- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 495848, 8 pages
IL-1β and IL-6 Upregulation in Children with H1N1 Influenza Virus Infection
1Department of Pediatrics, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, A. Gemelli Hospital, Policlinico Gemelli, Largo Gemelli, 1-00168 Rome, Italy
2Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, A. Gemelli Hospital, 00168 Rome, Italy
Received 22 June 2012; Accepted 31 March 2013
Academic Editor: Ger Rijkers
Copyright © 2013 Antonio Chiaretti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The role of cytokines in relation to clinical manifestations, disease severity, and outcome of children with H1N1 virus infection remains thus far unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate interleukin IL-1β and IL-6 plasma expressions and their association with clinical findings, disease severity, and outcome of children with H1N1 infection. We prospectively evaluated 15 children with H1N1 virus infection and 15 controls with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Interleukin plasma levels were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. Significantly higher levels of IL-1β and IL-6 were detected in all patients with H1N1 virus infection compared to controls. It is noteworthy to mention that in H1N1 patients with more severe clinical manifestations of disease IL-1β and IL-6 expressions were significantly upregulated compared to H1N1 patients with mild clinical manifestations. In particular, IL-6 was significantly correlated with specific clinical findings, such as severity of respiratory compromise and fever. No correlation was found between interleukin expression and final outcome. In conclusion, H1N1 virus infection induces an early and significant upregulation of both interleukins IL1β and IL-6 plasma expressions. The upregulation of these cytokines is likely to play a proinflammatory role in H1N1 virus infection and may contribute to airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity in these patients.
In the last years the world has been facing a new pandemia caused by an H1N1 influenza virus, the so-called H1N1/09 virus, which contains a unique combination of gene segments that has never been identified in humans or animals . This new pandemic strain is of particular concern because of its efficient person-to-person transmission responsible for increased virulence and morbidity in humans [2, 3].
The novel influenza H1N1 virus was identified as a cause of febrile respiratory infections ranging from self-limited to severe illness both in adults and children. Recent data reported that most cases of H1N1 infection with high rate of hospitalizations occurred in children who aged 5–14 years. A small percentage of these patients can develop more complicated and severe symptoms, such as elevated fever, violent dry cough, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) [4, 5], requiring admission in Pediatric Intensive Care unit (PICU) and mechanical ventilation .
Several hypotheses to explain this particular virulence of H1N1 in children were advocated, including downregulation of type 1 interferon expression, apoptosis, and hyperinduction of proinflammatory cytokines . Upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, such as the TNF-a, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, and a cytokine-mediated inflammatory response have also been documented as responsible of severity of viral lung infections . Different viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenovirus, enhanced the production of IL-6 by human macrophages influencing the susceptibility and severity of respiratory infections . In addition, pulmonary and systemic inflammatory stimuli, such as hypoxia and fever, induce the biosynthesis of interleukins (ILs) in most cell types, including respiratory endothelium and mast cells [10, 11], thus determining the increase of vascular permeability and leukocyte accumulation in lung tissue [12, 13]. In the literature the inflammatory role of IL-6 and IL-1β in both systemic and respiratory disorders such as meningitis, head injury, and ARDS has also been reported [14, 15]. Moreover, recent studies demonstrated that influenza virus A elicits an acute inflammatory response characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-33 and IL-6, in infected lungs, suggesting a key role for these interleukins in the pathogenesis of respiratory epithelial cell damage and lung inflammation [16, 17]. However, the role of most cytokines in relation to clinical findings, disease severity, and outcome of children with H1N1 virus infection remains thus far unclear. Attempting to elucidate the immune mechanisms of inflammation and to clarify the role of interleukins IL-1β and IL-6 in children with H1N1 virus infection, we evaluated the plasma levels of these cytokines in 15 children with H1N1 infection and 15 controls with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), to determine whether a correlation with the expression of these molecular markers and clinical findings of these patients exists.
2. Patients and Methods
2.1. Study Population
We conducted a prospective observational clinical study among children admitted from October 2009 to December 2010 with the diagnosis of influenza H1N1 virus infection and LRTI to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit (PIDU) of the “Agostino Gemelli” Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Rome, Italy. Patients with H1N1 influenza virus infection were grouped according to age, etiology of virus infection, findings of chest radiograph, clinical and laboratory characteristics, respiratory care, and final outcome (Table 1). We also decided to differentiate the patients with H1N1 virus infection in two groups (severe and mild manifestations of H1N1 infection) based on the severity of the symptoms and on the admission to the PICU. We considered severe manifestations of H1N1 influenza infection, the presence of hypoxia at admission (SpO2 less than 82% in room air), ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation or noninvasive ventilation (NIV) by Helmet, oxygen supplementation by Ventimask or CPAP by face mask, severity of fever (more than 39°C at the moment of admission), presence and duration of cough, presence of specific radiological findings, such as pneumothorax (PNX), pneumopericardium, and pneumomediastinum, and other specific clinical manifestations, such as neurological involvement. Based on these admission parameters, nine patients with severe manifestations of H1N1 influenza virus infection were admitted to the PICU, while the other 6 patients with mild symptoms of H1N1 infection were admitted to the PIDU. Regarding the control group, 8 infants with severe RSV bronchiolitis were admitted to the PICU, while the other 7 children with LRTI to the PIDU. Six infants with RSV bronchiolitis admitted to the PICU underwent oxygen supplementation and NIV by Helmet, while the other 2 patients required mechanical ventilation. The other 7 infants belonging to the control group required only oxygen supplementation and symptomatic treatment (Table 2).
Oral Oseltamivir (60 mg twice daily for 5 days) was administered to all 15 patients with the diagnosis of influenza H1N1 virus infection, and supportive therapy for ARDS was started based on the severity of respiratory failure (Table 1). Fever was treated aggressively with paracetamol, while dry cough with aerosol therapy. Chest X-ray was performed within the first 6 hours of hospital admission. Eventual chest CT scan was performed in all children with H1N1 infection with particular severity of respiratory impairment or with specific findings at standard chest radiography (i.e., PNX, pneumopericardium, or pneumomediastinum). All patients were isolated at the moment of the admission based on their clinical symptoms suspected for H1N1 infection or other acute respiratory illness. The throat/nose swabs and blood samples for both laboratory studies and cytokines determination were taken at the moment of the admission. All the throat/nose swabs were sent to the microbiology for influenza virus detection and were analyzed for influenza A, B, subtypes of A by influenza real-time RT-PCR test, and RSV infection. Tables 1 and 2 reported the clinical and demographic characteristics of both patients and controls studied.
The outcome of patients was assessed upon discharge from the hospital using the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS), which assigns a score of 1 to children who died, 2 to persistent vegetative state, 3 to severe neurologic deficits, 4 to mild neurologic deficits, and 5 to completely healthy children [18, 19].
2.2. Plasma Sample Collection
In H1N1 patients we collected blood samples using indwelling radial artery catheters in children admitted to the PICU or arterial puncture in children admitted to the PIDU after local painful treatment. All samples were obtained in the acute phase of the illness, at the moment of the admission of the patients, and before starting any treatment. The plasma samples were submitted for microbiological and biochemical analysis (leukocyte and platelet counts, serum C-reactive protein concentration, procalcitonin, glucose-protein concentration, electrolytes, acid-base study, BUN, etc.).
To measure interleukin levels all blood samples were centrifuged for 10 min at 5,000 rpm, and the supernatants were immediately stored at −70°C until analysis.
As controls, we used blood radial artery samples collected from children with the diagnosis of LRTI who had undergone blood sample analysis at the moment of their admission to the PICU or PIDU.
The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and the parents of participating children were informed about study and provided written informed consent.
2.3. Interleukin Assays
IL-1β and IL-6 were measured from blood samples using commercial immunoenzymatic kits (Human Quantikine by R&D Systems) following the instructions of the manufacturer. The sensitivity of the assay was typically 0.70 pg/mL for IL-6 and 1 pg/mL for IL-1β; no cross-reactivity or interference with other related interleukins was observed. Results were represented in pg/mL, and all assays were performed in duplicate.
