Journal of Waste Management http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Performance Assessment of Solid Waste Management following Private Partnership Operations in Lagos State, Nigeria Thu, 17 Apr 2014 13:30:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2014/868072/ The strategy of delivering modern, high quality public services and promoting competition in the waste management sector leads to formation of private sector participation (PSP) to handle solid waste management in Lagos State. The findings depict that quality of service among the PSP operators recorded high success in the high income areas than those of the low and medium income areas. On the average, industry productivity was 6.63 tonnes per day per vehicle. 18 out of 30 companies in the study area were above this average and in meeting increased productivity, year of experience in operations, number of trips made, number of times trucks were serviced, and adhering to regulatory agency requirement were among the factors influencing company’s productivity in the state. The study, therefore, recommends that regulatory agency should be more aggressive in playing its statutory roles of managing the PSP operators. Agboje Ifeoma Anestina, Adeoti Adetola, and Irhivben Bright Odafe Copyright © 2014 Agboje Ifeoma Anestina et al. All rights reserved. Wastes to Reduce Emissions from Automotive Diesel Engines Mon, 10 Feb 2014 15:59:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2014/807947/ The objective of the study was actually the investigation of the effect of various treatments on the ability of urine in absorbing greenhouse gases. Urine alone or mixed with olive-oil-mill waste waters (O), poultry litter (P), or sewage sludge (S) was used on the absorption of CO2 and NOx from diesel exhaust. The absorption coefficient (0.98–0.29 g CO2/grNH4) was similar to other solvents such as ammonia and amines. The ranges of CO2 absorption(1.7–5.6) g/l and NO reduction (0.9–3.7) g/l in six hours indicate that on average 20 litres of urine could be needed to capture CO2 and vehicle emissions from each covered kilometre. The best results of CO2 absorption and reduction were for urine mixed with O, P and urine alone. These wastes could be used to capture CO2 and from automotive diesel engines to reduce gas emissions. The proposed strategy requires further research to increase CO2 absorption and reduce the risks associated with waste-water reuse. Manuel Jiménez Aguilar Copyright © 2014 Manuel Jiménez Aguilar. All rights reserved. Metabolism of Chicken Feathers and Concomitant Electricity Generation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Employing Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) Thu, 09 Jan 2014 08:12:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2014/928618/ Keratinolytic potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SDS3 has been evaluated for the metabolism of chicken feathers. Results indicated that strain SDS3 showed complete metabolism of 0.1 and 0.5% (w/v) chicken feathers in minimal medium. Feathers were metabolized up to 80% at 1% (w/v) concentration. Maximum soluble protein ( μg/mL) and keratinase ( U/mL) were observed in the presence of 1% chicken feathers after five days of incubation. The effect of carbon and nitrogen sources showed that feather degradation was stimulated by complex carbon/nitrogen sources such as starch, malt extract, tryptone, and beef extract and was inhibited by simple carbon and nitrogen sources. Electricity production by employing chicken feathers as a substrate in microbial fuel cell (MFC) was evaluated. It was observed that maximum voltage corresponding to 141 mV was observed after 14 days of incubation. Maximum power density of 1206.78 mW/m2 and maximum current density of 8.6 mA/m2 were observed. The results clearly indicate that chicken feathers can be successfully employed as a cheap substrate for electricity production in MFC. This is the first report showing employment of chicken feathers as substrate in MFC. Venkatesh Chaturvedi and Pradeep Verma Copyright © 2014 Venkatesh Chaturvedi and Pradeep Verma. All rights reserved. An Integrated Approach of Using Polystyrene Foam as an Attachment System for Growth of Mixed Culture of Cyanobacteria with Concomitant Treatment of Copper Mine Waste Water Tue, 31 Dec 2013 10:59:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2013/282798/ Cyanobacteria have tremendous applications in areas such as production of biofuels and pharmaceutically important pigments and are used as an adsorbent for the removal of toxic metabolites. However, large scale production of Cyanobacteria is not economically feasible due to high cost involved in separation of biomass. In this context, different attachment systems have been developed for the growth of Cyanobacteria on a solid support. In this study, a simple and economical attachment system using polystyrene foam for growth of Cyanobacteria has been presented. Results clearly indicate that high biomass yield can be obtained in attached system when compared to suspended system. In attachment system, the