About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 312476, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/312476
Research Article

The Causative Pathogen Determines the Inflammatory Profile in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Outcome in Patients with Bacterial Meningitis

1Neuroinfection Laboratory, Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Friedbuehlstraße 51, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
2Centre de Recherche en Sante de Nouna, Nouna, Burkina Faso
3Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and University of Basel, 4051 Basel, Switzerland
4Section of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Heidelberg University Hospital, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
5Biology Division, Spiez Laboratory, Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP), 3700 Spiez, Switzerland

Received 22 February 2013; Revised 28 May 2013; Accepted 4 June 2013

Academic Editor: Jonathan P. Godbout

Copyright © 2013 Denis Grandgirard et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Grimwood, V. A. Anderson, L. Bond et al., “Adverse outcomes of bacterial meningitis in school-age survivors,” Pediatrics, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 646–656, 1995. View at Scopus
  2. D. van de Beek, J. de Gans, L. Spanjaard, M. Weisfelt, J. B. Reitsma, and M. Vermeulen, “Clinical features and prognostic factors in adults with bacterial meningitis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 18, pp. 1849–1959, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Schuchat, K. Robinson, J. D. Wenger, et al., “Bacterial meningitis in the United States in 1995. Active Surveillance Team,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 337, no. 14, pp. 970–976, 1997.
  4. M. Ramakrishnan, A. J. Ulland, L. C. Steinhardt, J. C. Moïsi, F. Were, and O. S. Levine, “Sequelae due to bacterial meningitis among African children: a systematic literature review,” BMC Medicine, vol. 7, article 47, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. C. J. de Jonge, A. M. van Furth, M. Wassenaar, R. J. B. J. Gemke, and C. B. Terwee, “Predicting sequelae and death after bacterial meningitis in childhood: a systematic review of prognostic studies,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 10, article 232, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Diab, J. Zhu, L. Lindquist, B. Wretlind, M. Bakhiet, and H. Link, “Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae induce different intracerebral mRNA cytokine patterns during the course of experimental bacterial meningitis,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 233–241, 1997. View at Scopus
  7. M. I. Fowler, R. O. Weller, J. E. Heckels, and M. Christodoulides, “Different meningitis-causing bacteria induce distinct inflammatory responses on interaction with cells of the human meninges,” Cellular Microbiology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 555–567, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. H. Mogensen, S. R. Paludan, M. Kilian, and L. Østergaard, “Live Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis activate the inflammatory response through Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 in species-specific patterns,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 267–277, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. Tietze, A. Dalpke, S. Morath, R. Mutters, K. Heeg, and C. Nonnenmacher, “Differences in innate immune responses upon stimulation with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria,” Journal of Periodontal Research, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 447–454, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. M. Mustafa, O. Ramillo, X. Saez-Llorens, K. D. Olsen, R. R. Magness, and G. H. McCracken Jr., “Cerebrospinal fluid prostaglandins, interleukin 1β, and tumor necrosis factor in bacterial meningitis. Clinical and laboratory correlations in placebo-treated and dexamethasone-treated patients,” American Journal of Diseases of Children, vol. 144, no. 8, pp. 883–887, 1990. View at Scopus
  11. M. M. Mustafa, M. H. Lebel, O. Ramilo et al., “Correlation of interleukin-1β and cachectin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and outcome from bacterial meningitis,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 208–213, 1989. View at Scopus
  12. O. Ramilo, X. Saez-Llorens, J. Mertsola et al., “Tumor necrosis factor α/cachectin and interleukin 1β initiate meningeal inflammation,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 172, no. 2, pp. 497–507, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. A. Rosenberg, E. Y. Estrada, J. E. Dencoff, and W. G. Stetler-Stevenson, “Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced gelatinase B causes delayed opening of the blood-brain barrier: an expanded therapeutic window,” Brain Research, vol. 703, no. 1-2, pp. 151–155, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. Rusconi, F. Parizzi, L. Garlaschi et al., “Interleukin 6 activity in infants and children with bacterial meningitis,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 117–121, 1991. View at Scopus
  15. S. J. Hackett, A. P. J. Thomson, and C. A. Hart, “Cytokines, chemokines and other effector molecules involved in meningococcal disease,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 847–859, 2001. View at Scopus
  16. S. Kastenbauer, B. Angele, B. Sporer, H. Pfister, and U. Koedel, “Patterns of protein expression in infectious meningitis: a cerebrospinal fluid protein array analysis,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 164, no. 1-2, pp. 134–139, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. F. Kornelisse, C. E. Hack, H. F. J. Savelkoul et al., “Intrathecal production of interleukin-12 and gamma interferon in patients with bacterial meningitis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 877–881, 1997. View at Scopus
  18. C. M. Mastroianni, L. Lancella, F. Mengoni et al., “Chemokine profiles in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during the course of pyogenic and tuberculous meningitis,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 210–214, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Sprenger, A. Rösler, P. Tonn, H. J. Braune, G. Huffmann, and D. Gemsa, “Chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis,” Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 155–161, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. L. Leib, J. M. Clements, R. L. P. Lindberg et al., “Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and tumour necrosis factor α converting enzyme as adjuvant therapy in pneumococcal meningitis,” Brain, vol. 124, part 9, pp. 1734–1742, 2001. View at Scopus
