Mediators of Inflammation The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Mushrooms: A Potential Natural Source of Anti-Inflammatory Compounds for Medical Applications Sun, 23 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 For centuries, macrofungi have been used as food and medicine in different parts of the world. This is mainly attributed to their nutritional value as a potential source of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and minerals. In addition, they also include many bioactive metabolites which make mushrooms and truffles common components in folk medicine, especially in Africa, the Middle East, China, and Japan. The reported medicinal effects of mushrooms include anti-inflammatory effects, with anti-inflammatory compounds of mushrooms comprising a highly diversified group in terms of their chemical structure. They include polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and many other low molecular weight molecules. The aims of this review are to report the different types of bioactive metabolites and their relevant producers, as well as the different mechanisms of action of mushroom compounds as potent anti-inflammatory agents. Elsayed A. Elsayed, Hesham El Enshasy, Mohammad A. M. Wadaan, and Ramlan Aziz Copyright © 2014 Elsayed A. Elsayed et al. All rights reserved. IL-1β and TNFα Promote Monocyte Viability through the Induction of GM-CSF Expression by Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts Mon, 17 Nov 2014 13:36:17 +0000 Background. Macrophages and synovial fibroblasts (SF) are two major cells implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). SF could be a source of cytokines and growth factors driving macrophages survival and activation. Here, we studied the effect of SF on monocyte viability and phenotype. Methods. SF were isolated from synovial tissue of RA patients and CD14+ cells were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors. SF conditioned media were collected after 24 hours of culture with or without stimulation with TNFα or IL-1β. Macrophages polarisation was studied by flow cytometry. Results. Conditioned medium from SF significantly increased monocytes viability by 60% compared to CD14+ cells cultured in medium alone . This effect was enhanced using conditioned media from IL-1β and TNFα stimulated SF. GM-CSF but not M-CSF nor IL34 blocking antibodies was able to significantly decrease monocyte viability by 30% when added to the conditioned media from IL-1β and TNFα stimulated SF . Finally, monocyte cultured in presence of SF conditioned media did not exhibit a specific M1 or M2 phenotype. Conclusion. Overall, rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) promote monocyte viability via GM-CSF but do not induce a specific macrophage polarization. Christelle Darrieutort-Laffite, Marie-Astrid Boutet, Mathias Chatelais, Régis Brion, Frédéric Blanchard, Dominique Heymann, and Benoit Le Goff Copyright © 2014 Christelle Darrieutort-Laffite et al. All rights reserved. Paraoxonase1 Genetic Polymorphisms in a Mixed Ancestry African Population Sun, 16 Nov 2014 06:43:07 +0000 Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity is markedly influenced by coding polymorphisms, Q/R at position 192 and M/L at position 55 of the PON1 gene. We investigated the frequencies of these polymorphisms and their effects on PON1 and antioxidant activities in 844 South African mixed ancestry individuals. Genotyping was done using allele-specific TaqMan technology, PON1 activities were measured using paraoxon and phenylacetate, oxidative status was determined by measuring the antioxidant activities of ferric reducing antioxidant power and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation markers included malondialdehyde and oxidized LDL. The frequencies of Q192R and L55M were 47.6% and 28.8%, respectively, and the most common corresponding alleles were 192R (60.4%) and 55M (82.6%). The Q192 was significantly associated with 5.8 units’ increase in PON1 concentration and 15.4 units’ decrease in PONase activity after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and diabetes, with suggestion of differential effects by diabetes status. The PON1 L55 variant was associated with none of the measured indices. In conclusion, we have shown that the Q192R polymorphism is a determinant of both PON1 concentration and activity and this association appeared to be enhanced in subjects with diabetes. M. Macharia, A. P. Kengne, D. M. Blackhurst, R. T. Erasmus, and T. E. Matsha Copyright © 2014 M. Macharia et al. All rights reserved. Excessive Refined Carbohydrates and Scarce Micronutrients Intakes Increase Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Prepubertal and Pubertal Obese Children Independently of Obesity Sun, 16 Nov 2014 06:42:25 +0000 Background. Low-grade inflammation is the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Because physiologic insulin resistance occurs at puberty, obese pubertal children are at higher risk for insulin resistance. Excessive diets in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats are risk factors for insulin resistance, but calcium, magnesium, vitamin-D, and the omega-3 fatty acids likely protect against inflammation and insulin resistance. Objective. To analyze interactions among dietary saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of inflammation and insulin resistance in a sample of prepubertal and pubertal children. Methods. A sample of 229 children from Mexico City was analyzed in a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements, 24 h recall questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained. Serum insulin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, 25-OHD3, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and erythrocytes fatty acids were measured. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. Results. While mean macronutrients intake was excessive, micronutrients intake was deficient . Inflammation determinants were central obesity and magnesium-deficient diets. Determinants of insulin resistance were carbohydrates intake and circulating magnesium and adiponectin. Conclusions. Magnesium-deficient diets are determinants of inflammation, while high intake of refined carbohydrates is a risk factor for insulin resistance, independently of central adiposity. Mardia López-Alarcón, Otilia Perichart-Perera, Samuel Flores-Huerta, Patricia Inda-Icaza, Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz, Andrea Armenta-Álvarez, María Teresa Bram-Falcón, and Marielle Mayorga-Ochoa Copyright © 2014 Mardia López-Alarcón et al. All rights reserved. Maternal Plasma and Amniotic Fluid Chemokines Screening in Fetal Down Syndrome Sun, 16 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Objective. Chemokines exert different inflammatory responses which can potentially be related to certain fetal chromosomal abnormalities. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of selected chemokines in plasma and amniotic fluid of women with fetal Down syndrome. Method. Out of 171 amniocentesis, we had 7 patients with confirmed fetal Down syndrome (15th–18th weeks of gestation). For the purpose of our control, we chose 14 women without confirmed chromosomal aberration. To assess the concentration of chemokines in the blood plasma and amniotic fluid, we used a protein macroarray, which allows the simultaneous determination of 40 chemokines per sample. Results. We showed significant decrease in the concentration of 4 chemokines, HCC-4, IL-28A, IL-31, and MCP-2, and increase in the concentration of CXCL7 (NAP-2) in plasma of women with fetal Down syndrome. Furthermore, we showed decrease in concentration of 3 chemokines, ITAC, MCP-3, MIF, and increase in concentration of 4 chemokines, IP-10, MPIF-1, CXCL7, and 6Ckine, in amniotic fluid of women with fetal Down syndrome. Conclusion. On the basis of our findings, our hypothesis is that the chemokines may play role in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome. Defining their potential as biochemical markers of Down syndrome requires further investigation on larger group of patients. Piotr Laudanski, Monika Zbucka-Kretowska, Karol Charkiewicz, Slawomir Wolczynski, Daniela Wojcik, and Radoslaw Charkiewicz Copyright © 2014 Piotr Laudanski et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of Baccharis trimera Extract on Acute Hepatic Injury in a Model of Inflammation Induced by Acetaminophen Wed, 12 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Methods. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. Results. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. Conclusions. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose. Bruno da Cruz Pádua, Joamyr Victor Rossoni Júnior, Cíntia Lopes de Brito Magalhães, Míriam Martins Chaves, Marcelo Eustáquio Silva, Maria Lucia Pedrosa, Gustavo Henrique Bianco de Souza, Geraldo Célio Brandão, Ivanildes Vasconcelos Rodrigues, Wanderson Geraldo Lima, and Daniela Caldeira Costa Copyright © 2014 Bruno da Cruz Pádua et al. All rights reserved. Roles of 5-Lipoxygenase and Cysteinyl-Leukotriene Type 1 Receptors in the Hematological Response to Allergen Challenge and Its Prevention by Diethylcarbamazine in a Murine Model of Asthma Tue, 11 Nov 2014 13:27:52 +0000 Diethylcarbamazine (DEC), which blocks leukotriene production, abolishes the challenge-induced increase in eosinopoiesis in bone-marrow from ovalbumin- (OVA-) sensitized mice, suggesting that 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) products contribute to the hematological responses in experimental asthma models. We explored the relationship between 5-LO, central and peripheral eosinophilia, and effectiveness of DEC, using PAS or BALB/c mice and 5-LO-deficient mutants. We quantified eosinophil numbers in freshly harvested or cultured bone-marrow, peritoneal lavage fluid, and spleen, with or without administration of leukotriene generation inhibitors (DEC and MK886) and cisteinyl-leukotriene type I receptor antagonist (montelukast). The increase in eosinophil numbers in bone-marrow, observed in sensitized/challenged wild-type mice, was abolished by MK886 and DEC pretreatment. In ALOX mutants, by contrast, there was no increase in bone-marrow eosinophil counts, nor in eosinophil production in culture, in response to sensitization/challenge. In sensitized/challenged ALOX mice, challenge-induced migration of eosinophils to the peritoneal cavity was significantly reduced relative to the wild-type PAS controls. DEC was ineffective in ALOX mice, as expected from a mechanism of action dependent on 5-LO. In BALB/c mice, challenge significantly increased spleen eosinophil numbers and DEC treatment prevented this increase. Overall, 5-LO appears as indispensable to the systemic hematological response to allergen challenge, as well as to the effectiveness of DEC. Daniela Masid-de-Brito, Túlio Queto, Maria Ignez C. Gaspar-Elsas, and Pedro Xavier-Elsas Copyright © 2014 Daniela Masid-de-Brito et al. All rights reserved. Expression of Genes Related to Prostaglandin Synthesis or Signaling in Human Subcutaneous and Omental Adipose Tissue: Depot Differences and Modulation by Adipogenesis Tue, 11 Nov 2014 13:15:01 +0000 Objectives. (1) To examine depot-specific PGE2 and PGF2α release and mRNA expression of enzymes or receptors involved in PG synthesis or signaling in human adipose tissues; (2) to identify changes in expression of these transcripts through preadipocyte differentiation; and (3) to examine associations between adipose tissue mRNA expression of these transcripts and adiposity measurements. Methods. Fat samples were obtained surgically in women. PGE2 and PGF2α release by preadipocytes and adipose tissue explants was measured. Expression levels of mRNA coding for enzymes or receptors involved in PG synthesis or signaling were measured by RT-PCR. Results. Cultured preadipocytes and explants from omental fat released more PGE2 and PGF2α than those from the subcutaneous depot and the corresponding transcripts showed consistent depot differences. Following preadipocyte differentiation, expression of PLA2G16 and PTGER3 mRNA was significantly increased whereas COX-1, COX-2, PTGIS, and PTGES mRNA abundance were decreased in both compartments ( for all). Transcripts that were stimulated during adipogenesis were those that correlated best with adiposity measurements. Conclusion. Cells from the omental fat compartment release more PGE2 and PGF2α than those from the subcutaneous depot. Obesity modulates expression of PG-synthesizing enzymes and PG receptors which likely occurs through adipogenesis-induced changes in expression of these transcripts. Andréanne Michaud, Nicolas Lacroix-Pépin, Mélissa Pelletier, Marleen Daris, Laurent Biertho, Michel A. Fortier, and André Tchernof Copyright © 2014 Andréanne Michaud et al. All rights reserved. Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 with Hemin Reduces Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation via Adipose Macrophage Phenotype Switching Tue, 11 Nov 2014 08:35:05 +0000 Adipose macrophages with the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype protect against obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which elicits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, modulates macrophage phenotypes and thus is implicated in various inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrate that the HO-1 inducer, hemin, protects against obesity-induced adipose inflammation by inducing macrophages to switch to the M2 phenotype. HO-1 induction by hemin reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) from cocultured adipocytes and macrophages by inhibiting the activation of inflammatory signaling molecules (JNK and NF-κB) in both cell types. Hemin enhanced transcript levels of M2 macrophage marker genes (IL-4, Mrc1, and Clec10a) in the cocultures, while reducing transcripts of M1 macrophage markers (CD274 and TNF-α). The protective effects of hemin on adipose inflammation and macrophage phenotype switching were confirmed in mice fed a high-fat diet, and these were associated with PPARγ upregulation and STAT6 activation. These findings suggest that induction of HO-1 with hemin protects against obesity-induced adipose inflammation through M2 macrophage phenotype switching, which is induced by the PPARγ and STAT6 pathway. HO-1 inducers such as hemin may be useful for preventing obesity-induced adipose inflammation. Thai Hien Tu, Yeonsoo Joe, Hye-Seon Choi, Hun Taeg Chung, and Rina Yu Copyright © 2014 Thai Hien Tu et al. All rights reserved. Inhibition of Ocular Aldose Reductase by a New Benzofuroxane Derivative Ameliorates Rat Endotoxic Uveitis Tue, 11 Nov 2014 07:14:46 +0000 The study investigated the effects of the aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor benzofuroxane derivative 5(6)-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylmethoxy) benzofuroxane (herein referred to as BF-5m) on the biochemical and tissue alterations induced by endotoxic uveitis in rats. BF-5m has been administered directly into the vitreous, in order to assess the expression and levels of (i) inflammatory markers such as the ocular ubiquitin-proteasome system, NF-κB, TNF-α, and MCP-1; (ii) prooxidant and antioxidant markers such as nitrotyrosine, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX); (iii) apoptotic/antiapoptotic factors caspases and Bcl-xl; (iv) markers of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) recruitment such as CD34 and CD117. 5 μL of BF-5m (0.01; 0.05; and 0.1 μM) into the right eye decreased in a dose-dependent manner the LPS-induced inflammation of the eye, reporting a clinical score 1. It reduced the ocular levels of ubiquitin, 20S and 26S proteasome subunits, NF-κB subunits, TNF-α, MCP-1, and nitrotyrosine. BF-5m ameliorated LPS-induced decrease in levels of MnSOD and GPX. Antiapoptotic effects were seen from BF-5m by monitoring the expression of Bcl-xl, an antiapoptotic protein. Similarly, BF-5m increased recruitment of the EPCs within the eye, as evidenced by CD34 and CD117 antibodies. C. Di Filippo, M. V. Zippo, R. Maisto, M. C. Trotta, D. Siniscalco, B. Ferraro, F. Ferraraccio, C. La Motta, S. Sartini, S. Cosconati, E. Novellino, C. Gesualdo, F. Simonelli, S. Rossi, and M. D’Amico Copyright © 2014 C. Di Filippo et al. All rights reserved. 21-O-Angeloyltheasapogenol E3, a Novel Triterpenoid Saponin from the Seeds of Tea Plants, Inhibits Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses in a NF-κB-Dependent Manner Mon, 10 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 21-O-Angeloyltheasapogenol E3 (ATS-E3) is a triterpenoid saponin recently isolated from the seeds of the tea tree Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze. ATS-E3 has several beneficial properties including anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiatherosclerotic, and anticancer effects. Unlike other phenolic compounds isolated from tea plants, there are no studies reporting the pharmacological action of ATS-E3. In this study, we therefore aimed to explore the cellular and molecular inhibitory activities of ATS-E3 in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. ATS-E3 remarkably diminished cellular responses of macrophages such as FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake, sodium nitroprusside- (SNP-) induced radical generation, and LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Analysis of its molecular activity showed that this compound significantly suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), nuclear translocation of nuclear factor- (NF-) κB subunits (p50 and p65), phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK), and the enzyme activity of AKT1. Taken together, the novel triterpenoid saponin compound ATS-E3 contributes to the beneficial effects of tea plants by exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities in an AKT/IKK/NF-κB-dependent manner. Woo Seok Yang, Jaeyoung Ko, Eunji Kim, Ji Hye Kim, Jae Gwang Park, Nak Yoon Sung, Han Gyung Kim, Sungjae Yang, Ho Sik Rho, Yong Deog Hong, Song Seok Shin, and Jae Youl Cho Copyright © 2014 Woo Seok Yang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Low-Dose, Long-Term Roxithromycin on Airway Inflammation and Remodeling of Stable Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis Tue, 04 Nov 2014 08:25:54 +0000 Background. Noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) is characterized by airway expansion and recurrent acute exacerbations. Macrolide has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in some chronic airway diseases. Objective. To assess the efficacy of roxithromycin on airway inflammation and remodeling in patients with NCFB under steady state. Methods. The study involved an open-label design in 52 eligible Chinese patients with NCFB, who were assigned to control (receiving no treatment) and roxithromycin (receiving 150 mg/day for 6 months) groups. At baseline and 6 months, the inflammatory markers such as interleukin- (IL-)8, neutrophil elastase (NE), matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP)9, hyaluronidase (HA), and type IV collagen in sputum were measured, along with the detection of dilated bronchus by throat computed tomography scan, and assessed the exacerbation. Results. Forty-three patients completed the study. The neutrophil in the sputum was decreased in roxithromycin group compared with control . IL-8, NE, MMP-9, HA, and type IV collagen in sputum were also decreased in roxithromycin group compared with the control