biomass yield showed 21.4%, total protein content showed 29.2%, chlorophyll content showed 11.1%, and carotenoid content showed 13.1% increase as compared to the suspended system. The attachment system can also support the growth of Cyanobacteria in presence of copper mine waste water with concomitant removal of copper ions. These results were corroborated by COD analysis, which indicated significant reduction. Further, copper removal was high in attached system as compared to suspended system. It appears that attachment system offers protection for growing Cyanobacteria and can be effectively employed for growing Cyanobacteria in presence of waste water coming from different sources. Venkatesh Chaturvedi, Monika Chandravanshi, Manoj Rahangdale, and Pradeep Verma Copyright © 2013 Venkatesh Chaturvedi et al. All rights reserved. Vermicomposting: Tool for Sustainable Ruminant Manure Management Thu, 26 Dec 2013 19:09:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2013/732759/ Ruminants are important sources of meat and milk. Their production is associated with manure excretion. Estimates of over 3,900,000 million metric tonnes of manure are produced daily from ruminants worldwide. Storage and spread of this waste on land pose health risks and environmental problems. Efficient and sustainable way of handling ruminant manure is required. Composting and vermicomposting are considered two of the best techniques for solid biomass waste management. This paper presents vermicomposting as an effective tool for ruminant manure management. Vermicomposting is a mesophilic biooxidation and stabilisation process of organic materials that involves the joint action of earthworm and microorganism. Compared with composting, vermicomposting has higher rate of stabilisation and it is greatly modifying its physical and biochemical properties, with low C : N ratio and homogenous end product. It is also costeffective and ecofriendly waste management. Due to its innate biological, biochemical and physicochemical properties, vermicomposting can be used to promote sustainable ruminant manure management. Vermicomposts are excellent sources of biofertiliser and their addition improves the physiochemical and biological properties of agricultural soils. In addition, earthworms from the vermicomposting can be used as source of protein to fishes and monogastric animals. Vermicompost can also be used as raw materials for bioindustries. A. Nasiru, N. Ismail, and M. H. Ibrahim Copyright © 2013 A. Nasiru et al. All rights reserved. Impact of ISO 14001 Environmental Management System on Key Environmental Performance Indicators of Selected Gold Mining Companies in Ghana Tue, 10 Dec 2013 17:37:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2013/935843/ The impact of ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) on waste management, noise level, air quality, energy consumption, and number of reported environmental incidents as key environmental performance indicators was assessed. The assessment was based on annual and monthly environmental data and report from the selected gold mining companies (Gold Field Ghana Limited (GFGL) and AngloGold Ashanti (AGA)) before and after the implementation of the management system. Interviews with environmental managers and staff as well as field observations were also conducted. The results show that the implementation of ISO 14001 EMS by the two gold mining companies led to significant environmental improvements, particularly in waste management, reported environmental incidents, and energy consumption. Segregation of waste was adopted in both companies to ensure appropriate disposal mechanisms to mitigate pollution. Energy consumption significantly decreased in AGA following certification because of the energy conservation policy adopted by the company. In addition, the implementation of the standard brought significant increase in the total number of reported environmental incidents due to the incident reporting protocol inherent in the environmental management system. In all, it was clear that the management system is related to the environmental objectives and targets of the individual organisations and commitment towards fulfilment of the set objectives. Bernard Fei-Baffoe, Godsgood K. Botwe-Koomson, Isaac Fimpong Mensa-Bonsu, and Eric Appiah Agyapong Copyright © 2013 Bernard Fei-Baffoe et al. All rights reserved. Removal of Olive Mill Wastewater Phenolics with the Use of a Polyphenol Oxidase Homogenate from Potato Peel Waste Mon, 09 Dec 2013 14:27:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2013/630209/ Olive mill wastewater (OMW) originating from a two-phase olive oil producing plant was treated with a crude polyphenol oxidase (PPO) homogenate, prepared from potato waste peels. The treatments carried out were based on a 23-full-factorial, central composite design (CCD) in order to identify optimal operational conditions with regard to polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration, pH, and treatment duration. The treatment performance was assessed by estimating the % reduction in total polyphenol (TP) concentration. The model obtained produced a satisfactory fitting of the data (, ). The utilisation of the predictive model enabled the theoretical calculation of the optimal set of conditions, which were ,  h, and [PEG] = 900 mg L−1. Under these conditions, the optimal theoretical % removal calculated was . Examination of the treated samples with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the potato homogenate afforded changes in the polyphenolic profile. Based on the experimental evidence, oxidation pathways were proposed. Florin Daniel Demian and Dimitris P. Makris Copyright © 2013 Florin Daniel Demian and Dimitris P. Makris. All rights reserved. Utilization of Six Sigma in Quality Improvement of Recycled Aggregates Concrete Sat, 30 Nov 2013 12:13:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2013/394912/ The use of recycled demolished concrete in producing new concrete is an established method to improve sustainability through reducing the environmental impact of using virgin aggregates and through reducing construction waste. Six sigma is a set of tools and strategies for process improvement. In this paper, the six sigma DMAIC methodology is utilized to optimize the design parameters in order to improve and assure the quality of the resulting recycled aggregate concrete. The project aims to produce concrete with compressive strength of 25 MPa without using additives. Five parameters were used in the initial analysis that were reduced to three after refinement. The refined parameters are the ratio of recycled coarse aggregates, the ratio of recycled fine aggregates, and the water/cement ratio. It was concluded that the optimum values for the three parameters are 26%, 30%, and 0.5, in order. Mohamad Terro, Moetaz El-Hawary, Rana Al-Fares, and Mark Goldstein Copyright © 2013 Mohamad Terro et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Technology for Treating Wastewater Contaminated with Nitric Acid Tue, 02 Jul 2013 08:17:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2013/278618/ The production process of nitroaromatic hazardous compounds, with the generation of acidic wastewater, represents a significant danger for the health and safety of the workers and the environment. The present study is focused on the development of an efficient installation to treat acidic wastewater resulting from the synthesis process of nitroaromatic compound, considering workers safety and environmental criteria. In this research, a detailed study of the different alternatives that can be used for effective and safe treatment of acidic wastewater was performed. The analysis of several technological schemes for the acidic wastewaters neutralization and the selection of the most feasible alternative from a technical-economic point of view were carried out. The simulation and mathematical modeling developed in this research represent a significant advance in the knowledge of this process for working in a much more secure form. The technological scheme of the process was defined, and the design of the main and auxiliary equipment as well as the piping system was carried out using different computational programs. Finally, this paper proposes a technological design for the treatment of acidic wastewater generated by the production process of nitroaromatic compound, which represents the basic criteria for the further design, construction, and equipment installation of the plant. Liz Mabel Ríos Hidalgo, Luis M. Peralta-Suárez, and Yailen Busto Yera Copyright © 2013 Liz Mabel Ríos Hidalgo et al. All rights reserved. Recycling Glass Cullet from Waste CRTs for the Production of High Strength Mortars Mon, 03 Jun 2013 18:11:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2013/102519/ The present paper reports on the results of some experiments dealing with the recycling of mixed cathode ray tube (CRT) glass waste in the production of high-strength mortars. Waste CRT glass cullet was previously milled, and sieved, and the only fine fraction was added to the fresh mortar in order to replace part of the natural aggregate. The addition of superplasticizer was also investigated. All hydrated materials displayed high compressive strength after curing. Samples containing CRT mixed glass showed a more rapid increase of strength with respect to the reference compositions, and materials with a superplasticizer content of 1% showed the best overall performance due to the favourable influence of the small glass particles which increase the amount of silicate hydrated produced. The induced coupled plasma (ICP) analysis made on the solutions, obtained from the leaching tests, confirmed the low elution of hazardous elements from the monolithic materials produced and consequently their possible environmental compatibility. Stefano Maschio, Gabriele Tonello, and Erika Furlani Copyright © 2013 Stefano Maschio et al. All rights reserved. Phytotoxicity Evolution of Biowastes Undergoing Aerobic Decomposition Sun, 28 Apr 2013 14:03:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2013/479126/ This study is mainly focused on the phytotoxicity improvement within five to six weeks of thermophilic composting of biowastes. Two sets of experiments were conducted involving both sawdust and rice husk as bulking agents, which were composted in self-heating reactors with potato-peel industrial waste and grass clippings as organic materials. The main variables observed over time were temperature, oxygen uptake rate (OUR), biodegradability, and germination index (GI). The effects of compost water extracts on seed germination and primary root growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) were measured to calculate the germination index (GI). The biodegradability was well assessed by measuring lignin content, using the Klason method. The experimental results showed that initial compositions strongly determined the profiles of phytotoxicity and the period of maturation. The phytotoxicity assessment in the experiments with sawdust revealed that after 39 days of composting, the GI attained the maximum value of 30%, but using rice husk, it was possible to reach 70% in the same period of time. Our findings showed that, at a certain point, higher cumulative OUR led to lower germination index, and proportional relationship between the cumulative OUR and GI was observed, after thermophilic phase. M. R. Soares, C. Matsinhe, S. Belo, M. J. Quina, and R. Quinta-Ferreira Copyright © 2013 M. R. Soares et al. All rights reserved. The Effective Electrolytic Recovery of Dilute Copper from Industrial Wastewater Tue, 09 Apr 2013 11:36:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2013/164780/ Electroplating copper industry was discharged huge amount wastewater and cause serious environmental and health damage in Taiwan. This research applied electrical copper recovery system to recover copper metal. In this work, electrotreatment of a industrial copper wastewater ([Cu] = 30000 mg L−1) was studied with titanium net coated with a thin layer of RuO2/IrO2 (DSA) reactor. The optimal result for simulated copper solution was 99.9% copper recovery efficiency in current density 0.585 A/dm2 and no iron ion. Due to high concentration of iron and chloride ions in real industrial wastewater, the copper recovery efficiency was down to 60%. Although, the copper recovery efficiency was not high as simulated copper solution, high environmental economic value was included in the technology. The possibility of pretreating the wastewater with iron is the necessary step, before the electrical recovery copper system. Teng-Chien Chen, Ricky Priambodo, Ruo-Lin Huang, and Yao-Hui Huang Copyright © 2013 Teng-Chien Chen et al. All rights reserved. Heat-Resistant Ceramic Pigments on the Base of Waste Vanadium Catalyst and Alumina Mon, 08 Apr 2013 09:16:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2013/369174/ Ceramic pigments on the base of technogenic silica-containing material—waste vanadium catalyst were obtained in this work. Corundum is identified along with the predominant mullite phase in the composition of pigments. The ions of nickel, chromium, and iron are embedded in the structure if the concentration of the corresponding oxide in the initial mixture does not exceed 10 wt.%. In this case, the oxide is not identified in a free form according to the results of X-ray diffraction analysis. Spinel CoAl2O4 is formed in cobalt pigments. The developed pigments keep the firing temperature up to 1200°C. The obtained pigments may be recommended for ceramic paints and colored glazes for building materials. M. B. Sedelnikova, N. V. Liseenko, Y. I. Pautova, and V. M. Pogrebenkov Copyright © 2013 M. B. Sedelnikova et al. All rights reserved. Investigation into River Sediments Toxicity as a Result of Inappropriate Waste Disposal Tue, 12 Mar 2013 13:46:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2013/825063/ Sediments of the São Francisco River basin (Brazil) were investigated to determine the environmental consequences of incorrect disposal of wastes generated by a zinc industry. Surface sediments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemically analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Total organic carbon (TOC), acid volatile sulfides (AVSs), and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs) were also determined. AVS/SEM procedure was employed to assess the bioavailability of the metals in sediments. XRD analyses indicated that the main phases in the sediments were kaolinite and quartz. The total concentration of Zn and Pb, near the old industrial discharge point, indicated high levels of contamination according to the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). According to the AVS/SEM criteria, despite the high levels of zinc and lead in the sediments, the toxicity resulting from these metals is unlikely in most of the samples. However, in one of the samples, collected near the old industrial discharge point, the toxicity is uncertain—according to the USEPA criteria. Lívia R. Souza and Ana Cláudia Q. Ladeira Copyright © 2013 Lívia R. Souza and Ana Cláudia Q. Ladeira. All rights reserved. Production of Hydrocarbon Liquid by Thermal