Mediators of Inflammation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Study of Mechanisms of Protective Effect of Rg1 against Arthritis by Inhibiting Osteoclast Differentiation and Maturation in CIA Mice Thu, 21 Aug 2014 05:47:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/305071/ Ginsenoside Rg1 is a natural product extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Although Rg1 protects tissue structure and functions by inhibiting local inflammatory reaction, the mechanism remains poorly understood. In vitro, Rg1 dose-dependently inhibited TRAP activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand- (RANKL-) induced osteoclasts and decreased the number of osteoclasts and osteoclast resorption area. Rg1 also significantly inhibited the RANK signaling pathway, including suppressing the expression of Trap, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and calcitonin receptor (CTR). In vivo, Rg1 dramatically decreased arthritis scores in CIA mice and effectively controlled symptoms of inflammatory arthritis. Pathologic analysis demonstrated that Rg1 significantly attenuated pathological changes in CIA mice. Pronounced reduction in synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell invasion were observed in CIA mice after Rg1 therapy. Alcian blue staining results illustrated that mice treated with Rg1 had significantly reduced destruction in the articular cartilage. TRAP and cathepsin K staining results demonstrated a significant reduction of numbers of OCs in the articular cartilage in proximal interphalangeal joints and ankle joints in Rg1-treated mice. In summary, this study revealed that Rg1 reduced the inflammatory destruction of periarticular bone by inhibiting differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts in CIA mice. Yanqing Gu, Weimin Fan, and Guoyong Yin Copyright © 2014 Yanqing Gu et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Th17 and Treg Axis Disorder on Outcomes of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Connective Tissue Diseases Wed, 20 Aug 2014 07:43:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/247372/ This prospective cohort study is to verify the hypothesis that the balance of Th17 and Treg cells frequencies in the peripheral circulation is disturbed in patients with varying degrees of connective tissue diseases-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (CTD-aPAH) and to prove the influence of Th17/Treg imbalance on prognosis. We detected the frequencies and absolute counts of Th17 and Treg cells and related serum cytokines secretion and expressions of key transcription factors in 117 patients with connective tissue diseases (CTD), 53 patients with CTD-aPAH, and 48 healthy volunteers. Moreover, the median value according to levels of Th17/Treg ratios in patients with CTD-aPAH was chosen as basis of group division for survival analysis. CTD-aPAH patients revealed significant increase in peripheral Th17 cells, Th17-related cytokines, and ROR γt mRNA levels. They also presented a significant decrease in Treg cells, Treg-related cytokines, and Foxp3 mRNA levels as compared with CTD patients and healthy controls. More importantly, the Th17/Treg ratio was significantly related to the severity and prognosis of CTD-aPAH. This study indicated that the Th17/Treg axis disorder plays a critical role in CTD-aPAH. Furthermore, the dynamic balance between Th17 and Treg cells was likely to influence prognosis of patients with CTD-aPAH. Saren Gaowa, Wenyong Zhou, Lilei Yu, Xiaohui Zhou, Kai Liao, Kang Yang, Zhibin Lu, Hong Jiang, and Xiaofeng Chen Copyright © 2014 Saren Gaowa et al. All rights reserved. Metformin Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Arthritis through Reciprocal Regulation of Th17/Treg Balance and Osteoclastogenesis Wed, 20 Aug 2014 07:11:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/973986/ Metformin is widely used to suppress certain functions of the cells found in diseases including diabetes and obesity. In this study, the effects of metformin on downregulating IL-17-producing T (Th17) cells, activating and upregulating regulatory T (Treg) cells, suppressing osteoclastogenesis, and clinically scoring collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were investigated. To evaluate the effect of metformin on CIA, mice were orally fed with either metformin or saline as control three times a week for nine weeks. Histological analysis of the joints was performed using immunohistochemistry and Th17 cells and Treg cells of the spleen tissue were examined by confocal microscopy staining. Metformin mitigated the severity of CIA, reduced serum immunoglobulin concentrations, and reciprocally regulated Th17/Treg axis. Also, metformin treatment of normal cells cultured in Th17 conditions decreased the number of Th17 cells and increased the number of Treg cells. Metformin decreased gene expression and osteoclastogenic activity in CIA and normal mice. These results indicate that metformin had immunomodulatory actions influencing anti-inflammatory action on CIA through the inhibition of Th17 cell differentiation and the upregulation of Treg cell differentiation along with the suppression of osteoclast differentiation. Our results suggest that metformin may be a potential therapeutic for rheumatoid arthritis. Hye-Jin Son, Jennifer Lee, Seon-Yeong Lee, Eun-Kyung Kim, Min-Jung Park, Kyoung-Woon Kim, Sung-Hwan Park, and Mi-La Cho Copyright © 2014 Hye-Jin Son et al. All rights reserved. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Attenuates Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in Mice Wed, 20 Aug 2014 06:32:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/930894/ Increasing evidence has demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induces oxidative stress and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS), a well-known ROS scavenger, has been shown to possess therapeutic benefit on AP in many animal experiments. Recent findings have indicated that the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, an intracellular multiprotein complex required for the maturation of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, may probably be a potential target of HRS in the treatment of AP. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and meanwhile assessed the degree of oxidative stress and inflammatory cascades, as well as the histological alterations in mice suffering from cerulein-induced AP after the treatment of HRS. The results showed that the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in AP mice was substantially inhibited following the administration of HRS, which was paralleled with the decreased NF-κB activity and cytokines production, attenuated oxidative stress and the amelioration of pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our study has, for the first time, revealed that inhibition of the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome probably contributed to the therapeutic potential of HRS in AP. Jian-Dong Ren, Jie Ma, Jun Hou, Wen-Jin Xiao, Wei-Hua Jin, Juan Wu, and Kai-Hua Fan Copyright © 2014 Jian-Dong Ren et al. All rights reserved. Chagas Disease Cardiomyopathy: Immunopathology and Genetics Tue, 19 Aug 2014 10:56:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/683230/ Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in Latin America and affects ca. 10 million people worldwide. About 30% of Chagas disease patients develop chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC), a particularly lethal inflammatory cardiomyopathy that occurs decades after the initial infection, while most patients remain asymptomatic. Mortality rate is higher than that of noninflammatory cardiomyopathy. CCC heart lesions present a Th1 T-cell-rich myocarditis, with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and prominent fibrosis. Data suggest that the myocarditis plays a major pathogenetic role in disease progression. Major unmet goals include the thorough understanding of disease pathogenesis and therapeutic targets and identification of prognostic genetic factors. Chagas disease thus remains a neglected disease, with no vaccines or antiparasitic drugs proven efficient in chronically infected adults, when most patients are diagnosed. Both familial aggregation of CCC cases and the fact that only 30% of infected patients develop CCC suggest there might be a genetic component to disease susceptibility. Moreover, previous case-control studies have identified some genes associated to human susceptibility to CCC. In this paper, we will review the immunopathogenesis and genetics of Chagas disease, highlighting studies that shed light on the differential progression of Chagas disease patients to CCC. Edecio Cunha-Neto and Christophe Chevillard Copyright © 2014 Edecio Cunha-Neto and Christophe Chevillard. All rights reserved. α-Lipoic Acid Inhibits Helicobacter pylori-Induced Oncogene Expression and Hyperproliferation by Suppressing the Activation of NADPH Oxidase in Gastric Epithelial Cells Tue, 19 Aug 2014 08:52:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/380830/ Hyperproliferation and oncogene expression are observed in the mucosa of Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) infected patients with gastritis or adenocarcinoma. Expression of oncogenes such as β-catenin and c-myc is related to oxidative stress. α-Lipoic acid (α-LA), a naturally occurring thiol compound, acts as an antioxidant and has an anticancer effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of α-LA on H. pylori-induced hyperproliferation and oncogene expression in gastric epithelial AGS cells by determining cell proliferation (viable cell numbers, thymidine incorporation), levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), NADPH oxidase activation (enzyme activity, subcellular levels of NADPH oxidase subunits), activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors (NF-κB, AP-1), expression of oncogenes (β-catenin, c-myc), and nuclear localization of β-catenin. Furthermore, we examined whether NADPH oxidase mediates oncogene expression and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells using treatment of diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. As a result, α-LA inhibited the activation of NADPH oxidase and, thus, reduced ROS production, resulting in inhibition on activation of NF-κB and AP-1, induction of oncogenes, nuclear translocation of β-catenin, and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. DPI inhibited H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB and AP-1, oncogene expression and hyperproliferation by reducing ROS levels in AGS cells. In conclusion, we propose that inhibiting NADPH oxidase by α-LA could prevent oncogene expression and hyperproliferation occurring in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. Eunyoung Byun, Joo Weon Lim, Jung Mogg Kim, and Hyeyoung Kim Copyright © 2014 Eunyoung Byun et al. All rights reserved. Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Aspect of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation (Pathophysiological ParaInflammation) Tue, 19 Aug 2014 08:32:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/930671/ The products of oxidative stress trigger chronic low-grade inflammation (pathophysiological parainflammation) process in AMD patients. In early AMD, soft drusen contain many mediators of chronic low-grade inflammation such as C-reactive protein, adducts of the carboxyethylpyrrole protein, immunoglobulins, and acute phase molecules, as well as the complement-related proteins C3a, C5a, C5, C5b-9, CFH, CD35, and CD46. The complement system, mainly alternative pathway, mediates chronic autologous pathophysiological parainflammation in dry and exudative AMD, especially in the Y402H gene polymorphism, which causes hypofunction/lack of the protective complement factor H (CFH) and facilitates chronic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP). Microglial activation induces photoreceptor cells injury and leads to the development of dry AMD. Many autoantibodies (antibodies against alpha beta crystallin, alpha-actinin, amyloid, C1q, chondroitin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, elastin, fibronectin, heparan sulfate, histone H2A, histone H2B, hyaluronic acid, laminin, proteoglycan, vimentin, vitronectin, and aldolase C and pyruvate kinase M2) and overexpression of Fcc receptors play role in immune-mediated inflammation in AMD patients and in animal model. Macrophages infiltration of retinal/choroidal interface acts as protective factor in early AMD (M2 phenotype macrophages); however it acts as proinflammatory and proangiogenic factor in advanced AMD (M1 and M2 phenotype macrophages). Małgorzata Nita, Andrzej Grzybowski, Francisco J. Ascaso, and Valentín Huerva Copyright © 2014 Małgorzata Nita et al. All rights reserved. Feed-Forward Inhibition of CD73 and Upregulation of Adenosine Deaminase Contribute to the Loss of Adenosine Neuromodulation in Postinflammatory Ileitis Tue, 19 Aug 2014 