2.4. Statistical Analysis
The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test and t-test were used to perform statistical comparisons between children with H1N1 virus infection and LRTI control group for continuous variables. Analysis of variance was performed using Tukey-Kramer test to compare levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the studied population. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between interleukin expression and clinical manifestations in H1N1 patients. Coefficient of determination () was taken as a measure of the goodness of fit of the model. A P value was considered significant. Statistical and database software used included GraphPad version 5.0 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA) and Microsoft Office Excel 2007 (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA), respectively.
3.1. Clinical and Laboratory Differences between H1N1 Patients and Controls
We include in this study 15 patients with H1N1 virus infection and 15 children with LRTI. Patients with H1N1 infection aged 2.8 years to 17.3 years, with a mean age of 7.9 years, while children with LRTI aged 1.1 years to 6.3 years, with a mean age of 3.7 years. Nine children with severe H1N1 virus infection were admitted to our PICU due to the severity of their respiratory compromise, while the other 6 patients to the PIDU. Among children with LRTI, 8 out of 15 were admitted to the PICU with the diagnosis of severe RSV bronchiolitis, while the other 7 were admitted to the PIDU (4 with diagnosis of non-RSV bronchiolitis and 3 with diagnosis of influenza A (H2N3) virus infection). Regarding clinical differences between the two groups, H1N1 patients experienced higher median fever (39.2°C) compared to controls (37.7°C) (). Cough was a common symptom in both groups. However, H1N1 patients more frequently suffered from a dry and longer cough compared to LRTI patients (median 6 days versus 4 days) (). The most frequent pulmonary abnormalities at chest X-ray were represented by pneumonia and pulmonary consolidation in the H1N1 patients, while in LRTI children we detected atypical findings, such as hyperinflated lungs and segmental pulmonary atelectasias. Two patients with H1N1 infection showed PNX, while another three children showed severe respiratory complications, such as pneumopericardium, pneumomediastinum, and pneumorrhachis at chest CT scan (Table 1). No pulmonary or systemic complications were referred to LRTI group. No differences in clinical manifestations, such as gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, have been reported between the groups. Regarding laboratory tests (blood cells and platelet count, serum C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, GOT, GPT, CTN, and urea) no significant differences were detected between H1N1 patients and LRTI controls. All children, both patients and controls, had a good outcome without any significant complications (GOS 5), but H1N1 patients had a significantly longer time of hospitalization compared to the control group (9 days versus 3 days: ).
3.2. Interleukin Expression in H1N1 Patients and Controls
In H1N1 patients we detected different plasma levels of interleukins. In these patients we found significantly () higher levels of IL-6 ( pg/mL) compared to IL-1β ( pg/mL) (Figure 1). Also in LRTI patients the mean plasma levels of IL-6 were significantly higher compared to the levels of IL-1β ( pg/mL versus pg/mL) () (Figure 2).
3.3. Plasma Level Differences of Interleukin Expression between H1N1 Patients and Controls
Significantly higher levels of interleukin IL-6 and IL-1β were demonstrated in all patients with H1N1 infection compared to controls. Compared with LRTI patients, H1N1 patients displayed significantly increased plasma levels of IL-6 ( pg/mL versus pg/mL; ) and IL-1β ( pg/mL versus pg/mL; ) (Figure 3).
3.4. Correlation between Interleukin Expression with Disease Severity and Clinical Manifestations in H1N1 Patients
To elucidate the association between interleukin expression and disease severity, we analyzed their plasma levels both in patients with severe (9 patients) and mild symptoms (6 patients) of H1N1 influenza virus infection. Compared to the mild patients, severe H1N1 patients produced significant higher levels of IL-1 ( pg/mL versus pg/mL; ) and IL-6 ( pg/mL versus pg/mL; ) (Figure 4).
Moreover, to verify whether there was a correlation between interleukin up-regulation and clinical manifestations in H1N1 patients, we compared the plasma levels of these cytokines with some clinical symptoms referred to the patients. In particular, we detected a positive correlation between plasma level of IL-6 and fever with a coefficient of determination of 0.64 () (Figure 5). Finally we found a negative correlation between IL-6 plasma level and SpO2 at admission in room air with a coefficient of determination of 0.53 () (Figure 6). No significant correlations were reported between interleukin expression and other clinical and laboratoristic parameters, such as biochemical markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and procalcitonin), respiratory care, systemic complications, and, finally, outcome of all children, with H1N1 virus infection.
