Journal of Waste Management The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Off-Site Lime Stabilisation as an Option to Treat Pit Latrine Faecal Sludge for Emergency and Existing On-Site Sanitation Systems Thu, 26 May 2016 08:03:46 +0000 Off-site lime stabilisation for treating faecal sludge was assessed by undertaking small-scale (35 L) and large-scale (600 L) field trials in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was dosed to maintain pH 10, pH 10.5, pH 11, pH 11.5, and pH 12 depending on the buffer capacity of the faecal sludge in the four replica small-scale field trials. Significant reduction of E. coli to below the detection limit of 104 CFU/100 mL within 1 hour of treatment was reported for pH > 11. Based on the small-scale findings, large-scale field trials were conducted and greater than removal of E. coli was observed under pH 12 conditions. Therefore, based on the study, off-site lime stabilisation by dosing lime in the range of 10–35% w/w (dry solid basis), depending on the buffer capacity and solids content of the sludge to maintain pH > 11, can be used to sanitise faecal sludge during emergencies, as well as for existing on-site sanitation systems. Wilson Greya, Bernard Thole, Catherine Anderson, Flavius Kamwani, Jan Spit, and Grover Mamani Copyright © 2016 Wilson Greya et al. All rights reserved. Chromium Distribution and Spatial Variations in the Finer Sediment Grain Size Fraction and Unfractioned Surficial Sediments on Nyanza Gulf, of Lake Victoria (East Africa) Tue, 17 May 2016 08:51:12 +0000 Surficial sediments collected from the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa) were used to determine spatial concentrations of Cr and determine differences in contents of the unfractioned (whole sediment) and the finer grain size sediments, establishing any changes in Cr enrichment and potential ecological risks using sediment quality guidelines. A single pollution index was also used to evaluate level of Cr contamination. The spatial mean Cr contents in the <63 µm (silt-clay) fraction were found to be significantly lower than those in the unfractioned sediments, but with a strong linear positive correlation. The study results show decreasing spatial amounts of Cr in surficial sediments of the Nyanza Gulf, when compared to a study done 20 years earlier. However, the 95% confidence limits of the overall mean Cr in unfractioned sediments exceed the threshold effect concentration (TEC), indicating the potential for Cr remobilization from sediments. In general the sediment enrichment is evidence of possible dominance of lithogenous sources of Cr in the surface lake sediments, with potential anthropogenic sources from the drainage system and nearshore urban areas. The sediments are unpolluted with respect to geoaccumulation index, and sediment enrichment factors suggest a minor to moderate enrichment of Cr in surficial sediments of three sites around the Nyanza Gulf zones and around the river mouth in the main lake. Job Mwamburi Copyright © 2016 Job Mwamburi. All rights reserved. Green Concrete from Sustainable Recycled Coarse Aggregates: Mechanical and Durability Properties Mon, 02 Feb 2015 09:54:48 +0000 Present investigations deal with the development of green concrete (M 30 grade) using recycled coarse aggregates for sustainable development. Characterization of recycled coarse aggregates showed that physical and mechanical properties are of inferior quality and improvement in properties was observed after washing due to removal of old weak mortar adhered on its surface. The influence of natural coarse aggregates replacement (50 and 100%) with recycled coarse aggregate on various mechanical and durability properties of hardened concrete were discussed and compared with controls at different w/c ratio. Improvements in all the engineering properties of hardened concrete were observed using washed recycled coarse aggregates. The compressive strength of 28-day hardened concrete containing 100% washed recycled aggregate was slightly lower (7%) than concrete prepared with natural aggregates. Water absorption, carbonation, and rapid chloride penetration test were conducted to assess the durability of the concrete. Concrete was found moderately permeable for chloride ions penetration and no carbonation was observed in all the concrete mixes studied. Neeraj Jain, Mridul Garg, and A. K. Minocha Copyright © 2015 Neeraj Jain et al. All rights reserved. Modeling the Sorption of Ni2+ and Co2+ on Saprist Peat Using the Response Surface Methodology Sun, 01 Feb 2015 09:20:14 +0000 A detailed study of the sorption of Ni2+ and Co2+ from simulated wastewater on saprist peat is presented. The significantly decomposed peat possessed a strong sorptive capacity that was maintained over a wide range of pH. With a metal concentration range of 50 to 200 mg/L, pH range of 3 to 10, peat dose of 2 to 40 g/L, and contact time of 12 to 24 h, batch experiments were conducted based on a four-factor Box-Behnken response surface design. The percentage removals of Ni2+ and Co2+ were analyzed using analysis of variance. Second order response surface models were developed with the significant factors and their interactions to predict the percentage sorption of Ni2+ and Co2+ independently. The prediction equations were verified with additional data not used in developing the equations. The study showed that the saprist peat could be a potential industrial metal adsorbent and the percentage of uptake of Ni2+ and Co2+ could be accurately predicted using the second order response surface models developed. Ni2+ uptake was greater for the two metals and reached a maximum value at just below a neutral pH and Co2+ uptake continued to increase from pH > 5, with higher uptake percentage at pH 10. Emmanuel S. Asapo, Cynthia A. Coles, and Leonard M. Lye Copyright © 2015 Emmanuel S. Asapo et al. All rights reserved. Intraurban Analysis of Domestic Solid Waste Disposal Methods in a Sub-Sahara African City Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:23 +0000 The study examined the influence of socioeconomic attributes of residents on domestic solid waste disposal methods in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. Primary data for the study were obtained through questionnaire administered on residents in Eti-Osa, Ikeja, and Mushin Local Government Areas (LGAs) representing the low, medium, and high densities, respectively, into which the sixteen LGAs in Lagos metropolis were stratified. One out of every four wards in each LGA was selected for survey. From a total of 15,275 residential buildings in the ten wards, one out of every forty buildings (2.5%) was selected using systematic random sampling where a household head was sampled. Information obtained includes the residential characteristics and the disposal methods. Enquiries into the socioeconomic attributes of the residents showed that 59.9% were high income earners and 76.6% had attained tertiary school education. This study concluded that six disposal methods were common in the study area. Furthermore, through multinomial logistic regression, the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of residents (density, income, age of respondents, educational status, and length of stay) on domestic solid waste disposal methods varied significantly in Lagos metropolis. The study established that most of the solid waste disposal methods utilized by residents in Lagos metropolis were not environment-friendly. Oluwole Samuel Ojewale Copyright © 2014 Oluwole Samuel Ojewale. All rights reserved. Solid Waste Management Practices in the Informal Sector of Gweru, Zimbabwe Tue, 25 Nov 2014 16:53:30 +0000 This paper contributes to the debate on the role of the informal sector in solid waste management by examining the effectiveness of informal sector solid waste management practices in transforming waste into nonwaste in the city of Gweru in Zimbabwe. The study focused on 589 informal enterprises that were surveys using questionnaire interviews and focus group discussions with key informants. Analysis of solid waste management in the informal sector of Gweru has revealed that large amounts of waste are generated indicating poor material efficiency in the enterprises, especially in food market areas where huge amounts of biodegradable material and vegetable wastes are generated and disposed of haphazardly. Analysis of the key factors that include solid waste generation rates, collection frequencies and transportation, waste minimisation, and reduction practices showed that the current waste management system is unsustainable in the long run. The municipality of Gweru needs to provide more resources for financing, training, and manpower to enable effective provision of an environmentally friendly solid waste management system in the city, including the informal sector. Steven Jerie and Daniel Tevera Copyright © 2014 Steven Jerie and Daniel Tevera. All rights reserved. Waste Management Strategies in an Urban Setting Example from the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana Thu, 13 Nov 2014 09:57:07 +0000 Tamale, one of the fastest growing cities in Ghana, is faced with daunting challenges in the management of Municipal Solid Waste. A corresponding increase of population and rising quality of life with high rates of resource consumption patterns have led to serious problems of high volumes of waste generated and costs involved. This research was therefore designed to focus on the Municipal Solid Waste Management strategies in Tamale, seeking to assess the performance of newly introduced tricycles for waste collection. The study employed the methodology of administration of questionnaire and interviews. The questionnaire and interviews revealed that there is a relationship in the level of education and how households stored their waste before disposal. There is also a close relationship in the household income level (residential class) and the use of covered plastic waste bins. Most households rated waste collection after the introduction of the tricycle as good followed by very good and satisfactory whilst none were of the view that waste collection was not good. Though there has been an improvement in waste collection after the introduction of the tricycles, there is the need for an integrated approach to waste management where all aspects of waste management are analyzed. Ibrahim Issahaku, Frank K. Nyame, and Abdul Kadiri Brimah Copyright © 2014 Ibrahim Issahaku et al. All rights reserved. Overview of the WEEE Directive and Its Implementation in the Nordic Countries: National Realisations and Best Practices Wed, 01 Oct 2014 07:56:08 +0000 Electronic devices and mobile applications have become a part of everyday life. Fast technological progress and rapid product obsolescence have led to the rapid growth of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Due to hazardous substances and also substantial amounts of valuable materials contained in electrical and electronic equipment, the European Union has implemented Directives related to WEEE, in order to reduce negative