07:16:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/254640/ Purinergic signalling is remarkably plastic during gastrointestinal inflammation. Thus, selective drugs targeting the “purinome” may be helpful for inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. The myenteric neuromuscular transmission of healthy individuals is fine-tuned and controlled by adenosine acting on excitatory receptors. Here, we investigated the neuromodulatory role of adenosine in TNBS-inflamed longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the rat ileum. Seven-day postinflammation ileitis lacks adenosine neuromodulation, which may contribute to acceleration of gastrointestinal transit. The loss of adenosine neuromodulation results from deficient accumulation of the nucleoside at the myenteric synapse despite the fact that the increases in ATP release were observed. Disparity between ATP outflow and adenosine deficit in postinflammatory ileitis is ascribed to feed-forward inhibition of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 by high extracellular ATP and/or ADP. Redistribution of NTPDase2, but not of NTPDase3, from ganglion cell bodies to myenteric nerve terminals leads to preferential ADP accumulation from released ATP, thus contributing to the prolonged inhibition of muscle-bound ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and to the delay of adenosine formation at the inflamed neuromuscular synapse. On the other hand, depression of endogenous adenosine accumulation may also occur due to enhancement of adenosine deaminase activity. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 and adenosine deaminase were detected in the inflamed myenteric plexus. These findings provide novel therapeutic targets for inflammatory gut motility disorders. Cátia Vieira, Maria Teresa Magalhães-Cardoso, Fátima Ferreirinha, Isabel Silva, Ana Sofia Dias, Julie Pelletier, Jean Sévigny, and Paulo Correia-de-Sá Copyright © 2014 Cátia Vieira et al. All rights reserved. Neopterin and Beta-2 Microglobulin Relations to Immunity and Inflammatory Status in Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Patients Mon, 18 Aug 2014 12:09:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/585067/ Background. The aim of the study was to assess the relationships among serum neopterin (NPT), 2-microglobulin (2-M) levels, clinical status, and endomyocardial biopsy results of dilated cardiomyopathy patients (DCM). Methods. Serum NPT and -2 M were determined in 172 nonischaemic DCM patients who underwent right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy and 30 healthy subjects (ELISA test). The cryostat biopsy specimens were assessed using histology, immunohistology, and immunochemistry methods (HLA ABC, HLA DR expression, CD3 + lymphocytes, and macrophages counts). Results. The strong increase of HLA ABC or HLA DR expression was detected in 27.2% patients—group A—being low in 72.8% patients—group B. Neopterin level was increased in patients in group A compared to healthy controls 8.11 (4.50–12.57) versus 4.99 (2.66–8.28) nmol/L (). -2 microglobulin level was higher in DCM groups A (2.60 (1.71–3.58)) and B (2.52 (1.51–3.72)) than in the control group 1.75 (1.28–1.96) mg/L, . Neopterin correlated positively with the number of macrophages in biopsy specimens () acute phase proteins: C-reactive proteins (); fibrinogen (); and NYHA functional class () and negatively with left ventricular ejection fraction (). Conclusions. Neopterin but not -2 microglobulin concentration reflected immune response in biopsy specimens. Neopterin correlated with acute phase proteins and stage of heart failure and may indicate a general immune and inflammatory activation in heart failure. Celina Wojciechowska, Jan Wodniecki, Romuald Wojnicz, Ewa Romuk, Wojciech Jacheć, Andrzej Tomasik, Bronisława Skrzep-Poloczek, Beata Spinczyk, and Ewa Nowalany-Kozielska Copyright © 2014 Celina Wojciechowska et al. All rights reserved. Sustained Release of Prostaglandin E2 in Fibroblasts Expressing Ectopically Cyclooxygenase 2 Impairs P2Y-Dependent Ca2+-Mobilization Mon, 18 Aug 2014 08:45:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/832103/ The nucleotide uridine trisphosphate (UTP) released to the extracellular milieu acts as a signaling molecule via activation of specific pyrimidine receptors (P2Y). P2Y receptors are G protein-coupled receptors expressed in many cell types. These receptors mediate several cell responses and they are involved in intracellular calcium mobilization. We investigated the role of the prostanoid PGE2 in P2Y signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), since these cells are involved in different ontogenic and physiopathological processes, among them is tissue repair following proinflammatory activation. Interestingly, Ca2+-mobilization induced by UTP-dependent P2Y activation was reduced by PGE2 when this prostanoid was produced by MEFs transfected with COX-2 or when PGE2 was added exogenously to the culture medium. This Ca2+-mobilization was important for the activation of different metabolic pathways in fibroblasts. Moreover, inhibition of COX-2 with selective coxibs prevented UTP-dependent P2Y activation in these cells. The inhibition of P2Y responses by PGE2 involves the activation of PKCs and PKD, a response that can be suppressed after pharmacological inhibition of these protein kinases. In addition to this, PGE2 reduces the fibroblast migration induced by P2Y-agonists such as UTP. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PGE2 is involved in the regulation of P2Y signaling in these cells. María Pimentel-Santillana, Paqui G. Través, Raquel Pérez-Sen, Esmerilda G. Delicado, Paloma Martín-Sanz, María Teresa Miras-Portugal, and Lisardo Boscá Copyright © 2014 María Pimentel-Santillana et al. All rights reserved. The Possible Role of the Novel Cytokines IL-35 and IL-37 in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Mon, 18 Aug 2014 05:48:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/136329/ Interleukin- (IL-) 35 and IL-37 are newly discovered immune-suppressing cytokines. They have been described in inflammatory diseases such as collagen-induced arthritis and asthma. However, their expressions in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have not been yet explored. Our aim was to evaluate serum and inflamed mucosal levels in IBD patients. In 20 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, 7 Crohn’s disease (CD) patients, and 15 healthy subjects, cytokine levels in serum were determined using ELISA and mucosal expression studies were performed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, and Western blot. The results showed that serums IL-35 and IL-37 levels were significantly decreased in UC and CD patients compared with healthy subjects. The cytokines levels correlated inversely with UC activity. IL-35 was expressed in infiltrating immune cells while IL-37 in intestinal epithelial cells as well as inflammatory cells. IBD patients had significantly higher Ebi3, p35 (two subunits of IL-35), and IL-37b gene expressions; IL-35 and IL-37 protein expressions were higher in IBD patients compared with controls. The study showed that serums IL-35 and IL-37 might be potentially novel biomarkers for IBD. Intestinal IL-35 and IL-37 proteins are upregulated, suggesting that regulating the expression of the two cytokines may provide a new possible target for the treatment of IBD. Yanmei Li, Yanan Wang, Ying Liu, Yatian Wang, Xiuli Zuo, Yanqing Li, and Xuefeng Lu Copyright © 2014 Yanmei Li et al. All rights reserved. Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Contributes to the Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy Sun, 17 Aug 2014 12:29:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/858763/ Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major microvascular complication in diabetics, and its mechanism is not fully understood. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the inflammatory state during DR, and the deletion of TLR4 eventually alleviates the diabetic inflammatory state. To further elucidate the mechanism of DR, we used bone marrow transplantation to establish reciprocal chimeric animals of TLR4 mutant mice and TLR4 WT mice combined with diabetes mellitus (DM) induction by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment to identify the role of TLR4 in different cell types in the development of the proinflammatory state during DR. TLR4 mutation did not block the occurrence of high blood glucose after STZ injection compared with WT mice but did alleviate the progression of DR and alter the expression of the small vessel proliferation-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Grafting bone marrow-derived cells from TLR4 WT mice into TLR4 mutant mice increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-2 and increased the damage to the retina. Similarly, VEGF and HIF-1α expression were restored by the bone marrow transplantation. These findings identify an essential role for TLR4 in bone marrow-derived cells contributing to the progression of DR. Hui Wang, Haojun Shi, Jing Zhang, Guoliang Wang, Jinxiang Zhang, Fagang Jiang, and Qing Xiao Copyright © 2014 Hui Wang et al. All rights reserved. Evidence for the Gut Microbiota Short-Chain Fatty Acids as Key Pathophysiological Molecules Improving Diabetes Sun, 17 Aug 2014 12:11:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/162021/ In type 2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, increased inflammation, and oxidative stress were shown to be associated with the progressive deterioration of beta-cell function and mass. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are organic fatty acids produced in the distal gut by bacterial fermentation of macrofibrous material that might improve type 2 diabetes features. Their main beneficial activities were identified in the decrease of serum levels of glucose, insulin resistance as well as inflammation, and increase in protective Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. In this review, we updated evidence on the effects of SCFAs potentially improving metabolic control in type 2 diabetes. Alessandra Puddu, Roberta Sanguineti, Fabrizio Montecucco, and Giorgio Luciano Viviani Copyright © 2014 Alessandra Puddu et al. All rights reserved. IL-17-Expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T Lymphocytes in Human Toxoplasmosis Sun, 17 Aug 2014 11:06:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/573825/ This study aimed to measure the synthesis of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by mononuclear cells after culture with live T. gondii and identified Th17 (CD4+) and Tc17 (CD8+) cells in toxoplasma-seronegative and toxoplasma-seropositive parturient and nonpregnant women. Cytometric bead arrays were used to measure cytokine levels (IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10); immunophenotyping was used to characterize Th17 and Tc17 cells, and the cells were stained with antibodies against CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing IL-17. The addition of tachyzoites to cell cultures induced the synthesis of IL-5, IL-10, and TNF-α by cells from seronegative parturient women and of IL-5 and IL-10 by cells from seropositive, nonpregnant women. We observed a lower level of IL-17-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in cultures of cells from seronegative and seropositive parturient and nonpregnant women that were stimulated with tachyzoites, whereas analysis of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations showed a higher level of CD4+ T cells compared with CD8+ T cells. These results suggest that the cytokine pattern and IL-17-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes may have important roles in the inflammatory response to T. gondii, thus contributing to the maintenance of pregnancy and control of parasite invasion and replication. Jéssica Líver Alves Silva, Karine Rezende-Oliveira, Marcos Vinicius da Silva, César Gómez-Hernández, Bethânea Crema Peghini, Neide Maria Silva, José Roberto Mineo, and Virmondes Rodrigues Júnior Copyright © 2014 Jéssica Líver Alves Silva et al. All rights reserved. Smoking is Associated with Reduced Leptin and Neuropeptide Y Levels and Higher Pain Experience in Patients with Fibromyalgia Thu, 14 Aug 2014 13:25:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/627041/ Smoking deregulates neuroendocrine responses to pain supporting production of neuropeptide Y (NpY) by direct stimulation of nicotinic receptors or by inhibiting adipokine leptin. Present study addressed the effect of cigarette smoking on adipokines and pain parameters, in 62 women with fibromyalgia (FM) pain syndrome with unknown etiology. Pain was characterized by a visual analogue scale, tender point (TP) counts, pressure pain threshold, and neuroendocrine markers NpY and substance P (sP). Levels of IGF-1, leptin, resistin, visfatin, and adiponectin were measured in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Current smokers had lower levels of leptin compared to ex-smokers (, ), while the expected NpY increase was absent in FM patients. In smokers, this was transcribed in higher VAS-pain and TP count , lower pain threshold , since NpY levels were directly related to the pain threshold () and inversely related to TP counts (). This study shows that patients with FM have no increase of NpY levels in response to smoking despite the low levels of leptin. Deregulation of the balance between leptin and neuropeptide Y may be one of the essential mechanisms of chronic pain in FM. Maria I. Bokarewa, Malin C. Erlandsson, Jan Bjersing, Mats Dehlin, and Kaisa Mannerkorpi Copyright © 2014 Maria I. Bokarewa et al. All rights reserved. Serum Levels of LL-37 and Inflammatory Cytokines in Plaque and Guttate Psoriasis Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:51:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/268257/ Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. It is assumed that the plaque phenotype of psoriasis is associated with T helper (Th) 1 immune response activation, while the guttate phenotype is associated with the Th17 immune response. Previous investigations of differences in the serum levels of cytokines relative to the clinical psoriatic phenotype have yielded conflicting results. This study compared the levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines and LL-37 relative to the morphological phenotype in patients with psoriasis. Seventy-four age-matched patients with psoriasis (32 with guttate psoriasis and 42 with plaque psoriasis) and 12 healthy controls were included. A multiplex cytokine assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure levels of Th1- and Th17-derived cytokines and LL-37, respectively. Circulating levels of interferon- (IFN)-γ, interleukin- (IL)-1RA, IL-2, and IL-23, and LL-37 were significantly higher in patients with psoriasis than in healthy controls. However, the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-7, IL-22, and IL-23) and LL-37 did not differ significantly between the guttate and plaque phenotypes of psoriasis. There was a positive correlation between serum inflammatory cytokine levels and the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score. The findings of this study suggest that the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines reflect the disease activity rather than determine the morphological phenotype. Young Ji Hwang, Ho Jung Jung, Min Jung Kim, Nam Kyung Roh, Jae Wook Jung, Yang Won Lee, Yong Beom Choe, and Kyu Joong Ahn Copyright © 2014 Young Ji Hwang et al. All rights reserved. Role of Inflammatory Mediators in the Pathogenesis of Epilepsy Wed, 13 Aug 2014 12:10:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/901902/ Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic brain disorders worldwide, affecting 1% of people across different ages and backgrounds. Epilepsy is defined as the sporadic occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that there is a positive feedback cycle between epileptogenesis and brain inflammation. Epileptic seizures increase key inflammatory mediators, which in turn cause secondary damage to the brain and increase the likelihood of recurrent seizures. Cytokines and prostaglandins are well-known inflammatory mediators in the brain, and their biosynthesis is enhanced following seizures. Such inflammatory mediators could be therapeutic targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs. In this review, we discuss the roles of inflammatory mediators in epileptogenesis. Tadayuki Shimada, Takako Takemiya, Hiroko Sugiura, and Kanato Yamagata Copyright © 2014 Tadayuki Shimada et al. All rights reserved. Ionotropic and Metabotropic Proton-Sensing Receptors Involved in Airway Inflammation in Allergic Asthma Wed, 13 Aug 2014 09:18:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/712962/ An acidic microenvironment has been shown to evoke a variety of airway responses, including cough, bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lung, and stimulation of mucus hyperproduction. Except for the participation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in severe acidic pH (of less than 6.0)-induced cough and bronchoconstriction through sensory neurons, the molecular mechanisms underlying extracellular acidic pH-induced actions in the airways have not been fully understood. Recent studies have revealed that ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1)-family G protein-coupled receptors, which sense pH of more than 6.0, are expressed in structural cells, such as airway smooth muscle cells and epithelial cells, and in inflammatory and immune cells, such as eosinophils and dendritic cells. They function in a variety of airway responses related to the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases, including allergic asthma. In the present review, we discuss the roles of ionotropic TRPV1 and ASICs and metabotropic OGR1-family G protein-coupled receptors in the airway inflammation and AHR in asthma and respiratory diseases. Haruka Aoki, Chihiro Mogi, and Fumikazu Okajima Copyright © 2014 Haruka Aoki et al. All rights reserved. Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Genetically Selected Mouse Lines: Genetic Linkage with Quantitative Trait Locus Controlling Antibody Response Wed, 13 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/952857/ Trypanosoma cruzi infection was studied in mouse lines selected for maximal (AIRmax) or minimal (AIRmin) acute inflammatory reaction and for high () or low () antibody (Ab) responses to complex antigens. Resistance was associated with gender (females) and strain—the high responder lines AIRmax and were resistant. The higher resistance of as compared to mice extended to higher infective doses and was correlated with enhanced production of IFN- and nitric oxide production by peritoneal and lymph node cells, in males and females. We also analyzed the involvement of previously mapped Ab and T. cruzi response QTL with the survival of Selection III mice to T. cruzi infections in a segregating backcross [F1() ] population. An Ab production QTL marker mapping to mouse chromosome 1 (34.8 cM) significantly cosegregated with survival after acute T. cruzi infections, indicating that this region also harbors genes whose alleles modulate resistance to acute T. cruzi infection. Francisca Vorraro, Wafa H. K. Cabrera, Orlando G. Ribeiro, José Ricardo Jensen, Marcelo De Franco, Olga M. Ibañez, and Nancy Starobinas Copyright © 2014 Francisca Vorraro et al. All rights reserved. Krüppel-Like Factor 