Our study, despite the limited patient sample so far evaluated, provides evidence that H1N1 virus infection induces an early and significant up-regulation of interleukin IL-1β and IL-6 plasma levels suggesting that these cytokines are responsible for different molecular reactions leading to airway inflammation and disease severity. Compared to LRTI controls, H1N1 infected children showed a strongly higher production of both IL-1β and IL-6 soon after virus lung infection, and this overexpression seems to correlate with the severity of clinical compromise assessed upon admission. We also observed that in H1N1 patients with more severe clinical manifestations of disease, plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly upregulated compared to H1N1 mild patients and that this over expression was correlated with some specific clinical manifestations and a longer time of hospitalisation. More in particular, IL-6 up-regulation was significantly correlated with the severity of respiratory compromise, testified by a lower SpO2 at admission and higher fever observed in this subset of children, as previously reported in patients with H1N1 virus infection . No differences were reported between plasma expression of these factors and final outcome of patients and controls.
To date it is difficult to explain the exact role of ILs in the mechanisms of virus host response, because both pro-inflammatory and immunoprotective actions have been reported in previous researches. H1N1 virus infection causes the activation of the host macrophages and lymphocytes determining the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines into the lung tissue may lead to higher blood vessel permeability, phagocytic cell recruitment, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells, and release of neutrophil-derived enzymes, such as myeloperoxidase and elastase, responsible of severity of acute lung injury . Our results are in agreement with these studies, as we showed a significant correlation between ILs up-regulation and severity of respiratory compromise in children with H1N1 virus infection. There are some possible explanations for this relationship. Up-regulation of IL-1β and IL-6 may affect lung functioning because hypoxia is in turn responsible for the endogenous cytokine production after H1N1 lung infections . Cytokine up-regulation may cause epithelial cell damage through different mechanisms. ILs have a direct toxic effect by increasing the production of nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase, and free radicals and by favouring the release of the excitatory amino acid in experimental model of neurotoxicity and also in patients with severe sleep apnea [21, 22],thus determining impaired pulmonary function . Previous studies, in fact, reported the correlation between IL-1β and IL-6 up-regulation and some clinical and radiological findings, such as pneumonia and ARDS, both in experimental animal models and in children with naturally acquired seasonal influenza A [24–27]. More in particular, IL-1β and IL-6 have been identified as specific markers of the severity of acute lung injury during H1N1 influenza virus infection  and it has also been reported that IL-1β is an early and useful biomarker of the severity and progression of lung inflammation in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation and unresponsive to anti-microbiological treatment . Our results are consistent with these previous researches because children with more severe clinical and radiological manifestations of H1N1 disease severity, such as ARDS and longer and dry cough, elicited a more intensive production of IL-1β and IL-6 than H1N1 mild patients, suggesting that this up-regulation exerted a key role in biochemical and molecular processes affecting the lung soon after the infection leading to the development of airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity [29, 30].
Up to now it is difficult to explain if the observed ILs up-regulation in H1N1 patients can represent a protective mechanisms for respiratory cell survival or it is secondary to a loss of physiological control of ILs biosynthesis. Available clinical and experimental data does not permit a definitive clarification of these findings. ILs plasma levels increase in several inflammatory diseases, such as allergen provocation and asthma. Recently, lymphocytes and in particular activated T cells were revealed to express ILs receptors in the experimental animal model of pulmonary sarcoidosis and chemical lung injury [31, 32]. So, it is possible that ILs upregulation is secondary to lymphocytes rapid activation by H1N1 virus infection and that this over-expression represents an important process in the mechanisms of inflammatory host response after viral lung infections [33, 34].
Previous studies, in fact, reported that different viral lung infections are associated with early up-regulation of cytokine biosynthesis suggesting that the changes of ILs release may contribute to the development of airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity . In our study, IL-1β and IL-6 up-regulation, observed early after H1N1 virus infection, was consistent with the timing of cytokine expression in experimental models of virus infected human alveolar macrophages, suggesting that this over expression plays a key role in the mechanisms of inflammatory lung response . The significant correlation between ILs upregulation and severity of H1N1 virus infection observed in our patients might reflect an endogenous attempt against molecular mechanisms activated in the epithelium cells of infected lung suggesting that ILs up-regulation acts in different fashion to amplify and propagate inflammation in the airways. However, given that the statistical power to find a statistically significant association in a model of 15 patients is very low, we need to be very cautious on interpreting these data, because only limited information is available on ILs expression in children with viral lung infections.