environmental and health impacts and to improve material recovery of valuable substances from WEEE. This paper provides an overview of the WEEE Directive and its implementation to national legislations in Finland, Sweden, and Norway and, further, describes how the nationwide WEEE recovery infrastructures in the Nordic countries have been built. The Nordic WEEE management systems are evaluated from the point of resource efficiency and best practices. Evidently, the WEEE management systems as established in the Nordic countries have advantages because the WEEE collection rates in 2012 were 12 kg/inhab./year, in Finland, 16 kg/inhab./year, in Sweden, and 27 kg/ inhab./year, in Norway, despite their sparsely populated nature. The Swedish and Norwegian experiences, especially, with long history of WEEE recovery indicate that increasing consumer awareness leads to more environmentally sound behaviour and improves recovery efficiency. Jenni Ylä-Mella, Kari Poikela, Ulla Lehtinen, Pia Tanskanen, Elisabeth Román, Riitta L. Keiski, and Eva Pongrácz Copyright © 2014 Jenni Ylä-Mella et al. All rights reserved. e-Waste Management Scenarios in Malaysia Tue, 30 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 e-Waste, or electronic waste, disposal that is uncontrolled can be harmful to human health and the environment because e-waste contains toxic substances and heavy metals. However, if the waste is properly managed, it can become a business opportunity that produces high returns because e-waste also contains valuable materials, such as gold, silver, platinum, and palladium. The government of Malaysia wants to ensure the safe, effective, and economically beneficial management of e-waste in Malaysia. Management approaches have included law enforcement and regulation and the promotion of e-waste recovery activities. e-Waste of no commercial value must be disposed of at sites/premises licensed by the Department of Environment (DOE), Malaysia. To date, 18 full recovery facilities and 128 partial recovery facilities that use various available technologies have been designated for the segregation, dismantling, and treatment of e-waste. However, there are issues faced by the recovery facilities in achieving the goal of converting e-waste into a source material. The issues include the e-waste supply, the importation of e-waste derived products and coding, and finally the need to develop the criteria for e-waste processing technologies to ensure the safety and the sustainability of the facilities. Fatihah Suja, Rakmi Abdul Rahman, Arij Yusof, and Mohd Shahbudin Masdar Copyright © 2014 Fatihah Suja et al. All rights reserved. Treatment and Valorization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Production of Food Grade Yeast Biomass Thu, 25 Sep 2014 11:06:30 +0000 Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is high strength wastewater derived from processing of palm fruit. It is generated in large quantities in all oil palm producing nations where it is a strong pollutant amenable to microbial degradation being rich in organic carbon, nitrogen, and minerals. Valorization and treatment of POME with seven yeast isolates was studied under scalable conditions by using POME to produce value-added yeast biomass. POME was used as sole source of carbon and nitrogen and the fermentation was carried out at 150 rpm, 28 ± 2°C using an inoculum size of 1 mL of 106 cells. Yeasts were isolated from POME, dump site, and palm wine. The POME had chemical oxygen demand (COD) 114.8 gL−1, total solid 76 gL−1, total suspended solid (TSS) 44 gL−1 and total lipid 35.80 gL−1. Raw POME supported accumulation of 4.42 gL−1 dry yeast with amino acid content comparable or superior to the FAO/WHO standard for feed use SCP. Peak COD reduction (83%) was achieved with highest biomass accumulation in 96 h using Saccharomyces sp . POME can be used as carbon source with little or no supplementation to achieve waste-to-value by producing feed grade yeast with reduction in pollution potential. Joy O. Iwuagwu and J. Obeta Ugwuanyi Copyright © 2014 Joy O. Iwuagwu and J. Obeta Ugwuanyi. All rights reserved. Response Surfaces for Fresh and Hardened Properties of Concrete with E-Waste (HIPS) Thu, 25 Sep 2014 09:32:51 +0000 The fresh and hardened properties of concrete with E-waste plastic, that is, high impact polystyrene (HIPS), as a partial replacement for coarse aggregate were analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM). Face-centred central composite response surface design was used in this study. The statistical models were developed between the factors (HIPS and water cement ratio) and their response variables (slump, fresh density, dry density, compressive strength, spilt tensile strength, and flexural strength). The Design-Expert 9.0.3 software package was used to analyze the experimental values. The relationships were established and final mathematical models in terms of coded factors from predicted responses were developed. The effects of factors on properties for all variables were seen visually from the response surface and contour plot. Validation of experiments has shown that the experimental value closely agreed with the predicted value, which validates the calculated response surface models with desirability = 1. The HIPS replacement influenced all the properties of concrete than water cement ratio. Even though all properties show the decline trend, the experimented values and predicted values give a hope that the E-waste plastic (HIPS) can be used as coarse aggregate up to certain