  21. S. L. Leib, D. Leppert, J. Clements, and M. G. Täuber, “Matrix metalloproteinases contribute to brain damage in experimental pneumococcal meningitis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 615–620, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. N. Meli, S. Christen, and S. L. Leib, “Matrix metalloproteinase-9 in pneumococcal meningitis: activation via an oxidative pathway,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 187, no. 9, pp. 1411–1415, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Auer, L. Pfister, D. Leppert, M. G. Täuber, and S. L. Leib, “Effects of clinically used antioxidants in experimental pneumococcal meningitis,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 182, no. 1, pp. 347–350, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. L. Leib, Y. S. Kim, L. L. Chow, R. A. Sheldon, and M. G. Täuber, “Reactive oxygen intermediates contribute to necrotic and apoptotic neuronal injury in an infant rat model of bacterial meningitis due to group B streptococci,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 98, no. 11, pp. 2632–2639, 1996. View at Scopus
  25. D. Leppert, S. L. Leib, C. Grygar, K. M. Miller, U. B. Schaad, and G. A. Holländer, “Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-9 in cerebrospinal fluid during bacterial meningitis: association with blood-brain barrier damage and neurological sequelae,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 80–84, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. L. Leib, Y. S. Km, S. M. Black, J. H. Tureen, and M. G. Täuber, “Inducible nitric oxide synthase and the effect of aminoguanidine in experimental neonatal meningitis,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 177, no. 3, pp. 692–700, 1998. View at Scopus
  27. A. Sié, V. Pflüger, B. Coulibaly et al., “ST2859 serogroup a meningococcal meningitis outbreak in Nouna Health District, Burkina Faso: a prospective study,” Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 861–868, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Glimaker, P. Olcen, and B. Andersson, “Interferon-γ in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with viral and bacterial meningitis,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 141–147, 1994. View at Scopus
  29. K. L. O'Brien, L. J. Wolfson, J. P. Watt et al., “Burden of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children younger than 5 years: global estimates,” The Lancet, vol. 374, no. 9693, pp. 893–902, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Weisfelt, J. de Gans, T. van der Poll, and D. van de Beek, “Pneumococcal meningitis in adults: new approaches to management and prevention,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 332–342, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Edmond, A. Clark, V. S. Korczak, C. Sanderson, U. K. Griffiths, and I. Rudan, “Global and regional risk of disabling sequelae from bacterial meningitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 317–328, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Glimaker, P. Kragsbjerg, M. Forsgren, and P. Olcen, “Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with meningitis of different etiologies: high levels of TNFα indicate bacterial meningitis,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 167, no. 4, pp. 882–889, 1993. View at Scopus
  33. K. Spanaus, D. Nadal, H. Pfister et al., “C-X-C and C-C chemokines are expressed in the cerebrospinal fluid in bacterial meningitis and mediate chemotactic activity on peripheral blood-derived polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells in vitro,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 158, no. 4, pp. 1956–1964, 1997. View at Scopus
  34. G. Conductier, N. Blondeau, A. Guyon, J. Nahon, and C. Rovère, “The role of monocyte chemoattractant protein MCP1/CCL2 in neuroinflammatory diseases,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 224, no. 1-2, pp. 93–100, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Sellner and S. L. Leib, “In bacterial meningitis cortical brain damage is associated with changes in parenchymal MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio and increased collagen type IV degradation,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 647–656, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. N. Meli, J. M. Loeffler, P. Baumann et al., “In pneumococcal meningitis a novel water-soluble inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases and TNF-α converting enzyme attenuates seizures and injury of the cerebral cortex,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 151, no. 1-2, pp. 6–11, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. M. van Furth, J. J. Roord, and R. van Furth, “Roles of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis and effect of adjunctive therapy,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 64, no. 12, pp. 4883–4890, 1996. View at Scopus
  38. H. Peltola, “Worldwide Haemophilus influenzae type b disease at the beginning of the 21st century: global analysis of the disease burden 25 years after the use of the polysaccharide vaccine and a decade after the advent of conjugates,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 302–317, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. R. Goddard, R. A. D. Bunning, and M. N. Woodroofe, “Astrocyte and endothelial cell expression of ADAM 17 (TACE) in adult human CNS,” Glia, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 267–271, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. U. Malipiero, U. Koedel, W. Pfister, and A. Fontana, “Bacterial meningitis: the role of transforming growth factor-beta in innate immunity and secondary brain damage,” Neurodegenerative Diseases, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. Paul, U. Koedel, and H. Pfister, “Development of adjunctive therapies for bacterial meningitis and lessons from knockout mice,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 313–324, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. B. Woehrl, M. Klein, D. Grandgirard, U. Koedel, and S. Leib, “Bacterial meningitis: current therapy and possible future treatment options,” Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1053–1065, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. van der Flier, S. P. M. Geelen, J. L. L. Kimpen, I. M. Hoepelman, and E. I. Tuomanen, “Reprogramming the host response in bacterial meningitis: how best to improve outcome?” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 415–429, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. Grandgirard and S. L. Leib, “Meningitis in neonates: bench to bedside,” Clinics in Perinatology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 655–676, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus