Figure 4: ASP induces proinflammatory effects in vitro. In (a), in vitro chemoattractive effects of three concentrations of ASP combined or not with adipocyte conditioned media on macrophages are shown. ASP effects on macrophage polarization to M1 phenotype are shown using M1 macrophage marker CD11c in (b) while ASP effects on M2 polarization are shown using M2 macrophage marker CD163 in (c). Results are expressed as relative expression or migration compared with Controls. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM where differences versus Control are expressed as , , , , with . & are used in (a) to indicate a significant difference in between 200 nM and 50 nM ASP concentration effect. Arrows are used to indicate a significant linear trend by ANOVA analysis where and .