percentage of replacement in concrete which successively reduces the hazardous solid waste problem and conserves the natural resources from exhaustion. K. Senthil Kumar and K. Baskar Copyright © 2014 K. Senthil Kumar and K. Baskar. All rights reserved. Sugar Mill Effluent Utilization in the Cultivation of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Two Seasons Tue, 23 Sep 2014 07:41:43 +0000 The aim of present investigation is to study the effects of sugar mill effluent fertigation on soil properties and agronomical characteristics of Maize (Zea mays L. cv. NMH 589) in two seasons. Six treatments of sugar mill effluent, namely, 0% (control), 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%, were used for the cultivation of Z. mays. Fertigation with different concentrations of sugar mill effluent resulted in significant () changes in EC, pH, OC, , , , , TKN, , , , , , , , and of the soil in both seasons. The maximum agronomic performance of Z. mays was noted with 40% concentration of sugar mill effluent. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber, and total carbohydrates were recorded highest with 40% concentration of sugar mill effluent in both seasons. The contamination factor (Cf) of various heavy metals was observed in order of for soil and for Z. mays in both seasons after fertigation with sugar mill effluent. It appears that sugar mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve the yield. Vinod Kumar Copyright © 2014 Vinod Kumar. All rights reserved. Advanced Design of Separated Household Waste Collection Systems on the Base of GIS Modelling Thu, 11 Sep 2014 09:14:34 +0000 The Hungarian waste management sector is under transformation now. The new (2012/CLXXXV) Law on the Waste applies requirements on the players of the waste market that will result in the reorganization of the whole waste management industrial sector. The aim of the system transformation is enhancing the proportion of separately treated waste in accordance with the EU directives. Emerging waste quantities to be separately treated means challenge for the existing logistic capacities (e.g., collector vehicles); thus evaluation of their actual efficiency and utilization seems to be useful in the course of the transformation. With this object in view, a new separated waste collection system planning approach and a software module were developed on the base of a geographic information system (GIS) platform. The software module was designed to help choose and localize the appropriate collection methods and define the logistically effective collector vehicle routes according to the settlement structures of urban environments. Richard Ladanyi Copyright © 2014 Richard Ladanyi. All rights reserved. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of Cadmium Resistant Pseudomonas sp. M3 from Industrial Wastewater Sun, 07 Sep 2014 09:29:26 +0000 The present study deals with the isolation, identification, and characterization of the cadmium resistant bacteria from wastewater collected from industrial area of Penang, Malaysia. The isolate was selected based on high level of the cadmium and antibiotic resistances. On the basis of morphological, biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogeny analysis revealed that the strain RZCd1 was authentically identified as Pseudomonas sp. M3. The industrial isolate showed more than 70% of the cadmium removal in log phase. The cadmium removal capacity of strain RZCd1 was affected by temperature and pH. At pH 7.0 and 35°C, strain RZCd1 showed maximum cadmium removal capacity. The minimal inhibitory concentration of strain RZCd1 against the cadmium was 550 µg/mL. The resistance against the cadmium was associated with resistance to multiple antibiotics: amoxicillin, penicillin, cephalexin, erythromycin, and streptomycin. The strain RZCd1 also gave thick bands of proteins in front of 25 kDa in cadmium stress condition after 3 h of incubation. So the identified cadmium resistant bacteria may be useful for the bioremediation of cadmium contaminated industrial wastewater. Syed Zaghum Abbas, Mohd Rafatullah, Norli Ismail, and Japareng Lalung Copyright © 2014 Syed Zaghum Abbas et al. All rights reserved. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, Ghana Tue, 02 Sep 2014 13:21:09 +0000 The rapid increase in urban population due to the influx of the citizenry in search for better conditions of life has resulted in poor environmental conditions in most urban and peri-urban settlements in the country. Municipal solid waste management (MSW) for that matter has become problematic within Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis as the city is being inundated with so much filth which has proven to be very difficult and seemingly impossible for the municipal authorities to tackle. This study investigates the nature of solid waste problem in Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis. A mixed methodological approach including field investigation, questionnaire survey, and structured and face-to-face interviews were employed in the gathering of data for the study. The key findings established to be the factors affecting effective solid waste management in the metropolis are irregular solid waste collection, inadequate operational funding, inappropriate technologies, inadequate staffing, inadequate skip, and lack of cooperation on the part of the citizenry. Bernard Fei-Baffoe, Eugene Atta Nyankson, and John Gorkeh-Miah Copyright © 2014 Bernard Fei-Baffoe et al. All rights reserved. Utilization of Brine Sludge in