group (all . Airway thickness of dilated bronchus and exacerbation were reduced in roxithromycin group compared with the control (all . Conclusions. Roxithromycin can reduce airway inflammation and airway thickness of dilated bronchus in patients with NCFB. Jifeng Liu, Xiaoning Zhong, Zhiyi He, Lianghong Wei, Xiaozhen Zheng, Jianquan Zhang, Jing Bai, Wei Zhong, and Dengjun Zhong Copyright © 2014 Jifeng Liu et al. All rights reserved. Optimized “In Vitro” Culture Conditions for Human Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts Tue, 04 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The composition of synovial fluid in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is complex and strongly influences the microenvironment of joints and it is an inseparable element of the disease. Currently, “in vitro” studies are performed on RA cells cultured in the presence of either recombinant proinflammatory cytokines-conditioned medium or medium alone. In this study, we evaluated the use of synovial fluid, derived from RA patients, as optimal culture condition to perform “in vitro” studies on RA synovial fibroblasts. We observed that synovial fluid is more effective in inducing cell proliferation with respect to TNF-alpha or culture medium alone. Spontaneous apoptosis in fibroblasts was also decreased in response to synovial fluid. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the presence of synovial fluid was significantly elevated with respect to cells cultured with TNF-alpha or medium, and the overall morphology of cells was also modified. In addition, modulation of intracellular calcium dynamics elicited in response to synovial fluid or TNF-alpha exposure is different and suggests a role for the purinergic signalling in the modulation of the effects. These results emphasize the importance of using RA synovial fluid in “in vitro” studies involving RA cells, in order to reproduce faithfully the physiopathological environmental characteristic of RA joints. Claudia Casnici, Donatella Lattuada, Noemi Tonna, Katia Crotta, Claudio Storini, Fabio Bianco, Marcello Claudio Truzzi, Costantino Corradini, and Ornella Marelli Copyright © 2014 Claudia Casnici et al. All rights reserved. Pentraxin 3 as a Prognostic Biomarker in Patients with Systemic Inflammation or Infection Mon, 03 Nov 2014 08:06:11 +0000 Purpose. The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a key component of the humoral arm of the innate immune system. PTX3 is produced locally in response to proinflammatory stimuli. We reviewed the usefulness of systemic levels of PTX3 in critically ill patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis, and bacteremia, focusing on its diagnostic and prognostic value. Methods. A PubMed search on PTX3 was conducted. The list of papers was narrowed to original studies of critically ill patients. Eleven papers on original studies of critically ill patients that report on PTX3 in SIRS, sepsis, or bacteremia were identified. Results. Systematic levels of PTX3 have little diagnostic value in critically ill patients with SIRS, sepsis, or bacteremia. Systemic levels of PTX3, however, have superior prognostic power over other commonly used biological markers in these patients. Systemic levels of PTX3 correlate positively with markers of organ dysfunction and severity-of-disease classification system scores. Finally, systemic levels of PTX3 remain elevated in the acute phase and decreased on recovery. Notably, the age of the patients and underlying disease affect systemic levels of PTX3. Conclusions. The diagnostic value of PTX3 is low in patients with sepsis. Systemic levels of PTX3 have prognostic value and may add to prognostication of patients with SIRS or sepsis, complementing severity-of-disease classification systems and other biological markers. Siguan Liu, Xin Qu, Feng Liu, and Chunting Wang Copyright © 2014 Siguan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Decreased Inflammatory Responses of Human Lung Epithelial Cells after Ethanol Exposure Are Mimicked by Ethyl Pyruvate Mon, 03 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background and Purpose. Leukocyte migration into alveolar space plays a critical role in pulmonary inflammation resulting in lung injury. Acute ethanol (EtOH) exposure exerts anti-inflammatory effects. The clinical use of EtOH is critical due to its side effects. Here, we compared effects of EtOH and ethyl pyruvate (EtP) on neutrophil adhesion and activation of cultured alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Experimental Approach. Time course and dose-dependent release of interleukin- (IL-) 6 and IL-8 from A549 were measured after pretreatment of A549 with EtP (2.5–10 mM), sodium pyruvate (NaP, 10 mM), or EtOH (85–170 mM), and subsequent lipopolysaccharide or IL-1beta stimulation. Neutrophil adhesion to pretreated and stimulated A549 monolayers and CD54 surface expression were determined. Key Results. Treating A549 with EtOH or EtP reduced substantially the cytokine-induced release of IL-8 and IL-6. EtOH and EtP (but not NaP) reduced the adhesion of neutrophils to monolayers in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. CD54 expression on A549 decreased after EtOH or EtP treatment before IL-1beta stimulation. Conclusions and Implications. EtP reduces secretory and adhesive potential of lung epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions. These findings suggest EtP as a potential treatment alternative that mimics the anti-inflammatory effects of EtOH in early inflammatory response in lungs. B. Relja, N. Omid, K. Kontradowitz, K. Jurida, E. Oppermann, P. Störmann, I. Werner, E. Juengel, C. Seebach, and I. Marzi Copyright © 2014 B. Relja et al. All rights reserved. Myeloperoxidase Oxidized LDL Interferes with Endothelial Cell Motility through miR-22 and Heme Oxygenase 1 Induction: Possible Involvement in Reendothelialization of Vascular Injuries Sun, 02 Nov 2014 08:01:03 +0000 Cardiovascular disease linked to atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis is mainly linked to dysfunction in vascular endothelial cells and subendothelial accumulation of oxidized forms of LDL. In the present study, we investigated the role of myeloperoxidase oxidized LDL (Mox-LDL) in endothelial cell dysfunction. We studied the effect of proinflammatory Mox-LDL treatment on endothelial cell motility, a parameter essential for normal vascular processes such as angiogenesis and blood vessel repair. This is particularly important in the context