Mediators of Inflammation The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Serum Levels of Lipopolysaccharide and 1,3-β-D-Glucan Refer to the Severity in Patients with Crohn’s Disease Thu, 28 May 2015 09:57:39 +0000 Objectives. Interactions between the host and gut microbial community contribute to the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). In this study, we aimed to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 1,3-β-D-glucan (BG) in the sera of CD patients and clarify the potential role in the diagnosis and therapeutic approaches. Materials and Methods. Serum samples were collected from 46 patients with active CD (A-CD), 22 CD patients at remission stage (R-CD), and 20 healthy controls, and the levels of LPS, BG, and TNF in sera were determined by ELISA. Moreover, sixteen patients with A-CD received anti-TNF monoclonal antibody therapy (infliximab, IFX) at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight at weeks 0, 2, and 6, and the levels of LPS and BG were also tested at week 12 after the first intravenous infusion. Results. Serum levels of LPS and BG were found to be markedly increased in A-CD patients compared with R-CD patients and healthy controls . They were also observed to be positively correlated with CDAI, ESR, and SES-CD, respectively . Furthermore, the levels of TNF in sera had a significant correlation with LPS and BG, respectively. The concentrations of LPS and BG were demonstrated to be significantly downregulated in the sera of A-CD patients 12 weeks after IFX treatment , suggesting that blockade of TNF could inhibit bacterial endotoxin absorption, partially through improving intestinal mucosal barrier. Conclusions. Serum levels of LPS and BG are significantly increased in A-CD patients and positively correlated with the severity of the disease. Blockade of intestinal mucosal inflammation with IFX could reduce the levels of LPS and BG in sera. Therefore, this study has shed some light on measurement of serum LPS and BG in the diagnosis and treatment of CD patients. Yanmin Guo, Guangxi Zhou, Chong He, Wenjing Yang, Zhenkun He, and Zhanju Liu Copyright © 2015 Yanmin Guo et al. All rights reserved. IL-33 Aggravates DSS-Induced Acute Colitis in Mouse Colon Lamina Propria by Enhancing Th2 Cell Responses Thu, 28 May 2015 09:56:55 +0000 Interleukin- (IL-) 33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, is an important modulator of the immune system associated with several immune-mediated diseases. IL-33 was expressed in high level on epithelial cells of intestinal tract. It suggested that IL-33 plays a potential role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We investigated the role of interleukin- (IL-) 33 in dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced acute colitis in mice using recombinant mouse IL-33 protein (rIL-33). We found that DSS-induced acute colitis was aggravated by rIL-33 treatment. rIL-33-treated DSS mice showed markedly reduced levels of interferon- (IFN-)γ and IL-17A in their colon lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL), but the levels of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-5 and IL-13, in these cells were significantly increased, compared to DSS mice treated with PBS. Our results suggested that IL-33 stimulated CD4+T cells and caused the cell to adopt a Th2-type response but at the same time suppressed Th17 and Th1 cell responses. Therefore, IL-33 may be involved in pathogenesis of DSS-induced acute colitis by promoting Th2 cell response in intestinal mucosa of mice. Modulation of IL-33/ST2 signaling by monoclonal antibody (mAb) could be a novel biological therapy in DSS-induced acute colitis. Junfeng Zhu, Fangli Yang, Lixuan Sang, Jingbo Zhai, Xiaoqing Zhang, Dan Yue, Shengjun Li, Yan Li, Changlong Lu, and Xun Sun Copyright © 2015 Junfeng Zhu et al. All rights reserved. iNOS Activity Modulates Inflammation, Angiogenesis, and Tissue Fibrosis in Polyether-Polyurethane Synthetic Implants Wed, 27 May 2015 08:51:33 +0000 There is considerable interest in implantation techniques and scaffolds for tissue engineering and, for safety and biocompatibility reasons, inflammation, angiogenesis, and fibrosis need to be determined. The contribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the regulation of the foreign body reaction induced by subcutaneous implantation of a synthetic matrix was never investigated. Here, we examined the role of iNOS in angiogenesis, inflammation, and collagen deposition induced by polyether-polyurethane synthetic implants, using mice with targeted disruption of the iNOS gene (iNOS−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice. The hemoglobin content and number of vessels were decreased in