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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 395672, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/395672
Research Article

Exercise and Caloric Restriction Alter the Immune System of Mice Submitted to a High-Fat Diet

1Department of Biophysics, Federal University of São Paulo, 04023-062 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Avenue Arlindo Bettio 1000, 03828-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
3Department of Immunology, Laboratory of Transplantation Immunobiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
4Department of Nutrition, School of Nutrition, Federal University of Pelotas, 96010-610 Pelotas, RS, Brazil

Received 5 December 2012; Revised 5 February 2013; Accepted 6 February 2013

Academic Editor: François Mach

Copyright © 2013 Frederick Wasinski et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

As the size of adipocytes increases during obesity, the establishment of resident immune cells in adipose tissue becomes an important source of proinflammatory mediators. Exercise and caloric restriction are two important, nonpharmacological tools against body mass increase. To date, their effects on the immune cells of adipose tissue in obese organisms, specifically when a high-fat diet is consumed, have been poorly investigated. Thus, after consuming a high-fat diet, mice were submitted to chronic swimming training or a 30% caloric restriction in order to investigate the effects of both interventions on resident immune cells in adipose tissue. These strategies were able to reduce body mass and resulted in changes in the number of resident immune cells in the adipose tissue and levels of cytokines/chemokines in serum. While exercise increased the number of NK cells in adipose tissue and serum levels of IL-6 and RANTES, caloric restriction increased the CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and MCP-1 levels. Together, these data demonstrated that exercise and caloric restriction modulate resident immune cells in adipose tissues differently in spite of an equivalent body weight reduction. Additionally, the results also reinforce the idea that a combination of both strategies is better than either individually for combating obesity.