Table 1: Change in anthropometric characteristics and biochemical factors before and after exercise training in elderly women ( 𝑛 = 2 1 ).

Pretraining Posttraining
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD

Weight (kg)46.3 ± 9.846.9 ± 9.3
BMI (Body Mass Index)21.2 ± 4.021.3 ± 3.8
Waist circumference (cm)80.4 ± 11.379.9 ± 11.2
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)155.4 ± 19.7145.5 ± 15.7*
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)76.6 ± 11.372.2 ± 12.4
White blood cells (105 cells·mL−1)59.2 ± 4.448.8 ± 2.2*
Total cholesterol (g·L−1)217.2 ± 10.5202.7 ± 9.7**
HDL-cholesterol (g·L−1)62.2 ± 3.759.8 ± 3.4
LDL-cholesterol (g·L−1)119.4 ± 7.8115.0 ± 8.0
Free fatty acid (mEQ·L−1)0.5 ± 0.10.6 ± 0.1
Triglyceride (g·L−1)102.9 ± 13.491.9 ± 12.1*
Glucose(mg·dL−1)104.4 ± 8.296.4 ± 5.1
Insulin (μU·mL−1)8.3 ± 2.24.3 ± 1.1*
Insulin resistance (HOMA-R)2.3 ± 0.7 1.1 ± 0.3

* 𝑃 < . 0 5 as determined by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
** 𝑃 < . 0 1 as determined by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
HDL; High density lipoprotein, LDL; Low density lipoprotein.
Insulin resistance = [insulin concentration] × [blood glucose concentration]/405.