the implants of iNOS−/− mice compared to WT mice 14 days after implantation. VEGF levels were also reduced in the implants of iNOS−/− mice. In contrast, the iNOS−/− implants exhibited an increased neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. However, no alterations were observed in levels of CXCL1 and CCL2, chemokines related to neutrophil and macrophage migration, respectively. Furthermore, the implants of iNOS−/− mice showed boosted collagen deposition. These data suggest that iNOS activity controls inflammation, angiogenesis, and fibrogenesis in polyether-polyurethane synthetic implants and that lack of iNOS expression increases foreign body reaction to implants in mice. Puebla Cassini-Vieira, Fernanda Assis Araújo, Filipi Leles da Costa Dias, Remo Castro Russo, Silvia Passos Andrade, Mauro Martins Teixeira, and Luciola Silva Barcelos Copyright © 2015 Puebla Cassini-Vieira et al. All rights reserved. Modulation of Acid Sphingomyelinase in Melanoma Reprogrammes the Tumour Immune Microenvironment Tue, 26 May 2015 14:22:56 +0000 The inflammatory microenvironment induces tumours to acquire an aggressive and immunosuppressive behaviour. Since acid sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) downregulation in melanoma was shown to determine a malignant phenotype, we aimed here to elucidate the role of A-SMase in the regulation of tumour immunogenic microenvironment using in vivo melanoma models in which A-SMase was either downregulated or maintained at constitutively high levels. We found high levels of inflammatory factors in low A-SMase expressing tumours, which also displayed an immunosuppressive/protumoural microenvironment: high levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs), as well as low levels of dendritic cells (DCs). In contrast, the restoration of A-SMase in melanoma cells not only reduced tumour growth and immunosuppression, but also induced a high recruitment at tumour site of effector immune cells with an antitumoural function. Indeed, we observed a poor homing of MDSCs and Tregs and the increased recruitment of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes as well as the infiltration of DCs and CD8+/ T lymphocytes. This study demonstrates that change of A-SMase expression in cancer cells is sufficient per se to tune in vivo melanoma growth and that A-SMase levels modulate immune cells at tumour site. This may be taken into consideration in the setting of therapeutic strategies. Emma Assi, Davide Cervia, Laura Bizzozero, Annalisa Capobianco, Sarah Pambianco, Federica Morisi, Clara De Palma, Claudia Moscheni, Paolo Pellegrino, Emilio Clementi, and Cristiana Perrotta Copyright © 2015 Emma Assi et al. All rights reserved. Harnessing the Therapeutic Potential of Th17 Cells Tue, 26 May 2015 13:12:26 +0000 Th17 cells provide protective immunity to infections by fungi and extracellular bacteria as well as cancer but are also involved in chronic inflammation. The cells were first identified by their ability to produce interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and, subsequently, associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Th17 cells have some gene profile similarity with stem cells and can remain dormant in mucosal tissues for long periods. Indeed, recent studies suggest that functionally distinct subsets of pro- and anti-inflammatory Th17 cells can interchange phenotype and functions. For development, Th17 cells require activation of the transcription factors STAT3 and RORγt while RUNX1, c-Maf, and Aiolos are involved in changes of phenotype/functions. Attempts to harness Th17 cells against pathogens and cancer using vaccination strategies are being explored. The cells gain protective abilities when induced to produce interferon γ (IFNγ). In addition, treatment with antibodies to IL-17 is effective in treating patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and refectory rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, since RORγt is a nuclear receptor, it is likely to be a potential future drug target for modulating Th17 functions. This review explores pathways through which Th17 subsets are induced, the molecular basis of their plasticity, and potential therapeutic strategies for their modulation in diseases. Jonas Bystrom, Taher E. Taher, M. Sherwan Muhyaddin, Felix I. Clanchy, Pamela Mangat, Ali S. Jawad, Richard O. Williams, and Rizgar A. Mageed Copyright © 2015 Jonas Bystrom et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of BDNF against C-Reactive Protein-Induced Inflammation in Women Tue, 26 May 2015 12:03:42 +0000 Background. Since high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is predictive of cardiovascular events, it is important to