- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 312476, 12 pages
The Causative Pathogen Determines the Inflammatory Profile in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Outcome in Patients with Bacterial Meningitis
1Neuroinfection Laboratory, Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Friedbuehlstraße 51, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
2Centre de Recherche en Sante de Nouna, Nouna, Burkina Faso
3Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and University of Basel, 4051 Basel, Switzerland
4Section of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Heidelberg University Hospital, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
5Biology Division, Spiez Laboratory, Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP), 3700 Spiez, Switzerland
Received 22 February 2013; Revised 28 May 2013; Accepted 4 June 2013
Academic Editor: Jonathan P. Godbout
Copyright © 2013 Denis Grandgirard et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- K. Grimwood, V. A. Anderson, L. Bond et al., “Adverse outcomes of bacterial meningitis in school-age survivors,” Pediatrics, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 646–656, 1995.
- D. van de Beek, J. de Gans, L. Spanjaard, M. Weisfelt, J. B. Reitsma, and M. Vermeulen, “Clinical features and prognostic factors in adults with bacterial meningitis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 18, pp. 1849–1959, 2004.
- A. Schuchat, K. Robinson, J. D. Wenger, et al., “Bacterial meningitis in the United States in 1995. Active Surveillance Team,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 337, no. 14, pp. 970–976, 1997.
- M. Ramakrishnan, A. J. Ulland, L. C. Steinhardt, J. C. Moïsi, F. Were, and O. S. Levine, “Sequelae due to bacterial meningitis among African children: a systematic literature review,” BMC Medicine, vol. 7, article 47, 2009.
- R. C. J. de Jonge, A. M. van Furth, M. Wassenaar, R. J. B. J. Gemke, and C. B. Terwee, “Predicting sequelae and death after bacterial meningitis in childhood: a systematic review of prognostic studies,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 10, article 232, 2010.
- A. Diab, J. Zhu, L. Lindquist, B. Wretlind, M. Bakhiet, and H. Link, “Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae induce different intracerebral mRNA cytokine patterns during the course of experimental bacterial meningitis,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 233–241, 1997.
- M. I. Fowler, R. O. Weller, J. E. Heckels, and M. Christodoulides, “Different meningitis-causing bacteria induce distinct inflammatory responses on interaction with cells of the human meninges,” Cellular Microbiology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 555–567, 2004.
- T. H. Mogensen, S. R. Paludan, M. Kilian, and L. Østergaard, “Live Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis activate the inflammatory response through Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 in species-specific patterns,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 267–277, 2006.
- K. Tietze, A. Dalpke, S. Morath, R. Mutters, K. Heeg, and C. Nonnenmacher, “Differences in innate immune responses upon stimulation with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria,” Journal of Periodontal Research, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 447–454, 2006.
- M. M. Mustafa, O. Ramillo, X. Saez-Llorens, K. D. Olsen, R. R. Magness, and G. H. McCracken Jr., “Cerebrospinal fluid prostaglandins, interleukin 1β, and tumor necrosis factor in bacterial meningitis. Clinical and laboratory correlations in placebo-treated and dexamethasone-treated patients,” American Journal of Diseases of Children, vol. 144, no. 8, pp. 883–887, 1990.
- M. M. Mustafa, M. H. Lebel, O. Ramilo et al., “Correlation of interleukin-1β and cachectin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and outcome from bacterial meningitis,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 208–213, 1989.
- O. Ramilo, X. Saez-Llorens, J. Mertsola et al., “Tumor necrosis factor α/cachectin and interleukin 1β initiate meningeal inflammation,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 172, no. 2, pp. 497–507, 1990.
- G. A. Rosenberg, E. Y. Estrada, J. E. Dencoff, and W. G. Stetler-Stevenson, “Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced gelatinase B causes delayed opening of the blood-brain barrier: an expanded therapeutic window,” Brain Research, vol. 703, no. 1-2, pp. 151–155, 1995.
- F. Rusconi, F. Parizzi, L. Garlaschi et al., “Interleukin 6 activity in infants and children with bacterial meningitis,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 117–121, 1991.
- S. J. Hackett, A. P. J. Thomson, and C. A. Hart, “Cytokines, chemokines and other effector molecules involved in meningococcal disease,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 847–859, 2001.
- S. Kastenbauer, B. Angele, B. Sporer, H. Pfister, and U. Koedel, “Patterns of protein expression in infectious meningitis: a cerebrospinal fluid protein array analysis,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 164, no. 1-2, pp. 134–139, 2005.
- R. F. Kornelisse, C. E. Hack, H. F. J. Savelkoul et al., “Intrathecal production of interleukin-12 and gamma interferon in patients with bacterial meningitis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 877–881, 1997.
- C. M. Mastroianni, L. Lancella, F. Mengoni et al., “Chemokine profiles in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during the course of pyogenic and tuberculous meningitis,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 210–214, 1998.
- H. Sprenger, A. Rösler, P. Tonn, H. J. Braune, G. Huffmann, and D. Gemsa, “Chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis,” Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 155–161, 1996.
- S. L. Leib, J. M. Clements, R. L. P. Lindberg et al., “Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and tumour necrosis factor α converting enzyme as adjuvant therapy in pneumococcal meningitis,” Brain, vol. 124, part 9, pp. 1734–1742, 2001.