5 Mediates Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury through Upregulation of Nuclear Factor-κB Phosphorylation In Vitro and In Vivo Tue, 12 Aug 2014 06:03:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/281984/ Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with an inflammation-mediated process, and the transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5), might play a crucial role in inflammatory lung disease. In this study, we evaluated KLF5, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced ALI model to elucidate the role of KLF5 in ALI. Our data indicated that LPS upregulates proinflammatory cytokine expression in human bronchial epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. We observed upregulated KLF5 protein expression in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to LPS, with peak expression 1 h after LPS treatment, and subsequent upregulation of p65 protein expression and p65 phosphorylation at Ser276. These results indicate that KLF5 mediates proinflammatory cytokine expression by upregulating nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) phosphorylation at p65 in response to LPS. LPS treatment also increased ROS production and simultaneously upregulated KLF5 expression and NF-κB translocation. N-acetylcysteine significantly reduced ROS levels and KLF5 and NF-κB translocation in nuclear extracts. Therefore, N-acetylcysteine pretreatment before LPS exposure reduces ROS, downregulates KLF5 expression, and subsequently reduces inflammatory responses by scavenging ROS. Overall, our study results indicate that KLF5 mediates proinflammatory cytokine expression through upregulation of NF-κB phosphorylation at p65 in LPS-induced ALI. Hsiu-Lin Chen, Inn-Wen Chong, Yi-Chen Lee, Jong-Rung Tsai, Shyng-Shiou F. Yuan, Hui-Min Wang, Wei-Lun Liu, and Po-Len Liu Copyright © 2014 Hsiu-Lin Chen et al. All rights reserved. Ticlopidine in Its Prodrug Form Is a Selective Inhibitor of Human NTPDase1 Mon, 11 Aug 2014 12:48:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/547480/ Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1), like other ectonucleotidases, controls extracellular nucleotide levels and consequently their (patho)physiological responses such as in thrombosis, inflammation, and cancer. Selective NTPDase1 inhibitors would therefore be very useful. We previously observed that ticlopidine in its prodrug form, which does not affect P2 receptor activity, inhibited the recombinant form of human NTPDase1 ( μM). Here we tested whether ticlopidine can be used as a selective inhibitor of NTPDase1. We confirmed that ticlopidine inhibits NTPDase1 in different forms and in different assays. The ADPase activity of intact HUVEC as well as of COS-7 cells transfected with human NTPDase1 was strongly inhibited by 100 µM ticlopidine, 99 and 86%, respectively. Ticlopidine (100 µM) completely inhibited the ATPase activity of NTPDase1 in situ as shown by enzyme histochemistry with human liver and pancreas sections. Ticlopidine also inhibited the activity of rat and mouse NTPDase1 and of potato apyrase. At 100 µM ticlopidine did not affect the activity of human NTPDase2, NTPDase3, and NTPDase8, nor of NPP1 and NPP3. Weak inhibition (10–20%) of NTPDase3 and -8 was observed at 1 mM ticlopidine. These results show that ticlopidine is a specific inhibitor of NTPDase1 that can be used in enzymatic and histochemistry assays. Joanna Lecka, Michel Fausther, Beat Künzli, and Jean Sévigny Copyright © 2014 Joanna Lecka et al. All rights reserved. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of IL-37b in Children with Allergic Rhinitis Mon, 11 Aug 2014 06:20:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/746846/ Background. Interleukin-37 (IL-37), a newly described member of IL-1family, functioned as a fundamental inhibitor of innate inflammatory and immune responses, especially its isoform IL-37b. Objective. This study was undertaken to evaluate the expression and regulation of IL-37b in children with allergic rhinitis (AR). Methods. Forty children with AR and twenty-five normal controls were included. The relationship between IL-37b and Th1/2 cytokines production in serum and nasal lavage was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were purified for in vitro regulation experiment of IL-37b. Intranasal mometasone furoate was given in AR children and IL-37b change after one-month treatment was detected using ELISA. Results. We observed significantly decreased IL-37b expression levels in both serum and nasal lavage compared to controls. IL-37b was negatively correlated with Th2 cytokines. Our results also showed that IL-37b downregulated Th2 cytokine expressed by PBMCs and this modulation was through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. We also found that intranasal mometasone furoate therapy can promote nasal IL-37b expression. Conclusion. IL-37b may be involved in Th2 cytokine regulation in AR and its expression was related to the efficacy of intranasal steroid therapy. Wenlong Liu, Li Deng, Yanqiu Chen, Changzhi Sun, Jie Wang, Lifeng Zhou, Huabin Li, and Renzhong Luo Copyright © 2014 Wenlong Liu et al. All rights reserved. Multitracer Stable Isotope Quantification of Arginase and Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in a Mouse Model of Pseudomonas Lung Infection Mon, 11 Aug 2014 05:46:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/323526/ Cystic fibrosis airways are deficient for L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and arginases. The rationale for this study was to quantify NOS and arginase activity in the mouse lung. Anesthetized unventilated mice received a primed constant stable isotope intravenous infusion containing labeled L-arginine, ornithine, and citrulline. The isotopic enrichment of each of the infused isotopomers and its product amino acids were measured in plasma and organ homogenates using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The effect of infection was studied three days after direct tracheal instillation of Pseudomonas-coated agar beads. In the infusion model, lung infection resulted in a significant (28-fold) increase in NOS activity in lung but not in trachea, kidney, liver, or plasma. Absolute rates of arginase activity in solid tissues could not be calculated in this model. In an isolated lung perfusion model used for comparison increased NOS activity in infected lungs was confirmed (28.5-fold) and lung arginase activity was increased 9.7-fold. The activity of L-arginine metabolizing