examine the relationship between hsCRP and other inflammatory and oxidative stress markers linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) etiology. Previously, we reported that hsCRP induces the oxidative stress adduct 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and that these markers are significantly associated in women. Recent data indicates that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may have a role in CVD. Methods and Results. We examined BDNF levels in 3 groups of women that were age- and race-matched with low (<3 mg/L), mid (>3–20 mg/L), and high (>20 mg/L) hsCRP ( per group) and found a significant association between hsCRP, BDNF, and 8-oxodG. In African American females with high hsCRP, increases in BDNF were associated with decreased serum 8-oxodG. This was not the case in white women where high hsCRP was associated with high levels of BDNF and high levels of 8-oxodG. BDNF treatment of cells reduced CRP levels and inhibited CRP-induced DNA damage. Conclusion. We discovered an important relationship between hsCRP, 8-oxodG, and BDNF in women at hsCRP levels >3 mg/L. These data suggest that BDNF may have a protective role in counteracting the inflammatory effects of hsCRP. Nicole Noren Hooten, Ngozi Ejiogu, Alan B. Zonderman, and Michele K. Evans Copyright © 2015 Nicole Noren Hooten et al. All rights reserved. β Common Receptor Mediates Erythropoietin-Conferred Protection on OxLDL-Induced Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Macrophages Mon, 25 May 2015 13:40:28 +0000 Erythropoietin (EPO), the key factor for erythropoiesis, also protects macrophage foam cells from lipid accumulation, yet the definitive mechanisms are not fully understood. β common receptor (βCR) plays a crucial role in the nonhematopoietic effects of EPO. In the current study, we investigated the role of βCR in EPO-mediated protection in macrophages against oxidized low-density lipoprotein- (oxLDL-) induced deregulation of lipid metabolism and inflammation. Here, we show that βCR expression was mainly in foamy macrophages of atherosclerotic aortas from apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Results of confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that βCR was colocalized and interacted with EPO receptor (EPOR) in macrophages. Inhibition of βCR activation by neutralizing antibody or small interfering RNA (siRNA) abolished the EPO-conferred protection in oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation. Furthermore, EPO-promoted cholesterol efflux and upregulation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 were prevented by pretreatment with βCR neutralizing antibody or βCR siRNA. Additionally, blockage of βCR abrogated the EPO-conferred anti-inflammatory action on oxLDL-induced production of macrophage inflammatory protein-2. Collectively, our findings suggest that βCR may play an important role in the beneficial effects of EPO against oxLDL-elicited dysfunction of macrophage foam cells. Tzong-Shyuan Lee, Kuo-Yun Lu, Yuan-Bin Yu, Hsueh-Te Lee, and Feng-Chuan Tsai Copyright © 2015 Tzong-Shyuan Lee et al. All rights reserved. Changes in LDL Oxidative Status and Oxidative and Inflammatory Gene Expression after Red Wine Intake in Healthy People: A Randomized Trial Mon, 25 May 2015 11:17:35 +0000 Postprandial oxidative stress is characterized by an increased susceptibility of the organism towards oxidative damage after consumption of a meal rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates. Micronutrients modulate immune system and exert a protective action by reducing low density lipoproteins (LDL) oxidation via induction of antioxidant enzymes. We evaluated the gene expression of oxidative stress (HOSp), inflammasome (HIp), and human drug metabolism pathways (HDM) and ox-LDL level at baseline and after the intake of red wine naturally enriched with resveratrol (NPVRW), in association with or without a McDonald’s meal (McDM). The ox-LDL levels significantly increase comparing baseline (B) versus McDM and decreased comparing McDM versus McDM + NPVRW (). Percentages of significant genes expressed after each nutritional intervention were the following: (1) B versus McDM, 2.88% HOSp, 2.40% of HIp, and 3.37% of HDMp; (2) B versus McDM + NPVRW, 1.44% of HOSp, 4.81% of HIp, and 0.96% of HDMp; (3) McDM versus McDM + NPVRW, 2.40% of HOSp, 2.40% of HIp, and 5.77% of HDMp; (4) B versus NPVRW, 4.80% HOSp, 3.85% HIp, and 3.85% HDMp. NPVRW intake reduced postprandial ox-LDL and the expression of inflammation and oxidative stress related genes. Chronic studies on larger population are necessary before definitive conclusions. Laura Di Renzo, Luigi Tonino Marsella, Alberto Carraro, Roberto Valente, Paola Gualtieri, Santo Gratteri, Diego Tomasi, Federica Gaiotti, and Antonino De Lorenzo Copyright © 2015 Laura Di Renzo et al. All rights reserved. T, B, and NKT Cells in Systemic Inflammation in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Mon, 25 May 2015 09:41:45 +0000 Background. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) brings risk of serious complications. The study objective was to assess elements of the cellular immune response in the course of OSAS. Methods. Peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes: T, B, NK, NKT-like, Th, Tc, and HLA DR+ T cells were evaluated by flow cytometry of 48 OSA patients; the concentration of adiponectin, interleukin 1β, and TNFα was measured by ELISA method. The OSA complication score was developed and used for statistical analysis. Results. The proportion of B cells and Th/Tc ratio were significantly lower in the BP of OSA patients when compared with control subjects (median 7.9 versus 10.9%, 0.9 versus 1.5, ). The proportion of Tc, NK, NKT-like, and HLADR positive T cells were elevated in OSA patients when compared with healthy subjects (36.4 versus 26.8, 15.5 versus 8.5, 5.7 versus 3.0, and 8.4 versus 4.5%, , resp.) and were more pronounced in patients with metabolic syndrome. The grade of OSA complication score correlated with systemic inflammation markers and the proportion of B cells. The value of adiponectin/BMI ratio correlated significantly with SpO2 (, ), CRP (, ), TNFα concentration (, ), and proportion of B cells (, ). Conclusion. Lymphocytes B, Tc, NK, NKT-like, and adiponectin are involved in systemic immune response in OSA patients possibly predisposing them to cardiovascular and metabolic complications. Joanna Domagała-Kulawik, Iwona Osińska, Aleksandra Piechuta, Piotr Bielicki, and Tomasz Skirecki Copyright © 2015 Joanna Domagała-Kulawik et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Serum Cytokines Levels and the Role of Cannabidiol Treatment in Animal Model of Asthma Mon, 25 May 2015 06:54:19 +0000 Asthma represents a public health problem and traditionally is classified as an atopic disease, where the allergen can induce clinical airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and reversible obstruction of airways. Studies have demonstrated the presence of T-helper 2 lymphocytes in the lung of patients with asthma. These cells are involved in cytokine production that regulates immunoglobulin synthesis. Recognizing that T cell interaction with antigens/allergens is key to the development of inflammatory diseases, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of cannabidiol (CBD) in this setting. Asthma was induced in 8-week-old Wistar rats by ovalbumin (OVA). In the last 2 days of OVA challenge animals received CBD (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and were killed 24 hours after. The levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were determinate in the serum. CBD treatment was able to decrease the serum levels of all analyzed cytokines except for IL-10 levels. CBD seems to be a potential new drug to modulate inflammatory response in asthma. Francieli Vuolo, Fabricia Petronilho, Beatriz Sonai, Cristiane Ritter, Jaime E. C. Hallak, Antonio Waldo Zuardi, José A. Crippa, and Felipe Dal-Pizzol Copyright © 2015 Francieli Vuolo et al. All rights reserved. Involvement of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Immunological Modulation of Inflammatory Cascade in Preeclampsia Sun, 24 May 2015 11:11:32 +0000 Objectives. The pathophysiology of preeclampsia is characterized by abnormal placentation, an exaggerated inflammatory response, and generalized dysfunction of the maternal endothelium. We investigated the effects of preeclampsia serum on the expression of inflammation-related genes by adipose tissue. Materials and Methods. Visceral adipose tissue was obtained from the omentum of patients with early ovarian cancer without metastasis. Adipose tissue was incubated with sera obtained from either five women affected with severe preeclampsia or five women from control pregnant women at 37°C in a humidified incubator at 5% CO2 for 24 hours. 