Pyrolysis of Paper Cup Waste Thu, 07 Mar 2013 08:56:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2013/731858/ The paper cup waste was pyrolysed in a stainless steel semibatch reactor at a temperature range of 325°C to 425°C and at a heating rate of 20°C min−1 with an aim to study the physical and chemical characteristics of the obtained hydrocarbon liquid and to determine its feasibility as a commercial fuel. The maximum liquid yield was 52% at 400°C. The functional groups present in the liquid are aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, alkenes, and alkanes. It was found that the pyrolytic liquid contains around 18 types of compounds having carbon chain length in the range of C6–C20. The obtained liquid can be used as valuable chemicals feedstock. Bijayani Biswal, Sachin Kumar, and R. K. Singh Copyright © 2013 Bijayani Biswal et al. All rights reserved. Adsorption of Cu (II) on the Surface of Nonconventional Biomass: A Study on Forced Convective Mass Transfer in Packed Bed Column Thu, 07 Mar 2013 08:14:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2013/632163/ The present investigation has dealt with the adsorption of Cu (II) across liquid phase on the nonconventional adsorbent. The nonconventional adsorbent used in the present work was Cedrus deodara sawdust obtained from local carpenter's shop. The maximum uptake capacities of Copper (II) ions at saturation and breakthrough point were 55.63 mg/g and 53.18 mg/g for an initial concentration of 93 mg/L of copper, respectively. The fitting of the experimental data in Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models indicated the suitability of Langmuir isotherm in terms of very low statistical error functions that is, and sum of square errors (SSE) and higher values of linear regression coefficient. The goodness of fit of the breakthrough curve in Bohardt-Adams, Wolborska, Modified dose response, and Thomas model indicated the suitability of Thomas model with higher linear regression coefficient and lower values of statistical error functions. The flow rate and bed height affected the hydrodynamic parameters of the packed bed reactor significantly. Vishal Mishra, Chandrajit Balomajumder, and Vijay Kumar Agarwal Copyright © 2013 Vishal Mishra et al. All rights reserved. Contribution of Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste to the Social Inclusion in Brazil Wed, 06 Mar 2013 15:35:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2013/429673/ This paper proposes the selective collection and recycling as alternative ways to promote the social inclusion in Brazil and help the country to eradicate extreme poverty and misery and achieve the first of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG1) of the UN. This work is based on the data from a Brazilian metropolitan city of Campinas and is extended to Brazil. The results show that the municipality of Campinas collects monthly 8000 tons of recyclables which if recycled can avail jobs to nearly 13,000 waste collectors with a minimum national salary of R$ 622/month or alternatively can create 40,280 Family Grants of R$ 200/month. In Brazil, the collected recyclables potential is about 2.4 million tons per month which can avail jobs to 2,350945 waste collectors or alternatively create about 7.3 millions Family Grants. F. A. M. Lino and K. A. R. Ismail Copyright © 2013 F. A. M. Lino and K. A. R. Ismail. All rights reserved. Reuse Feasibility of Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge of Textile Industry in the Manufacturing of Building Blocks Tue, 05 Feb 2013 09:36:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2013/686981/ During the last decade, the growing load of sludge from textile industries, the top foreign exchange earning sector of Bangladesh, is a common nuisance to environmental system and community health. The present study was aimed to minimize the environmental impact from the disposal of Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS) by using it as a partial substitute of clay in the manufacturing of construction material like building blocks (BBs). Different batches of normal and pressurized building blocks (NBBs and PBBs, resp.) were prepared using up to 50% EMHS with clay and then fired at a particular temperature. EMHS proportion in the mixture and firing temperature were two key factors determining the quality of BB. BB did not show any deformation or uneven surfaces at any of the examined firing temperature. At higher firing temperature and EMHS proportion, more weight loss and shrinkage of BB were noticed. Higher compressive strength and lower water adsorption were found at lower EMHS content and higher firing temperature. It was explored that NBB and PBB with 20 and 30% EMHS in clay, respectively, and fired at 1050 °C would be usable for nonloading applications; namely, ornamental bricks, decoration purposes, and fence of garden. Tanveer Mehedi Adyel, Syed Hafizur Rahman, Mohammad Moniruz Zaman, Hossain Md. Sayem, Mala Khan, Md. Abdul Gafur, and S. M. Nazrul Islam Copyright © 2013 Tanveer Mehedi Adyel et al. All rights reserved.