Table 2: Changes in physical performance and muscle thickness pre- and post exercise training in elderly women ( 𝑛 = 2 1 ).

Pre Post
mean ± SDmean ± SD

Physical performances
 Muscle strength (kg) (hand grip)17.2 ± 3.616.3 ± 3.7
 Balance (sec) (one leg stand with closing eyes)3.0 ± 1.83.5 ± 3.0
 Rapid movement (cm) (grasping the dropped stick)27.4 ± 9.825.5 ± 7.4
 Flexibility (cm) (anteflexion)27.7 ± 9.428.0 ± 7.8

Muscle thickness (mm)
 Anterior upper arm208 ± 24205 ± 24
 Posterior upper arm187 ± 34221 ± 43**
 Abdomen66 ± 1870 ± 20**
 Subscapula142 ± 27159 ± 34*
 Anterior thigh326 ± 54317 ± 52
 Posterior thigh492 ± 62480 ± 65

*Significant differences between Pre and Post values. 𝑃 < . 0 5 Wilcoxon was used as the statistical analysis.
**Significant differences between Pre and Post values. 𝑃 < . 0 1 Wilcoxon was used as the statistical analysis.