370 genes in total mRNA were analyzed with quantitative RT-PCR (Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity gene set). Results. Gene expression analysis revealed changes in the expression levels of 30 genes in adipose tissue treated with preeclampsia sera. Some genes are related to immune response, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and adipogenesis, which plays a central role in excessive systemic inflammatory response of preeclampsia. In contrast, other genes have shown beneficial effects in the regulation of Th2 predominance, antioxidative stress, and insulin sensitivity. Conclusion. In conclusion, visceral adipose tissue offers protection against inflammation, oxidative insults, and other forms of cellular stress that are central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Katsuhiko Naruse, Juria Akasaka, Aiko Shigemitsu, Taihei Tsunemi, Natsuki Koike, Chiharu Yoshimoto, and Hiroshi Kobayashi Copyright © 2015 Katsuhiko Naruse et al. All rights reserved. Mechanisms of Thymoquinone Hepatorenal Protection in Methotrexate-Induced Toxicity in Rats Thu, 21 May 2015 16:00:06 +0000 To investigate mechanisms by which thymoquinone (TQ) can prevent methotrexate- (MTX-) induced hepatorenal toxicity, TQ (10 mg/kg) was administered orally for 10 days. In independent rat groups, MTX hepatorenal toxicity was induced via 20 mg/kg i.p. at the end of day 3 of experiment, with or without TQ. MTX caused deterioration in kidney and liver function, namely, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. MTX also caused distortion in renal and hepatic histology, with significant oxidative stress, manifested by decrease in reduced glutathione and catalase, as well as increase in malondialdehyde levels. In addition, MTX caused nitrosative stress manifested by increased nitric oxide, with upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, MTX caused hepatorenal inflammatory effects as shown by increased tumor necrosis factor-α, besides upregulation of necrosis factor-κB and cyclooxygenase-2 expressions. MTX also caused apoptotic effect, as it upregulated caspase 3 in liver and kidney. Using TQ concurrently with MTX restored kidney and liver functions, as well as their normal histology. TQ also reversed oxidative and nitrosative stress, as well as inflammatory and apoptotic signs caused by MTX alone. Thus, TQ may be beneficial adjuvant that confers hepatorenal protection to MTX toxicity via antioxidant, antinitrosative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic mechanisms. Azza A. K. El-Sheikh, Mohamed A. Morsy, Ahlam M. Abdalla, Azza H. Hamouda, and Ibrahim A. Alhaider Copyright © 2015 Azza A. K. El-Sheikh et al. All rights reserved. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Retinopathy of Prematurity Thu, 21 May 2015 06:40:26 +0000 Objective. The goals were to isolate and study the genetic susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), as well as the gene-environment interaction established in this disease. Methods. A retrospective study (2000–2014) was performed about the heritability of retinopathy of prematurity in 257 infants who were born at a gestational age of ≤32 weeks. The ROP was studied and treated by a single pediatric ophthalmologist. A binary logistic regression analysis was completed between the presence or absence of ROP and the predictor variables. Results. Data obtained from 38 monozygotic twins, 66 dizygotic twins, and 153 of simple birth were analyzed. The clinical features of the cohorts of monozygotic and dizygotic twins were not significantly different. Genetic factors represented 72.8% of the variability in the stage of ROP, environmental factors 23.08%, and random factors 4.12%. The environmental variables representing the highest risk of ROP were the number of days of tracheal intubation (p < 0.001), postnatal weight gain (p = 0.001), and development of sepsis (p = 0.0014). Conclusion. The heritability of ROP was found to be 0.73. The environmental factors regulate and modify the expression of the genetic code. J. M. Ortega-Molina, R. Anaya-Alaminos, J. Uberos-Fernández, A. Solans-Pérez de Larraya, M. J. Chaves-Samaniego, A. Salgado-Miranda, R. Piñar-Molina, A. Jerez-Calero, and J. L. García-Serrano Copyright © 2015 J. M. Ortega-Molina et al. All rights reserved. Macrophages and Uveitis in Experimental Animal Models Wed, 20 May 2015 07:25:13 +0000 Resident and infiltrated macrophages play relevant roles in uveitis as effectors of innate immunity and inductors of acquired immunity. They are major effectors of tissue damage in uveitis and are also considered to be potent antigen-presenting cells. In the last few years, experimental animal models of uveitis have enabled us to enhance our understanding of the leading role of macrophages in eye inflammation processes, including macrophage polarization in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and the major role of Toll-like receptor 4 in endotoxin-induced uveitis. This improved knowledge should guide advantageous iterative research to establish mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets for human uveitis resolution. Salvador Mérida, Elena Palacios, Amparo Navea, and Francisco Bosch-Morell Copyright © 2015 Salvador Mérida et al. All rights reserved. The Role and Potential Therapeutic