Nonstructural Building Components: A Sustainable Approach Thu, 21 Aug 2014 13:14:23 +0000 The characterization and influence of brine sludge on the properties of cement-fly ash-sludge binders are presented. The reaction products formed during the hydration of binder provide an interlocking framework to physically encapsulate the waste particles and are responsible for the development of strength. The utilization of brine sludge in making paver blocks and bricks and the effect of sludge concentration on the engineering properties of these products are also discussed. These results clearly exhibited that brine sludge up to 35 and 25% can safely be utilized for making paver blocks and bricks, respectively. The leachability studies confirm that the metals ions and impurities in the sludge are substantially fixed in the matrix and do not readily leach from there. The utilization of brine sludge in construction materials could serve as an alternative solution to disposal and reduce pollution. Mridul Garg and Aakanksha Pundir Copyright © 2014 Mridul Garg and Aakanksha Pundir. All rights reserved. Community Mapping and Theory of Planned Behavior as Study Tools for Solid Waste Management Thu, 21 Aug 2014 06:05:19 +0000 Many cities have encountered problems with uncollected solid waste. Separate disposal of recyclable waste is viewed as the most effective procedure in waste management. However, this requires the cooperation of the people in the community. Community mapping is the most effective tool for understanding a community but it does not address possible ways to change people’s behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior was the basis for this study of recycling behavior as it offers methods for changing people’s habits. However, the theory does not provide guidance on how to facilitate the use of recycling bins in the community. Many recycling projects have been unsuccessfully implemented due to the fact that most people do not want waste bins placed near their houses. Therefore, both of these effective tools were combined in this study, which propose an effective implementation method for community solid waste management. Chainarong Apinhapath Copyright © 2014 Chainarong Apinhapath. All rights reserved. Validation of Two-Phase Flow Model for Leachate Recirculation in Bioreactor Landfills Wed, 20 Aug 2014 10:39:51 +0000 A numerical two-phase flow model is presented to determine the moisture distribution and pore water and gas pressures within unsaturated municipal solid waste (MSW) in bioreactor landfills during leachate recirculation. The numerical model used is the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC), which is based on finite difference approach. The model governing equations and mathematical formulations is briefly explained. Validation of the model is examined by simulating the published laboratory and field studies and published modeling studies. Overall, the two-phase flow model is found to produce results comparable with those of the published studies. This assures that the model can be used for the prediction of moisture distribution and for the rational design of leachate recirculation systems in bioreactor landfills. Krishna R. Reddy, Rajiv K. Giri, and Hanumanth S. Kulkarni Copyright © 2014 Krishna R. Reddy et al. All rights reserved. Valorization and Miscellaneous Prospects of Waste Musa balbisiana Colla Pseudostem Sun, 17 Aug 2014 09:31:19 +0000 Resourceful utilization of the enormous quantum of agrowastes generated via agricultural practices can be supportive in waste management, environmental upgradation, and subsequent material and energy recovery. In this regard, the present study aimed at highlighting waste banana (Musa balbisiana Colla) pseudostem (an agrowaste) as a potential bio-based feedstock with miscellaneous applications. The pseudostem was characterized by carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen (CHN) analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TGDTA), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were estimated as a part of biochemical characterization. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were carried out as a part of antioxidant characterization. The waste banana pseudostem biomass (WBPB) was also tried successfully as a natural filler in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymer composite. Thermal properties and water uptake test of the WBPB polymer composite were accessed as a part of composite characterization. The pseudostem had calorific value (15.22 MJ/kg), high holocellulose (58.67%), high free radical scavenging potential (69.9%), and a low ash content (6.8%). Additionally, the WBPB polymer composite showed improved water resistance and thermostability. The study suggests feasibility of WBPB as a prospective bioenergy feedstock, primary antioxidant source, and reinforcing agent in polymer composites. Krishna Gogoi, Mayur Mausoom Phukan, Nipu Dutta, Salam Pradeep Singh, Pitambar Sedai, Bolin Kumar Konwar, and Tarun Kumar Maji Copyright © 2014 Krishna Gogoi et al. All rights reserved. Knowledge on Hospital Waste Management among Senior Staff Nurses Working in a Selected Medical College Hospital of Bangladesh Sun, 17 Aug 2014 08:37:23 +0000 Background. Healthcare wastes include all types of wastes generated by healthcare establishments. Waste disposal problem is growing with an ever-increasing number of hospitals, clinics, and diagnostic laboratories in Bangladesh and also in Faridpur town. Aim and Objective. The outcomes of this study will