of an atheroma plaque, where vascular wall integrity is affected and interference with its repair could contribute to progression of the disease. We investigated in vitro the effect of Mox-LDL on endothelial cells angiogenic properties and we also studied the signalling pathways that could be affected by analysing Mox-LDL effect on the expression of angiogenesis-related genes. We report that Mox-LDL inhibits endothelial cell motility and tubulogenesis through an increase in miR-22 and heme oxygenase 1 expression. Our in vitro data indicate that Mox-LDL interferes with parameters associated with angiogenesis. They suggest that high LDL levels in patients would impair their endothelial cell capacity to cope with a damaged endothelium contributing negatively to the progression of the atheroma plaque. Jalil Daher, Maud Martin, Alexandre Rousseau, Vincent Nuyens, Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Pierre Van Antwerpen, Guy Courbebaisse, Philippe Martiat, Bassam Badran, Frank Dequiedt, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia, and Luc Vanhamme Copyright © 2014 Jalil Daher et al. All rights reserved. LPS- and LTA-Induced Expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in Neonatal and Adult Blood: Role of MAPKs and NF-κB Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 As nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) seem to be critical mediators in the inflammatory response, we studied the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) on (a) the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs and (b) the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) with or without the specific inhibitors of these intracellular signal transduction pathways in neonatal cord and adult blood. TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations showed a sharp increase in the supernatants of cord and adult whole blood after stimulation. TNF-α concentrations were significantly higher, whereas IL-6 concentrations were tendentially lower in adult blood after stimulation. Stimulation with LPS or LTA resulted in a significantly decreased activation of p38 MAPK in neonatal compared with adult blood. Although LTA failed to induce additional ERK1/2 phosphorylation, LPS stimulation mediated the moderately increased levels of activated ERK1/2 in neonatal monocytes. The addition of the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 significantly decreased IL-6 and TNF-α production upon LPS or LTA stimulation. Furthermore, the inhibition of ERK1/2 was able to reduce LPS-stimulated TNF-α production in neonatal blood. We conclude that p38 MAPK as well as ERK1/2 phosphorylation is crucially involved in LPS activation and could explain the differences in early cytokine response between neonatal and adult blood. Lutz Koch, David Frommhold, Kirsten Buschmann, Navina Kuss, Johannes Poeschl, and Peter Ruef Copyright © 2014 Lutz Koch et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of IL-4 Gene Polymorphisms on Cytokine Production in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis and in Healthy Controls Wed, 29 Oct 2014 11:31:58 +0000 Chronic periodontitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of the teeth-supporting tissues in which genetic predisposition, dental plaque bacteria, and immune mechanisms all play important roles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of IL-4 gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis and to investigate the association between polymorphisms and cytokines production after bacterial stimulation. Sixty-two subjects (47 CP patients and 15 healthy controls) with detected two polymorphisms in the IL-4 gene (-590C/T and intron 3 VNTR) were examined. Production of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNFα, INFγ, and VEGF) was studied after in vitro stimulation of isolated peripheral blood by mitogens (Pokeweed mitogen, Concanavalin A), dental plaque bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia), and Heat Shock Protein (HSP) 70 by the Luminex multiplex cytokine analysis system. The results were correlated with IL-4 genotypes in patients with CP and healthy controls. The mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood of CP patients with selected IL-4 polymorphisms significantly altered the production of IFNγ, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-1α, TNFα, and IL-6 after stimulation by HSP 70 or selected bacteria (from to ). IL-4 gene polymorphisms may influence the function of mononuclear cells to produce not only interleukin-4 but also other cytokines, especially in patients with CP. Jirina Bartova, Petra Borilova Linhartova, Stepan Podzimek, Tatjana Janatova, Kazi Svobodova, Antonin Fassmann, Jana Duskova, Jaromir Belacek, and Lydie Izakovicova Holla Copyright © 2014 Jirina Bartova et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative Stress Markers and C-Reactive Protein Are Related to Severity of Heart Failure in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:23:40 +0000 Background. The aim of study was to determine relationships between functional capacity (NYHA class), left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF), hemodynamic parameters, and biomarkers of redox state and inflammation in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods. DCM patients (, aged years), NYHA class IIV, and LVEF % were studied. Controls comprised age-matched healthy volunteers (). Echocardiography and right heart catheterization were performed. Serum activities of superoxide dismutase isoenzymes (MnSOD and CuZnSOD), concentrations of uric acid (UA), malondialdehyde (MDA), and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. Results. MnSOD, UA, hs-CRP, and MDA were significantly higher in DCM patients compared to controls. Except MDA concentration, above parameters were higher in patients in III-IV NYHA class or with lower LVEF. hsCRP correlated with of MnSOD () and CuZnSOD activity (). Both isoenzymes positively correlated with mPAP and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (MnSOD, resp., and and CuZnSOD ; ). UA positively correlated with MnSOD (), mPAP (), and PVRI (). The negative correlation between LVEF and UA () was detected. Conclusion. There are relationships among the severity of symptoms of heart failure, echocardiographic hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress, and inflammatory activation. Increased MnSOD activity indicates the mitochondrial source of ROS in patients with advanced heart failure. Celina