In conclusion, our observations provide new evidence that an immune response is activated at the early stage of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection with up-regulated production of plasma interleukins IL-1β and IL-6. These findings are consistent with previous experimental and clinical studies confirming a key role for both of these interleukins in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity during virus lung infections. The increased expression of these cytokines may together be the underlying cause of the observed clinical symptoms in severe H1N1 patients, and defining the relationships between ILs expression and the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of H1N1 may help to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of H1N1 influenza and other human viral lung infections. Further clinical and experimental investigations are necessary to identify the ILs target cells in the damaged lung and to discover possible clinical applications of ILs in children with H1N1 influenza virus and other viral lung infections.
- R. J. Garten, C. T. Davis, C. A. Russell et al., “Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5937, pp. 197–201, 2009.
- Y. Itoh, K. Shinya, M. Kiso, et al., “In vitro and in vivo characterization of new swine-origin H1N1 influenza viruses,” Nature, vol. 460, no. 7258, pp. 1021–1025, 2009.
- T. R. Maines, A. Jayaraman, J. A. Belser et al., “Transmission and pathogenesis of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses in ferrets and mice,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5939, pp. 484–487, 2009.
- M. Hasegawa, K. Hashimoto, M. Morozumi, K. Ubukata, T. Takahashi, and Y. Inamo, “Spontaneous pneumomediastinum complicating pneumonia in children infected with the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 195–199, 2010.
- T. Kamigaki and H. Oshitani, “Epidemiological characteristics and low case fatality rate of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Japan,” PLoS Currents, vol. 1, Article ID RRN1139, 2009.
- “Epidemiological summary of pandemic influenza A, (H1N1) 2009 virus Ontario, Canada, June 2009,” Weekly Epidemiological Record, vol. 84, no. 47, pp. 485–491, 2009.
- X. Yu, X. Zhang, B. Zhao, et al., “Intensive cytokine induction in pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection accompanied by robust production of IL-10 and IL-6,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 12, Article ID e28680, 2011.
- A. Estella, “Cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum in 3 patients with 2009 influenza A(H1N1)v severe pneumonia,” Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 540–543, 2011.
- J. A. Patel, S. Nair, E. E. Ochoa, R. Huda, N. J. Roberts, and T. Chonmaitree, “Interleukin-6−174 and tumor necrosis factor α−308 polymorphisms enhance cytokine production by human macrophages exposed to respiratory viruses,” Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 917–921, 2010.
- E. Bona, A. L. Andersson, K. Blomgren et al., “Chemokine and inflammatory cell response to hypoxia-ischemia in immature rats,” Pediatric Research, vol. 45, no. 4 I, pp. 500–509, 1999.
- M. Baggiolini, B. Dewald, and B. Moser, “Human chemokines: an update,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 15, pp. 675–705, 1997.
- N. Maruo, I. Morita, M. Shirao, and S. I. Murota, “IL-6 increases endothelial permeability in vitro,” Endocrinology, vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 710–714, 1992.
- I. Julkunen, T. Sareneva, J. Pirhonen, T. Ronni, K. Melén, and S. Matikainen, “Molecular pathogenesis of influenza A virus infection and virus-induced regulation of cytokine gene expression,” Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 12, no. 2-3, pp. 171–180, 2001.
- A. Chiaretti, O. Genovese, L. Aloe et al., “Interleukin 1β and interleukin 6 relationship with paediatric head trauma severity and outcome,” Child's Nervous System, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 185–193, 2005.
- C. L. Wu, Y. L. Lee, K. M. Chang et al., “Bronchoalveolar interleukin-1β: a marker of bacterial burden in mechanically ventilated patients with community-acquired pneumonia,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 812–817, 2003.
