 tons of recyclables which if recycled can avail jobs to nearly 13,000 waste collectors with a minimum national salary of R$ 622/month or alternatively can create 40,280 Family Grants of R$ 200/month. In Brazil, the collected recyclables potential is about 2.4 million tons per month which can avail jobs to 2,350945 waste collectors or alternatively create about 7.3 millions Family Grants. F. A. M. Lino and K. A. R. Ismail Copyright © 2013 F. A. M. Lino and K. A. R. Ismail. All rights reserved. Reuse Feasibility of Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge of Textile Industry in the Manufacturing of Building Blocks Tue, 05 Feb 2013 09:36:32 +0000 During the last decade, the growing load of sludge from textile industries, the top foreign exchange earning sector of Bangladesh, is a common nuisance to environmental system and community health. The present study was aimed to minimize the environmental impact from the disposal of Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS) by using it as a partial substitute of clay in the manufacturing of construction material like building blocks (BBs). Different batches of normal and pressurized building blocks (NBBs and PBBs, resp.) were prepared using up to 50% EMHS with clay and then fired at a particular temperature. EMHS proportion in the mixture and firing temperature were two key factors determining the quality of BB. BB did not show any deformation or uneven surfaces at any of the examined firing temperature. At higher firing temperature and EMHS proportion, more weight loss and shrinkage of BB were noticed. Higher compressive strength and lower water adsorption were found at lower EMHS content and higher firing temperature. It was explored that NBB and PBB with 20 and 30% EMHS in clay, respectively, and fired at 1050 °C would be usable for nonloading applications; namely, ornamental bricks, decoration purposes, and fence of garden. Tanveer Mehedi Adyel, Syed Hafizur Rahman, Mohammad Moniruz Zaman, Hossain Md. Sayem, Mala Khan, Md. Abdul Gafur, and S. M. Nazrul Islam Copyright © 2013 Tanveer Mehedi Adyel et al. All rights reserved.