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Figure 1: General overview of the inflammatory target proteins in respiratory diseases. Many of the known inflammatory target proteins, such as MMP-9, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, COX-2, and , are induced by various stimuli, such as mitogens, growth factors, virus infection, cytokines, and bacterial infection. EGF, epidermal growth factor; PDGF, platelet derived growth factor; EV71, enterovirus 71; JEV, Japanese encephalitis virus; IL-1 , interleukin-1 ; TNF- , tumor necrosis factor- ; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; LTA, lipoteichoic acid.