Application of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Allo- and Autoimmunity Tue, 19 May 2015 14:09:43 +0000 Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells that consists of myeloid progenitor cells and immature myeloid cells. They have been identified as a cell population that may affect the activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells to regulate the immune response negatively, which makes them attractive targets for the treatment of transplantation and autoimmune diseases. Several studies have suggested the potential suppressive effect of MDSCs on allo- and autoimmune responses. Conversely, MDSCs have also been found at various stages of differentiation, accumulating during pathological situations, not only during tumor development but also in a variety of inflammatory immune responses, bone marrow transplantation, and some autoimmune diseases. These findings appear to be contradictory. In this review, we summarize the roles of MDSCs in different transplantation and autoimmune diseases models as well as the potential to target these cells for therapeutic benefit. Qi Zhang, Masayuki Fujino, Jinhua Xu, and Xiao-kang Li Copyright © 2015 Qi Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Therapeutic Strategies in Cancer Tue, 19 May 2015 13:32:12 +0000 Development of solid cancer depends on escape from host immunosurveillance. Various types of immune cells contribute to tumor-induced immune suppression, including tumor associated macrophages, regulatory T cells, type 2 NKT cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Growing body of evidences shows that MDSCs play pivotal roles among these immunosuppressive cells in multiple steps of cancer progression. MDSCs are immature myeloid cells that arise from myeloid progenitor cells and comprise a heterogeneous immune cell population. MDSCs are characterized by the ability to suppress both adaptive and innate immunities mainly through direct inhibition of the cytotoxic functions of T cells and NK cells. In clinical settings, the number of circulating MDSCs is associated with clinical stages and response to treatment in several cancers. Moreover, MDSCs are reported to contribute to chemoresistant phenotype. Collectively, targeting MDSCs could potentially provide a rationale for novel treatment strategies in cancer. This review summarizes recent understandings of MDSCs in cancer and discusses promissing clinical approaches in cancer patients. Hiroshi Katoh and Masahiko Watanabe Copyright © 2015 Hiroshi Katoh and Masahiko Watanabe. All rights reserved. Characterization of the Hypercitrullination Reaction in Human Neutrophils and Other Leukocytes Tue, 19 May 2015 13:16:24 +0000 Autoantibodies against citrullinated proteins are diagnostic for rheumatoid arthritis. However, the molecular mechanisms driving protein citrullination in patients with rheumatoid arthritis remain poorly understood. Using two independent western blotting methods, we report that agents that trigger a sufficiently large influx of extracellular calcium ions induced a marked citrullination of multiple proteins in human neutrophils, monocytes, and, to a lesser extent, T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, but not B lymphocytes or dendritic cells. This response required 250–1,000 μM extracellular calcium and was prevented by EDTA. Other neutrophil activating stimuli, such as formyl-peptides, GM-CSF, IL-6, IL8, TNFα, or phorbol ester, did not induce any detectable increase in protein citrullination, suggesting that receptor-induced calcium mobilization is insufficient to trigger hypercitrullination. We conclude that loss of membrane integrity and subsequent influx of high levels of calcium, which can be triggered by perforin released from cytotoxic cells or complement mediated formation of membrane attack complexes in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients, are sufficient to induce extensive protein citrullination in immune cells, notably neutrophils. This mechanism may provide the citrullinated autoantigens that drive autoimmunity in this devastating disease. Yebin Zhou, Tiziana Di Pucchio, Gary P. Sims, Nanette Mittereder, and Tomas Mustelin Copyright © 2015 Yebin Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Targeting C-Reactive Protein in Inflammatory Disease by Preventing Conformational Changes Mon, 18 May 2015 14:15:11 +0000 C-reactive protein (CRP) is a pentraxin that has long been employed as a marker of inflammation in clinical practice. Recent findings brought up the idea of CRP to be not only a systemic marker but also a mediator of inflammation. New studies focused on structural changes of the plasma protein, revealing the existence of two