Wojciechowska, Ewa Romuk, Andrzej Tomasik, Bronisława Skrzep-Poloczek, Ewa Nowalany-Kozielska, Ewa Birkner, and Wojciech Jacheć Copyright © 2014 Celina Wojciechowska et al. All rights reserved. Estrogen Signaling in Metabolic Inflammation Thu, 23 Oct 2014 07:45:27 +0000 There is extensive evidence supporting the interference of inflammatory activation with metabolism. Obesity, mainly visceral obesity, is associated with a low-grade inflammatory state, triggered by metabolic surplus where specialized metabolic cells such as adipocytes activate cellular stress initiating and sustaining the inflammatory program. The increasing prevalence of obesity, resulting in increased cardiometabolic risk and precipitating illness such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver, cirrhosis, and certain types of cancer, constitutes a good example of this association. The metabolic actions of estrogens have been studied extensively and there is also accumulating evidence that estrogens influence immune processes. However, the connection between these two fields of estrogen actions has been underacknowledged since little attention has been drawn towards the possible action of estrogens on the modulation of metabolism through their anti-inflammatory properties. In the present paper, we summarize knowledge on the modification inflammatory processes by estrogens with impact on metabolism and highlight major research questions on the field. Understanding the regulation of metabolic inflammation by estrogens may provide the basis for the development of therapeutic strategies to the management of metabolic dysfunctions. Rosário Monteiro, Diana Teixeira, and Conceição Calhau Copyright © 2014 Rosário Monteiro et al. All rights reserved. Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Extract Ameliorates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity Associated Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Apoptosis in Rodent Model Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The present investigation was designed to investigate the protective effect of (Beta vulgaris L.) beat root ethanolic extract (BVEE) on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and to elucidate the potential mechanism. Serum specific kidney function parameters (urea, uric acid, total protein, creatinine, and histopathology of kidney tissue) were evaluated to access gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. The oxidative/nitrosative stress (Lipid peroxidation, MDA, NP-SH, Catalase, and nitric oxide levels) was assessed. The inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-6, MPO, NF-κB (p65), and NF-κB (p65) DNA binding) and apoptotic marker (Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2) were also evaluated. BVEE (250 and 500 mg/kg) treatment along with gentamicin restored/increased the renal endogenous antioxidant status. Gentamicin-induced increased renal inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), nuclear protein expression of NF-κB (p65), NF-κB-DNA binding activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and nitric oxide level were significantly down regulated upon BVEE treatment. In addition, BVEE treatment significantly reduced the amount of cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, protein expression and increased the Bcl-2 protein expression. BVEE treatment also ameliorated the extent of histologic injury and reduced inflammatory infiltration in renal tubules. These findings suggest that BVEE treatment attenuates renal dysfunction and structural damage through the reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the kidney. Ali A. El Gamal, Mansour S. AlSaid, Mohammad Raish, Mohammed Al-Sohaibani, Shaza M. Al-Massarani, Ajaz Ahmad, Mohamed Hefnawy, Mohammed Al-Yahya, Omer A. Basoudan, and Syed Rafatullah Copyright © 2014 Ali A. El Gamal et al. All rights reserved. Mediators of Mast Cells in Bullous Pemphigoid and Dermatitis Herpetiformis Tue, 21 Oct 2014 13:09:55 +0000 Bullous pemphigoid (BP) and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) are skin diseases associated with inflammation. However, few findings exist concerning the role of mast cells in autoimmune blistering disease. Skin biopsies were taken from 27 BP and 14 DH patients, as well as 20 healthy individuals. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the localization and mast cell expression of TNFα and MMP9 in skin lesions and perilesional skin. The serum concentrations of TNFα, MMP9, chymase, tryptase, PAF, and IL-4 were measured by immunoassay. TNFα and MMP9 expression in the epidermis and in inflammatory influxed cells in the dermis was detected in skin biopsies from patients. Although these mediators were found to be expressed in the perilesional skin of all patients, the level was much lower than that in lesional skin. Increased serum PAF levels were observed in BP patients. Mast cells may play an essential role in activating inflammation, which ultimately contributes to the tissue damage observed in BP and DH. Our findings suggest that differences in the pattern of cytokine expression directly contribute to variations in cellular infiltration in DH and BP. Agnieszka Zebrowska, Malgorzata Wagrowska-Danilewicz, Marian Danilewicz, Olga Stasikowska-Kanicka, Lilianna Kulczycka-Siennicka, Anna Wozniacka, and Elzbieta Waszczykowska Copyright © 2014 Agnieszka Zebrowska et al. All rights reserved. NF-B/AP-1-Targeted Inhibition of Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Depigmenting Compound AP736 Derived from Natural 1,3-Diphenylpropane Skeleton Sun, 19 Oct 2014 09:09:24 +0000 AP736 was identified as an antimelanogenic drug that can be used for the prevention of melasma, freckles, and dark spots in skin by acting as a suppressor of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression. Since macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are critical for skin health, here we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of AP736. The effects of AP736 on various inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO)/prostaglandin (PG) E2 production, inflammatory gene expression, phagocytic uptake, and morphological changes were examined in RAW264.7 cells. AP736 was found to strongly inhibit the production of both NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, AP736 strongly inhibited both LPS-induced morphological changes and FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake. Furthermore, AP736 also downregulated the expression of multiple inflammatory genes, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, and interleukin- (IL-) 1β in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Transcription factor analysis, including upstream signalling events, revealed that both NF-κB and AP-1 were targeted by AP736 via inhibition of the IKK/IκBα and IRAK1/TAK1 pathways. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that AP736 is a potential anti-inflammatory drug due to its suppression of NF-κB-IKK/IκBα and AP-1-IRAK1/TAK1 signalling, which may make AP736 useful for the treatment of macrophage-mediated skin inflammation. Van Thai Ha, Heung Soo Beak, Eunji Kim, Kwang-Soo Baek, Muhammad Jahangir Hossen, Woo Seok Yang, Yong Kim, Jun Ho Kim, Sungjae Yang, Jeong-Hwan Kim, Yung Hyup Joo, Chang Seok Lee, Joonho Choi, Hong-Ju Shin, Sungyoul Hong, Song Seok Shin, and Jae Youl Cho Copyright © 2014 Van Thai Ha et al. All rights reserved. Scropolioside B Inhibits IL-1β and Cytokines Expression through NF-κB and Inflammasome NLRP3 Pathways Thu, 16 Oct 2014 08:29:36 +0000 Chronic inflammation is associated with various chronic illnesses including immunity disorders, cancer, neurodegeneration, and vascular diseases. Iridoids are compounds with anti-inflammatory properties. However their anti-inflammatory mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that scropolioside B, isolated from a Tibetan medicine (Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth.), blocked expressions of TNF, IL-1, and IL-32 through NF-κB pathway. Scropolioside B inhibited NF-κB activity in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 1.02 μmol/L. However, catalpol, similar to scropolioside B, was not effective in inhibiting NF-κB activity. Interestingly, scropolioside B and catalpol decreased the expression of NLRP3 and cardiolipin synthetase at both the mRNA and protein level. Our results showed that scropolioside B is superior in inhibiting the expression, maturation, and secretion of IL-1β compared to catalpol. These observations provide further understanding of the anti-inflammatory effects of iridoids and highlight scropolioside B as a potential drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. Tiantian Zhu, Liuqiang Zhang, Shuang Ling, Ju Duan, Fei Qian, Yiming Li, and Jin-Wen Xu Copyright © 2014 Tiantian Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Elevated OPN, IP-10, and Neutrophilia in Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Confirmed Tuberculosis Patients Wed, 15 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Tuberculosis (TB) is the second most common cause of death from infectious diseases and results in high socioeconomic losses to many countries. Proper diagnosis is the first step in TB eradication. To develop a rapid, simple, and accurate diagnostic TB test and to characterize the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) genotypes and immune profiles of TB patients, a total of 37 TB patients and 30 healthy control (HC) from Metro Manila were enrolled. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reliably detected MTB infection. Manila genotype was identified by spoligotyping method in all TB patients. Osteopontin (OPN), interferon--induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10), and neutrophil counts were found to reflect the acute stage of MTB infection. The sensitivity and specificity were 94.6% and 93.3%, respectively, for both OPN and IP-10, and they were 83.8% and 78.6%, respectively, for neutrophils. The combination of OPN, IP-10, neutrophil count, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-, MCP-1, platelets, galectin-9, and leukocyte count correctly identifies all the HC and 96.3% of TB patients. LAMP method may serve as a rapid, supportive method in addition to time-consuming culture methods. OPN, IP-10, and neutrophil counts are useful in detecting MTB infection and may have utility in monitoring the course of the disease. Beata Shiratori, Susan Leano, Chie Nakajima, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Toshiro Niki, Yugo Ashino, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Elisabeth Telan, and Toshio Hattori Copyright © 2014 Beata Shiratori et al. All rights reserved. Development and Validation of Protein Microarray Technology for Simultaneous Inflammatory Mediator Detection in Human Sera Tue, 14 Oct 2014 07:54:03 +0000 Biomarkers, including cytokines, can help in the diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of treatment response across a wide range of disease settings. Consequently, the recent emergence of protein microarray technology, which is able to quantify a range of inflammatory mediators in a large number of samples simultaneously, has become highly desirable. However, the cost of commercial systems remains somewhat prohibitive. Here we show the development, validation, and implementation of an in-house microarray platform which enables the simultaneous quantitative analysis of multiple protein biomarkers. The accuracy and precision of the in-house microarray system were investigated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for pharmacokinetic assay validation. The assay fell within these limits for all but the very low-abundant cytokines, such as interleukin- (IL-) 10. Additionally, there were no significant differences between cytokine detection using our microarray system and the “gold standard” ELISA format. Crucially, future biomarker detection need not be limited to the 16 cytokines shown here but could be expanded as required. In conclusion, we detail a bespoke protein microarray system, utilizing well-validated ELISA reagents, that allows accurate, precise, and reproducible multiplexed biomarker quantification, comparable with commercial ELISA, and allowing customization beyond that of similar commercial microarrays. Senthooran Selvarajah, Ola H. Negm, Mohamed R. Hamed, Carolyn Tubby, Ian Todd, Patrick J. Tighe, Tim Harrison, and Lucy C. Fairclough Copyright © 2014 Senthooran Selvarajah et al. All rights reserved. Immune Activation, Immunosenescence, and Osteoprotegerin as Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction in Subclinical HIV-Associated Atherosclerosis Tue, 14 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 HIV-infected patients have a significantly greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Several markers including osteoprotegerin have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the relationship between T-cell phenotype, osteoprotegerin, and atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) in 94 HIV+ patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy with Framingham score <10%. As for the control group, 24 HIV-negative subjects were enrolled. c-IMT was assessed by ultrasound. CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation (CD38+ HLADR+) and senescence (CD57+ CD28−) were measured by flow cytometry. IL-6 and OPG levels were measured by ELISA kit. c-IMT was higher in HIV+ than in controls. Among HIV+ patients, 44.7% had pathological c-IMT (≥0.9 mm). CD8+ T-cell activation and senescence and OPG plasma levels were higher in HIV+ patients than in controls. Subjects with pathological c-IMT exhibited higher CD8+ immune activation and immunosenescence and OPG levels than subjects with normal c-IMT. Multivariate analysis showed that age, CD8+ CD38+ HLADR+, and CD8+ CD28− CD57+ were independently associated with pathological c-IMT. Several factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in HIV patients. Immune activation and immunosenescence of CD8+ T cell together with OPG plasma levels might be associated with the development and progression of early atherosclerosis, even in the case of viral suppression. Alessandra D’Abramo, Maria Antonella Zingaropoli, Alessandra Oliva, Claudia D’Agostino, Samir Al Moghazi, Giulia De Luca, Marco Iannetta, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, and Vincenzo Vullo Copyright © 2014 Alessandra D’Abramo et al. All rights reserved. A3 Adenosine Receptor Allosteric Modulator Induces an Anti-Inflammatory Effect: In Vivo Studies and Molecular Mechanism of Action Mon, 13 Oct 2014 12:36:43 +0000 The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is overexpressed in inflammatory cells and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals with inflammatory conditions. Agonists to the A3AR are known to induce specific anti-inflammatory effects upon chronic treatment. LUF6000 is an allosteric compound known to modulate the A3AR and render the endogenous ligand adenosine to bind to the receptor with higher affinity. The advantage of allosteric modulators is their capability to target specifically areas where adenosine levels are increased such as inflammatory and tumor sites, whereas normal body cells and tissues are refractory to the allosteric modulators due to low adenosine levels. LUF6000 administration induced anti-inflammatory effect in 3 experimental animal models of rat adjuvant induced arthritis, monoiodoacetate induced osteoarthritis, and concanavalin A induced liver inflammation in mice. The molecular mechanism of action points to deregulation of signaling proteins including PI3K, IKK, IκB, Jak-2, and STAT-1, resulting in decreased levels of NF-κB, known to mediate inflammatory effects. Moreover, LUF6000 induced a slight stimulatory effect on the number of normal white blood cells and neutrophils. The anti-inflammatory effect of LUF6000, mechanism of action, and the differential effects on inflammatory and normal cells position this allosteric modulator as an attractive and unique drug candidate. Shira Cohen, Faina Barer, Sara Bar-Yehuda, Adriaan P. IJzerman, Kenneth A. Jacobson, and Pnina Fishman Copyright © 2014 Shira Cohen et al. All rights reserved. Diethylcarbamazine Reduces Chronic Inflammation and Fibrosis in Carbon Tetrachloride- (CCl4-) Induced Liver Injury in Mice Mon, 13 Oct 2014 11:25:27 +0000 This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of DEC on the CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice. Chronic inflammation was induced by i.p. administration of CCl4 0.5 μL/g of body weight through two injections a week for 6 weeks. DEC (50 mg/kg) was administered by gavage for 12 days before finishing the CCl4 induction. Histological analyses of the DEC-treated group exhibited reduced inflammatory process and prevented liver necrosis and fibrosis. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses of the DEC-treated group showed reduced COX-2, IL1, MDA, TGF-, and SMA immunopositivity, besides exhibiting decreased IL1, COX-2, NFB, IFN, and TGF expressions in the western blot analysis. The DEC group enhanced significantly the IL-10 expression. The reduction of hepatic injury in the DEC-treated group was confirmed by the COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression levels. Based on the results of the present study, DEC can be used as a potential anti-inflammatory drug for chronic hepatic inflammation. Sura Wanessa Santos Rocha, Maria Eduarda Rocha de França, Gabriel Barros Rodrigues, Karla Patrícia Sousa Barbosa, Ana Karolina Santana Nunes, André Filipe Pastor, Anne Gabrielle Vasconcelos Oliveira, Wilma Helena Oliveira, Rayana Leal Almeida Luna, and Christina Alves Peixoto Copyright © 2014 Sura Wanessa Santos Rocha et al. All rights reserved. LPS from P. gingivalis and Hypoxia Increases Oxidative Stress in Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts and Contributes to Periodontitis Mon, 13 Oct 2014 10:44:10 +0000 Oxidative stress is characterized by an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plays a key role in the progression of inflammatory diseases. We hypothesize that hypoxic and inflammatory events induce oxidative stress in the periodontal ligament (PDL) by activating NOX4. Human primary PDL fibroblasts were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis (LPS-PG), a periodontal pathogen bacterium under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. By quantitative PCR, immunoblot, immunostaining, and a specific ROS assay we determined the amount of NOX4, ROS, and several redox systems. Healthy and inflamed periodontal tissues were collected to evaluate NOX4 and redox systems by immunohistochemistry. We found significantly increased NOX4 levels after hypoxic or inflammatory stimulation in PDL cells () which was even more pronounced after combination of the stimuli. This was accompanied by a significant upregulation of ROS and catalase (). However, prolonged incubation with both stimuli induced a reduction of catalase indicating a collapse of the protective machinery favoring ROS increase and the progression of inflammatory oral diseases. Analysis of inflamed tissues confirmed our hypothesis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the interplay of NOX4 and redox systems is crucial for ROS formation which plays a pivotal role during oral diseases. L. Gölz, S. Memmert, B. Rath-Deschner, A. Jäger, T. Appel, G. Baumgarten, W. Götz, and S. Frede Copyright © 2014 L. Gölz et al. All rights reserved.