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Figure 3: General overview of the inflammatory signaling pathways in respiratory diseases. Many of the known inflammatory target proteins, such as MMP-9, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, COX-2, and , are associated with inflammatory signaling pathways induced by various stimuli, including TNF- , IL-1 , ATP, cigarette smoke, LTA, or LPS. Moreover, the SFKs, PKCs, growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors, NADPH oxidase/ROS, PI3K/Akt, and MAPKs are components of signaling cascades that respond to extracellular stimuli by targeting transcription factors, such as NF-κB and AP-1, resulting in the modulation of inflammatory gene expression associated with pulmonary diseases.