- S. L. Leib, D. Leppert, J. Clements, and M. G. Täuber, “Matrix metalloproteinases contribute to brain damage in experimental pneumococcal meningitis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 615–620, 2000.
- D. N. Meli, S. Christen, and S. L. Leib, “Matrix metalloproteinase-9 in pneumococcal meningitis: activation via an oxidative pathway,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 187, no. 9, pp. 1411–1415, 2003.
- M. Auer, L. Pfister, D. Leppert, M. G. Täuber, and S. L. Leib, “Effects of clinically used antioxidants in experimental pneumococcal meningitis,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 182, no. 1, pp. 347–350, 2000.
- S. L. Leib, Y. S. Kim, L. L. Chow, R. A. Sheldon, and M. G. Täuber, “Reactive oxygen intermediates contribute to necrotic and apoptotic neuronal injury in an infant rat model of bacterial meningitis due to group B streptococci,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 98, no. 11, pp. 2632–2639, 1996.
- D. Leppert, S. L. Leib, C. Grygar, K. M. Miller, U. B. Schaad, and G. A. Holländer, “Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-9 in cerebrospinal fluid during bacterial meningitis: association with blood-brain barrier damage and neurological sequelae,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 80–84, 2000.
- S. L. Leib, Y. S. Km, S. M. Black, J. H. Tureen, and M. G. Täuber, “Inducible nitric oxide synthase and the effect of aminoguanidine in experimental neonatal meningitis,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 177, no. 3, pp. 692–700, 1998.
- A. Sié, V. Pflüger, B. Coulibaly et al., “ST2859 serogroup a meningococcal meningitis outbreak in Nouna Health District, Burkina Faso: a prospective study,” Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 861–868, 2008.
- M. Glimaker, P. Olcen, and B. Andersson, “Interferon-γ in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with viral and bacterial meningitis,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 141–147, 1994.
- K. L. O'Brien, L. J. Wolfson, J. P. Watt et al., “Burden of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children younger than 5 years: global estimates,” The Lancet, vol. 374, no. 9693, pp. 893–902, 2009.
- M. Weisfelt, J. de Gans, T. van der Poll, and D. van de Beek, “Pneumococcal meningitis in adults: new approaches to management and prevention,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 332–342, 2006.
- K. Edmond, A. Clark, V. S. Korczak, C. Sanderson, U. K. Griffiths, and I. Rudan, “Global and regional risk of disabling sequelae from bacterial meningitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 317–328, 2010.
- M. Glimaker, P. Kragsbjerg, M. Forsgren, and P. Olcen, “Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with meningitis of different etiologies: high levels of TNFα indicate bacterial meningitis,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 167, no. 4, pp. 882–889, 1993.
- K. Spanaus, D. Nadal, H. Pfister et al., “C-X-C and C-C chemokines are expressed in the cerebrospinal fluid in bacterial meningitis and mediate chemotactic activity on peripheral blood-derived polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells in vitro,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 158, no. 4, pp. 1956–1964, 1997.
- G. Conductier, N. Blondeau, A. Guyon, J. Nahon, and C. Rovère, “The role of monocyte chemoattractant protein MCP1/CCL2 in neuroinflammatory diseases,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 224, no. 1-2, pp. 93–100, 2010.
- J. Sellner and S. L. Leib, “In bacterial meningitis cortical brain damage is associated with changes in parenchymal MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio and increased collagen type IV degradation,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 647–656, 2006.
- D. N. Meli, J. M. Loeffler, P. Baumann et al., “In pneumococcal meningitis a novel water-soluble inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases and TNF-α converting enzyme attenuates seizures and injury of the cerebral cortex,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 151, no. 1-2, pp. 6–11, 2004.
- A. M. van Furth, J. J. Roord, and R. van Furth, “Roles of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis and effect of adjunctive therapy,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 64, no. 12, pp. 4883–4890, 1996.
- H. Peltola, “Worldwide Haemophilus influenzae type b disease at the beginning of the 21st century: global analysis of the disease burden 25 years after the use of the polysaccharide vaccine and a decade after the advent of conjugates,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 302–317, 2000.
- D. R. Goddard, R. A. D. Bunning, and M. N. Woodroofe, “Astrocyte and endothelial cell expression of ADAM 17 (TACE) in adult human CNS,” Glia, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 267–271, 2001.
- U. Malipiero, U. Koedel, W. Pfister, and A. Fontana, “Bacterial meningitis: the role of transforming growth factor-beta in innate immunity and secondary brain damage,” Neurodegenerative Diseases, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2007.
- R. Paul, U. Koedel, and H. Pfister, “Development of adjunctive therapies for bacterial meningitis and lessons from knockout mice,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 313–324, 2005.
- B. Woehrl, M. Klein, D. Grandgirard, U. Koedel, and S. Leib, “Bacterial meningitis: current therapy and possible future treatment options,” Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1053–1065, 2011.
- M. van der Flier, S. P. M. Geelen, J. L. L. Kimpen, I. M. Hoepelman, and E. I. Tuomanen, “Reprogramming the host response in bacterial meningitis: how best to improve outcome?” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 415–429, 2003.
- D. Grandgirard and S. L. Leib, “Meningitis in neonates: bench to bedside,” Clinics in Perinatology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 655–676, 2010.