contribute to increase proper waste management practice among nurses in Bangladesh. Methods. A descriptive type of cross sectional study design was used to assess the level of knowledge regarding hospital waste management among senior staff nurses working in Faridpur Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh. All respondents () were selected by random sampling. Results. In the answer of knowledge about general waste only 4% () gave all correct answers. In the answer of knowledge about infectious waste 63.2% () gave one correct answer, of knowledge about pharmaceutical waste only 8% () gave all correct answers, and of knowledge about biomedical waste only 7.2% () gave all correct answers. In the answer of knowledge about color coded bins collecting waste 53.6% () cannot give any correct answer and only 46.4% () gave all correct answers and of knowledge about the safe disposal of hospital waste 16% () could not give any correct answer. However, against all questions were 5 options. Conclusion. Knowledge about hospital waste and its management is very poor among senior staff nurses. As a recommendation to improve this situation continuous training should be made compulsory for healthcare personnel specially staff nurses working in Bangladesh. Mohammad Nasir Uddin, Mohammad Rashedul Islam, and Khadiza Yesmin Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Nasir Uddin et al. All rights reserved. Bacterial Treatment and Metal Characterization of Biomedical Waste Ash Wed, 13 Aug 2014 09:21:44 +0000 Biomedical waste ash generated due to the incineration of biomedical waste contains large amounts of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which is disposed of in regular landfills, and results in unfavorable amounts of hazardous materials seeping into the ground and may pollute surface water and groundwater. Therefore, it is essential to remove the toxicity of ash before disposal into landfills or reutilization. Environmental characteristic analysis of BMW ash showed increased hardness (1320 mg/L) and chloride (8500 mg/L) content in leachate compared to World Health Organization (WHO) and Environment Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines for drinking water (hardness, 300 mg/L; chloride, 250 mg/L). The alkalinity and pH of the ash leachate were 400 mg/L and 8.35, respectively. In this paper, study was carried out to investigate the metal tolerance level of bacterial isolates isolated from soil. The isolate Bacillus sp. KGMDI can tolerate up to 75 mg/L of metal concentration (Mn, Mo, Cr, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in enriched growth medium. This shows that the isolated culture is capable of growing in presence of high concentration of heavy metals and acts as potential biological tool to reduce the negative impact of BMW ash on the environment during landfilling. Shelly Heera, Kunal, and Anita Rajor Copyright © 2014 Shelly Heera et al. All rights reserved. Two-Stage Dry Anaerobic Digestion of Beach Cast Seaweed and Its Codigestion with Cow Manure Thu, 17 Jul 2014 07:37:33 +0000 Two-stage, dry anaerobic codigestion of seaweed and solid cow manure was studied on a laboratory scale. A methane yield of 0.14 L/g VSadded was obtained when digesting solid cow manure in a leach bed process and a methane yield of 0.16 L/g VSadded and 0.11 L/g VSadded was obtained from seaweed and seaweed/solid manure in a two-stage anaerobic process, respectively. The results showed that it was beneficial to operate the second stage methane reactor for the digestion of seaweed, which produced 83% of the methane, while the remainder was produced in the first leach bed reactor. Also, the two-stage system was more stable for the codigestion for seaweed and manure when compared to their separate digestion. In addition, the initial ammonia inhibition observed for manure digestion and the acidification of the leach bed reactor in seaweed digestion were both avoided when the materials were codigested. The seaweed had a higher Cd content of 0.2 mg Cd/kg TS than the manure, 0.04 mg Cd/kg TS, and presents a risk of surpassing limit values set for fertiliser quality of seaweed digestate. Evaluation of the heavy metal content of seaweed or a mixture of seaweed and manure digestate is recommended before farmland application. Valentine Nkongndem Nkemka, Jorge Arenales-Rivera, and Marika Murto Copyright © 2014 Valentine Nkongndem Nkemka et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Enterprise Profile and Composition of Solid Waste Generated in the Informal Sector of Gweru, Zimbabwe Wed, 11 Jun 2014 07:00:16 +0000 This paper examines the characteristics of solid waste generated in the informal sector enterprises of Gweru, the third largest city in Zimbabwe. Samples from the informal sector enterprises were collected in plastic bags and labelled with unique identity marks. The segregated components were measured to determine percentages of total weight of a sample. The data collected during the two seasons were analysed statistically using ANOVA to identify key similarities and differences. The major components of the waste stream include food and vegetable wastes in the market areas (from 18 to 51% of total weight), metals in the industrial areas (from 19 to 36%), and paper in the residential suburbs and markets (9–11% of total weight). The biodegradable waste stream dominates in the market areas of Kudzanai and Kombayi where it constitutes an average of 57.1% of waste generated in these areas. Establishing biodegradability of solid waste is essential