- R. Le Goffic, M. I. Arshad, M. Rauch et al., “Infection with influenza virus induces IL-33 in murine lungs,” The American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1125–1132, 2011.
- A. G. Besnard, D. Togbe, N. Guillou, F. Erard, V. Quesniaux, and B. Ryffel, “IL-33-activated dendritic cells are critical for allergic airway inflammation,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1675–1686, 2011.
- P. M. Shore, R. P. Berger, S. Varma et al., “Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers versus glasgow coma scale and glasgow outcome scale in pediatric traumatic brain injury: the role of young age and inflicted injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 75–86, 2007.
- C. M. Robertson, A. R. Joffe, A. J. Moore, and J. M. Watt, “Neurodevelopmental outcome of young pediatric intensive care survivors of serious brain injury,” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 345–350, 2002.
- S. C. Ducrocq, P. G. Meyer, G. A. Orliaguet et al., “Epidemiology and early predictive factors of mortality and outcome in children with traumatic severe brain injury: experience of a French pediatric trauma center,” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 461–467, 2006.
- C. C. Chao, S. Hu, L. Ehrlich, and P. K. Peterson, “Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α synergistically mediate neurotoxicity: involvement of nitric oxide and of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 355–365, 1995.
- R. J. Kimoff, Q. Hamid, M. Divangahi et al., “Increased upper airway cytokines and oxidative stress in severe obstructive sleep apnoea,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 89–97, 2011.
- S. S. Chang, C. A. V. Fragoso, P. H. van Ness, L. P. Fried, and M. E. Tinetti, “Association between combined interleukin-6 and c-reactive protein levels and pulmonary function in older women: results from the women's health and aging studies I and II,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 113–119, 2011.
- M. Seki, S. Kohno, M. W. Newstead et al., “Critical role of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-M in regulating chemokine-dependent deleterious inflammation in murine influenza pneumonia,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 184, no. 3, pp. 1410–1418, 2010.
- M. Sato, M. Hosoya, and P. F. Wright, “Differences in serum cytokine levels between influenza virus A and B infections in children,” Cytokine, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 65–68, 2009.
- T. Taga and T. Kishimoto, “Gp130 and the interleukin-6 family of cytokines,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 15, pp. 797–819, 1997.
- P. Puneet, S. Moochhala, and M. Bhatia, “Chemokines in acute respiratory distress syndrome,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 288, no. 1, pp. L3–L15, 2005.
- G. U. Meduri, G. Kohler, S. Headley, E. Tolley, F. Stentz, and A. Postlethwaite, “Inflammatory cytokines in the BAL of patients with ARDS: persistent elevation over time predicts poor outcome,” Chest, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 1303–1314, 1995.
- A. Z. El-Hashim and S. M. Jaffal, “Nerve growth factor enhances cough and airway obstruction via TrkA receptor- and TRPV1-dependent mechanisms,” Thorax, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 791–797, 2009.
- A. de Vries, F. Engels, P. A. J. Henricks et al., “Airway hyper-responsiveness in allergic asthma in guinea-pigs is mediated by nerve growth factor via the induction of substance P: a potential role for trkA,” Clinical and Experimental Allergy, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 1192–1200, 2006.
- C. Dagnell, J. Grunewald, M. Kramar et al., “Neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors in pulmonary sarcoidosis—granulomas as a source of expression,” Respiratory Research, vol. 11, article 156, 2010.
- H. Fujimaki, T. T. Win-Shwe, S. Yamamoto, D. Nakajima, and S. Goto, “Role of CD4+ T cells in the modulation of neurotrophin production in mice exposed to low-level toluene,” Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 146–149, 2009.
- R. Linker, R. Gold, and F. Luhder, “Function of neurotrophic factors beyond the nervous system: inflammation and autoimmune demyelination,” Critical Reviews in Immunology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 43–68, 2009.
- L. Tortorolo, A. Langer, G. Polidori et al., “Neurotrophin overexpression in lower airways of infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection,” The American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 172, no. 2, pp. 233–237, 2005.
- S. Becker, J. Quay, and J. Soukup, “Cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, IL-6, and IL-8) production by respiratory syncytial virus-infected human alveolar macrophages,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 147, no. 12, pp. 4307–4312, 1991.