enzymes can be measured using stable isotope conversion in the mouse. Accumulation of L-ornithine in the whole mouse model hindered the exact quantification of arginase activity in the lung, a problem that was overcome utilizing an isolated lung perfusion model. Hartmut Grasemann, Thomas Jaecklin, Anne Mehl, Hailu Huang, Mahroukh Rafii, Paul Pencharz, and Felix Ratjen Copyright © 2014 Hartmut Grasemann et al. All rights reserved. Sequential Analysis of Oxidative Stress Markers and Vitamin C Status in Acute Bacterial Osteomyelitis Sun, 10 Aug 2014 11:34:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/975061/ In bacterial bone infections, excessively formed oxidants may result in local and systemic oxidative stress. Vitamin C is the major extracellular nonenzymatic antioxidant, also implicated in bone cells metabolism and viability. The physiological functions of vitamin C largely depend on its redox status. We sequentially assessed oxidative stress markers, hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant activity (AOA), total vitamin C, ascorbic acid (Asc), and oxidized/reduced vitamin C ratio in 137 patients with acute osteomyelitis (OM). Compared to 52 healthy controls, in OM group baseline serum hydroperoxides, MDA and oxidized/reduced vitamin C ratio were higher whilst Asc and AOA were lower (, resp.). On the other side, total vitamin C levels in patients and controls were similar , thereby suggesting a relative rather than absolute vitamin C deficiency in OM. During the follow-up, oxidative stress markers, AOA, and oxidizedreduced vitamin C ratio were gradually returned to normal, while there was no apparent change of total vitamin C concentrations. Persistently high values of oxidized/reduced vitamin C ratio and serum MDA were found in subacute OM. In conclusion, acute OM was associated with enhanced systemic oxidative stress and the shift of vitamin C redox status towards oxidized forms. Rade Grbic, Dijana J Miric, Bojana Kisic, Ljiljana Popovic, Vojkan Nestorovic, and Aleksandar Vasic Copyright © 2014 Rade Grbic et al. All rights reserved. P2Y12 Receptor on the Verge of a Neuroinflammatory Breakdown Thu, 07 Aug 2014 11:39:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/975849/ In the CNS, neuroinflammation occurring during pathologies as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is the consequence of an intricate interplay orchestrated by various cell phenotypes. Among the molecular cues having a role in this process, extracellular nucleotides are responsible for intercellular communication and propagation of inflammatory stimuli. This occurs by binding to several receptor subtypes, defined P2X/P2Y, which are widespread in different tissues and simultaneously localized on multiple cells. For instance, the metabotropic P2Y12 subtype is found in the CNS on microglia, affecting activation and chemotaxis, on oligodendrocytes, possessing a hypothesized role in myelination, and on astrocytes. By comparative analysis, we have established here that P2Y12 receptor immunolabelled by antibodies against C-terminus or second intracellular loop, is, respectively, distributed and modulated under neuroinflammatory conditions on ramified microglia or myelinated fibers, in primary organotypic cerebellar cultures, tissue slices from rat striatum and cerebellum, spinal cord sections from symptomatic/end stage SOD1-G93A ALS mice, and finally autoptic cortical tissue from progressive MS donors. We suggest that modulation of P2Y12 expression might play a dual role as analytic marker of branched/surveillant microglia and demyelinating lesions, thus potentially acquiring a predictive value under neuroinflammatory conditions as those found in ALS and MS. Susanna Amadio, Chiara Parisi, Cinzia Montilli, Alberto Savio Carrubba, Savina Apolloni, and Cinzia Volonté Copyright © 2014 Susanna Amadio et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Serine Protease Inhibitors on Airway Inflammation in a Chronic Allergen-Induced Asthma Mouse Model Thu, 07 Aug 2014 11:30:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/879326/ Serine protease inhibitors reportedly attenuated airway inflammation and had antioxidant in multiorgan. However, the effects of the serine protease inhibitors nafamostat mesilate (FUT), gabexate mesilate (FOY), and ulinastatin (UTI) on a long-term challenged mouse model of chronic asthma are unclear. BALB/c mice (6 mice/group) were intratracheally inoculated with five doses of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p; 50 μL, 1 mg/mL) at one-week intervals. Therapeutic doses of FUT (0.0625 mg/kg), FOY (20 mg/kg), or UTI (10,000 U/kg) were, respectively, injected intraperitoneally into these mice. Control mice received sterile PBS. At 3 days after the last challenge, mice were sacrificed to assess airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), remodeling, and inflammation; lung histological features; and cytokine expression profiles. Compared with untreated controls, mice treated with FUT, FOY, and UTI had decreased AHR and goblet cell hyperplasia, decreased eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration, decreased Der p-induced IL-4 levels in serum and IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, and IL-17 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and inhibited nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity in lung tissues. The serine protease inhibitors FUT, FOY, and UTI have potential therapeutic benefits for treating asthma by downregulating Th2 cytokines and Th17 cell function and inhibiting NF-κB activation in lung tissue. Chih-Che Lin, Li-Jen Lin, Shulhn-Der Wang, Chung-Jen Chiang, Yun-Peng Chao, Joseph Lin, and Shung-Te Kao Copyright © 2014 Chih-Che Lin et al. All rights reserved. The Histopathology of Labial Salivary Glands in Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome: Focusing on Follicular Helper T Cells in the Inflammatory Infiltrates Thu, 07 Aug 2014 09:07:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/631787/ Recently, we revealed the importance of follicular helper T cells (TFH) in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS). In the present study, we focused on the site of the inflammation and determined the composition of lymphocyte infiltration in labial salivary gland (LSG) biopsies with special emphasis on TFH and germinal center B cells. We selected tissue blocks obtained from ten patients at the time of disease onset. Detection of cell specific markers was performed with immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence stainings. We evaluated patients’ clinical and laboratory features retrospectively and assessed the relation between disease course and early histopathological findings. LSG biopsies were graded based on the extension and arrangement level of periductal inflammatory cell infiltrates. TFH cell markers (CD84, PD-1, and Bcl-6) occurred predominantly in more organized structures with higher focus scores. The coexpression of CD3 and Bcl-6 markers clearly identified TFH cells close to Bcl-6+ B cells with the typical formation of germinal centers. Systemic features were developed later in the disease course only in patients with highly structured infiltrates and the presence of TFH cells. Our observations suggest that the presence of TFH cells in LSGs at the disease onset may predict a more pronounced clinical course of pSS. Krisztina Szabo, Gabor Papp, Balazs Dezso, and Margit Zeher Copyright © 2014 Krisztina Szabo et al. All rights reserved. Adenosine Receptors Modulate Acute Injury and Neuroinflammation in Brain Ischemia Tue, 05 Aug 2014 10:57:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/805198/ The extracellular concentration of adenosine in the brain increases dramatically during ischemia. Adenosine receptor is expressed in neurons and glial cells and in inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and granulocytes). Recently, adenosine receptor emerged as a potential therapeutic attractive target in ischemia. Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in the time. After ischemia the early massive increase of extracellular glutamate is followed by activation of resident immune cells, that is, microglia, and production or activation of inflammation mediators. Proinflammatory cytokines, which upregulate cell adhesion molecules, exert an important role in promoting recruitment of leukocytes that in turn promote expansion of the inflammatory response in ischemic tissue. Protracted neuroinflammation is now recognized as the predominant mechanism of secondary brain injury progression. receptors present on central cells and on blood cells account for important effects depending on the time-related evolution of the pathological condition. Evidence suggests that receptor antagonists provide early protection via centrally mediated control of excessive excitotoxicity, while receptor agonists provide protracted protection by controlling massive blood cell infiltration in the hours and days after ischemia. Focus on inflammatory responses provides for adenosine receptor agonists a wide therapeutic time-window of hours and even days after stroke. Felicita Pedata, Anna Maria Pugliese, Elisabetta Coppi, Ilaria Dettori, Giovanna Maraula, Lucrezia Cellai, and Alessia Melani Copyright © 2014 Felicita Pedata et al. All rights reserved. Paeonol Attenuates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Inflammation by Inhibiting ROS-Sensitive Inflammatory Signaling Sun, 03 Aug 2014 07:55:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/651890/ Cigarette smoking causes persistent lung inflammation that is mainly regulated by redox-sensitive pathways. We have previously reported that cigarette smoke (CS) activates reactive oxygen species- (ROS-) sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling leading to induction of lung inflammation. Paeonol, the main phenolic compound present in the Chinese herb Paeonia suffruticosa, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether paeonol has similar beneficial effects against CS-induced lung inflammation remains unclear. Using a murine model, we showed that chronic CS exposure for 4 weeks caused pulmonary inflammatory infiltration, increased lung vascular permeability, elevated lung levels of chemokines, cytokines, and 4-hydroxynonenal (an oxidative stress biomarker), and induced lung inflammation; all of these CS-induced events were suppressed by chronic treatment with paeonol. Using human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), we demonstrated that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) sequentially increased extracellular and intracellular levels of ROS, activated the MAPKs/NF-κB signaling, and induced interleukin-8 (IL-8); all these CSE-induced events were inhibited by paeonol pretreatment. Our findings suggest a novel role for paeonol in alleviating the oxidative stress and lung inflammation induced by chronic CS exposure in vivo and in suppressing CSE-induced IL-8 in vitro via its antioxidant function and an inhibition of the MAPKs/NF-κB signaling. Meng-Han Liu, An-Hsuan Lin, Hung-Fu Lee, Hsin-Kuo Ko, Tzong-Shyuan Lee, and Yu Ru Kou Copyright © 2014 Meng-Han Liu et al. All rights reserved. The Acute Phase of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Is Attenuated in 5-Lipoxygenase-Deficient Mice Sun, 03 Aug 2014 06:41:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/893634/ In the present work we examine the contribution of 5-lipoxygenase- (5-LO-) derived lipid mediators to immune responses during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 5-LO gene knockout (5-LO−/−) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. Compared with WT mice, the 5-LO−/− mice developed less parasitemia/tissue parasitism, less inflammatory cell infiltrates, and a lower mortality. This resistance of 5-LO−/− mice correlated with several differences in the immune response to infection, including reduced PGE2 synthesis; sustained capacity of splenocytes to produce high levels of interleukin (IL)-12 early in the infection; enhanced splenocyte production of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ; rapid T-cell polarization to secrete high quantities of IFN-γ and low quantities of IL-10; and greater numbers of CD8+ memory effector T cells at the end of the acute phase of infection. The high mortality in WT mice was associated with increased production of LTB4/LTC4, T cell bias to produce IFN-γ, high levels of serum nitrite, and marked protein extravasation into the peritoneal cavity, although survival was improved by treatment with a cys-LT receptor 1 antagonist. These data also provide evidence that 5-LO-derived mediators negatively affect host survival during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection. Adriana M. C. Canavaci, Carlos A. Sorgi, Vicente P. Martins, Fabiana R. Morais, Érika V. G. de Sousa, Bruno C. Trindade, Fernando Q. Cunha, Marcos A. Rossi, David M. Aronoff, Lúcia H. Faccioli, and Auro Nomizo Copyright © 2014 Adriana M. C. Canavaci et al. All rights reserved.