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Figure 2: The signaling pathways in airway and pulmonary inflammation. Various stimuli, such as mitogens, growth factors, virus infection, cytokines, and bacterial infection, can induce inflammation via the NADPH oxidase/ROS, PKCs, c-Src, EGFR, PDGFR, PI3K/Akt, and MAPKs pathways and the transcription factors, such as NF-κB and AP-1 in lung resident cells.