because the majority of environmental and health problems associated with waste generated in the enterprises are caused by the biodegradable components. In order to come up with a sustainable and comprehensive waste management plan for the informal sector of Gweru, an up-to-date database on the composition and characteristics of the waste is a primary requirement. Steven Jerie Copyright © 2014 Steven Jerie. All rights reserved. Human Hair “Waste” and Its Utilization: Gaps and Possibilities Sun, 27 Apr 2014 12:56:11 +0000 Human hair is considered a waste material in most parts of the world and its accumulation in waste streams causes many environmental problems; however, it has many known uses. Preventing waste of such a material requires both addressing the problems in the current usage and developing its utilization systems at locations where they are missing. With focus on developing systematic utilization of human hair waste, this paper first reviews the possible uses of human hair gathered from large scale trades, local/traditional knowledge, upcoming innovations, and scientific research; along with the socioeconomic systems that have evolved around the known uses. Concerns and gaps in these systems are identified and possible directions to address these gaps are discussed. For expanding hair utilization to new contexts, important considerations such as knowledge, skill, and technology requirements and potential markets are discussed. Finally, a policy framework for socially and environmentally healthy utilization of human hair is outlined. This study shows that human hair is a highly versatile material with significant potential in several critical areas such as agriculture, medical applications, construction materials, and pollution control. Moreover, these uses are diverse enough for entrepreneurs ranging from unskilled to highly technical individuals and for the wide variety of human hair waste available in different locations. Ankush Gupta Copyright © 2014 Ankush Gupta. All rights reserved. Performance Assessment of Solid Waste Management following Private Partnership Operations in Lagos State, Nigeria Thu, 17 Apr 2014 13:30:14 +0000 The strategy of delivering modern, high quality public services and promoting competition in the waste management sector leads to formation of private sector participation (PSP) to handle solid waste management in Lagos State. The findings depict that quality of service among the PSP operators recorded high success in the high income areas than those of the low and medium income areas. On the average, industry productivity was 6.63 tonnes per day per vehicle. 18 out of 30 companies in the study area were above this average and in meeting increased productivity, year of experience in operations, number of trips made, number of times trucks were serviced, and adhering to regulatory agency requirement were among the factors influencing company’s productivity in the state. The study, therefore, recommends that regulatory agency should be more aggressive in playing its statutory roles of managing the PSP operators. Agboje Ifeoma Anestina, Adeoti Adetola, and Irhivben Bright Odafe Copyright © 2014 Agboje Ifeoma Anestina et al. All rights reserved. Wastes to Reduce Emissions from Automotive Diesel Engines Mon, 10 Feb 2014 15:59:19 +0000 The objective of the study was actually the investigation of the effect of various treatments on the ability of urine in absorbing greenhouse gases. Urine alone or mixed with olive-oil-mill waste waters (O), poultry litter (P), or sewage sludge (S) was used on the absorption of CO2 and NOx from diesel exhaust. The absorption coefficient (0.98–0.29 g CO2/grNH4) was similar to other solvents such as ammonia and amines. The ranges of CO2 absorption(1.7–5.6) g/l and NO reduction (0.9–3.7) g/l in six hours indicate that on average 20 litres of urine could be needed to capture CO2 and vehicle emissions from each covered kilometre. The best results of CO2 absorption and reduction were for urine mixed with O, P and urine alone. These wastes could be used to capture CO2 and from automotive diesel engines to reduce gas emissions. The proposed strategy requires further research to increase CO2 absorption and reduce the risks associated with waste-water reuse. Manuel Jiménez Aguilar Copyright © 2014 Manuel Jiménez Aguilar. All rights reserved. Metabolism of Chicken Feathers and Concomitant Electricity Generation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Employing Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) Thu, 09 Jan 2014 08:12:54 +0000 Keratinolytic potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SDS3 has been evaluated for the metabolism of chicken feathers. Results indicated that strain SDS3 showed complete metabolism of 0.1 and 0.5% (w/v) chicken feathers in minimal medium. Feathers were metabolized up to 80% at 1% (w/v) concentration. Maximum soluble protein ( μg/mL) and keratinase ( U/mL) were observed in the presence of 1% chicken feathers after five days of incubation. The effect of carbon and nitrogen sources showed that feather degradation was stimulated by complex carbon/nitrogen sources such as starch, malt extract, tryptone, and beef extract and was inhibited by simple carbon and nitrogen sources. Electricity production by employing chicken feathers as a substrate in microbial fuel cell (MFC) was evaluated. It was observed that maximum voltage corresponding to 141 mV was observed after 14 days of incubation. Maximum power density of 1206.78 mW/m2 and maximum current density of 8.6 mA/m2 were observed. The results clearly indicate that chicken feathers can be successfully employed as a cheap substrate for electricity production in MFC. This is the first report showing employment of chicken feathers as substrate in MFC. Venkatesh Chaturvedi and Pradeep Verma Copyright © 2014 Venkatesh Chaturvedi and Pradeep Verma. All rights reserved. An Integrated Approach of Using Polystyrene Foam as an Attachment System for Growth of Mixed Culture of Cyanobacteria with Concomitant Treatment of Copper Mine Waste Water Tue, 31 Dec 2013 10:59:58 +0000 Cyanobacteria have tremendous applications in areas such as production of biofuels and pharmaceutically important pigments and are used as an adsorbent for the removal of toxic metabolites. However, large scale production of Cyanobacteria is not economically feasible due to high cost involved in separation of biomass. In this context, different attachment systems have been developed for the growth of Cyanobacteria on a solid support. In this study, a simple and economical attachment system using polystyrene foam for growth of Cyanobacteria has been presented. Results clearly indicate that high biomass yield can be obtained in attached system when compared to suspended system. In attachment system, the biomass yield showed 21.4%, total protein content showed 29.2%, chlorophyll content showed 11.1%, and carotenoid content showed 13.1% increase as compared to the suspended system. The attachment system can also support the growth of Cyanobacteria in presence of copper mine waste water with concomitant removal of copper ions. These results were corroborated by COD analysis, which indicated significant reduction. Further, copper removal was high in attached system as compared to suspended system. It appears that attachment system offers protection for growing Cyanobacteria and can be effectively employed for growing Cyanobacteria in presence of waste water coming from different sources. Venkatesh Chaturvedi, Monika Chandravanshi, Manoj Rahangdale, and Pradeep Verma Copyright © 2013 Venkatesh Chaturvedi et al. All rights reserved. Vermicomposting: Tool for Sustainable Ruminant Manure Management Thu, 26 Dec 2013 19:09:37 +0000 Ruminants are important sources of meat and milk. Their production is associated with manure excretion. Estimates of over 3,900,000 million metric tonnes of manure are produced daily from ruminants worldwide. Storage and spread of this waste on land pose health risks and environmental problems. Efficient and sustainable way of handling ruminant manure is required. Composting and vermicomposting are considered two of the best techniques for solid biomass waste management. This paper presents vermicomposting as an effective tool for ruminant manure management. Vermicomposting is a mesophilic biooxidation and stabilisation process of organic materials that involves the joint action of earthworm and microorganism. Compared with composting, vermicomposting has higher rate of stabilisation and it is greatly modifying its physical and biochemical properties, with low C : N ratio and homogenous end product. It is also costeffective and ecofriendly waste management. Due to its innate biological, biochemical and physicochemical properties, vermicomposting can be used to promote sustainable ruminant manure management. Vermicomposts are excellent sources of biofertiliser and their addition improves the physiochemical and biological properties of agricultural soils. In addition, earthworms from the vermicomposting can be used as source of protein to fishes and monogastric animals. Vermicompost can also be used as raw materials for bioindustries. A. Nasiru, N. Ismail, and M. H. Ibrahim Copyright © 2013 A. Nasiru et al. All rights reserved. Impact of ISO 14001 Environmental Management System on Key Environmental Performance Indicators of Selected Gold Mining Companies in Ghana Tue, 10 Dec 2013 17:37:20 +0000 The impact of ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) on waste management, noise level, air quality, energy consumption, and number of reported environmental incidents as key environmental performance indicators was assessed. The assessment was based on annual and monthly environmental data and report from the selected gold mining companies (Gold Field Ghana Limited (GFGL) and AngloGold Ashanti (AGA)) before and after the implementation of the management system. Interviews with environmental managers and staff as well as field observations were also conducted. The results show that the implementation of ISO 14001 EMS by the two gold mining companies led to significant environmental improvements, particularly in waste management, reported environmental incidents, and energy consumption. Segregation of waste was adopted in both companies to ensure appropriate disposal mechanisms to mitigate pollution. Energy consumption significantly decreased in AGA following certification because of the energy conservation policy adopted by the company. In addition, the implementation of the standard brought significant increase in the total number of reported environmental incidents due to the incident reporting protocol inherent in the environmental management system. In all, it was clear that the management system is related to the environmental objectives and targets of the individual organisations and commitment towards fulfilment of the set objectives. Bernard Fei-Baffoe, Godsgood K. Botwe-Koomson, Isaac Fimpong Mensa-Bonsu, and Eric Appiah Agyapong Copyright © 2013 Bernard Fei-Baffoe et al. All rights reserved.