distinct protein conformations associated with opposed inflammatory properties. Native, pentameric CRP (pCRP) is considered to be the circulating precursor form of monomeric CRP (mCRP) that has been identified to be strongly proinflammatory. Recently, a dissociation mechanism of pCRP has been identified on activated platelets and activated/apoptotic cells associated with the amplification of the proinflammatory potential. Correspondingly, CRP deposits found in inflamed tissues have been identified to exhibit the monomeric conformation by using conformation-specific antibodies. Here we review the current literature on the causal role of the dissociation mechanism of pCRP and the genesis of mCRP for the amplification of the proinflammatory potential in inflammatory reactions such as atherosclerosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury. The chance to prevent the formation of proinflammatory mediators in ubiquitous inflammatory cascades has pushed therapeutic strategies by targeting pCRP dissociation in inflammation. In this respect, the development of clinically applicable derivatives of the palindromic compound 1,6-bis(phosphocholine)-hexane (1,6-bis PC) should be a major focus of future CRP research. J. R. Thiele, J. Zeller, H. Bannasch, G. B. Stark, K. Peter, and S. U. Eisenhardt Copyright © 2015 J. R. Thiele et al. All rights reserved. Understanding the Mysterious M2 Macrophage through Activation Markers and Effector Mechanisms Mon, 18 May 2015 13:16:26 +0000 The alternatively activated or M2 macrophages are immune cells with high phenotypic heterogeneity and are governing functions at the interface of immunity, tissue homeostasis, metabolism, and endocrine signaling. Today the M2 macrophages are identified based on the expression pattern of a set of M2 markers. These markers are transmembrane glycoproteins, scavenger receptors, enzymes, growth factors, hormones, cytokines, and cytokine receptors with diverse and often yet unexplored functions. This review discusses whether these M2 markers can be reliably used to identify M2 macrophages and define their functional subdivisions. Also, it provides an update on the novel signals of the tissue environment and the neuroendocrine system which shape the M2 activation. The possible evolutionary roots of the M2 macrophage functions are also discussed. Tamás Rőszer Copyright © 2015 Tamás Rőszer. All rights reserved. Elevated Serum Tryptase and Endothelin in Patients with ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Preliminary Report Mon, 18 May 2015 12:43:22 +0000 An inflammatory response plays a crucial role in myocardial damage after an acute myocardial infarction. Objectives. To measure serum concentrations of several mediators in patients with an acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) and to assess their potential relationship with a risk of coronary instability. Patients and Methods. The 33 patients with STEMI and 19 healthy volunteers were analyzed. The clinical data were obtained; as well serum concentrations of tryptase, endothelin (ET-1), angiogenin, soluble c-kit, and PDGF were measured. Results. Patients with STEMI had higher serum tryptase and ET-1 than healthy volunteers (2,5 ± 0,4 ng/mL versus 1,1 ± 0,4 ng/mL and 0,7 ± 0,1 ng/mL versus 0,3 ± 0,1 ng/mL, resp.). Subjects with significant lesion in left anterior descending artery (LAD) had lower serum ET-1 compared to those with normal LAD (0,6 ± 0,2 pg/mL versus 0,9 ± 0,4 pg/mL). Patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) had higher level of soluble c-kit compared to those with one- or two-vessel CAD: 19,9 ± 24,1 ng/mL versus 5,6 ± 1,9 ng/mL. Conclusions. Elevated serum tryptase and ET-1 may be markers of increased coronary instability; some cytokines may be related to the extension of CAD. Lukasz Lewicki, Janusz Siebert, Natalia Marek-Trzonkowska, Emilia Masiewicz, Tomasz Kolinski, Magdalena Reiwer-Gostomska, Radoslaw Targonski, and Piotr Trzonkowski Copyright © 2015 Lukasz Lewicki et al. All rights reserved. RRM2B-Mediated Regulation of Mitochondrial Activity and Inflammation under Oxidative Stress Mon, 18 May 2015 11:44:42 +0000 RRM2B is a critical ribonucleotide reductase (RR) subunit that exists as p53-inducible and p53-dependent molecule. The p53-independent regulation of RRM2B has been recently studied, and FOXO3 was identified as a novel regulator of RRM2B. However, the p53-independent regulation of RRM2B, particularly under oxidative stress, remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of RRM2B underoxidative stress-induced DNA damage and further examined the regulation of mitochondrial and inflammatory genes by RRM2B. Our study is the first to report the critical role of RRM2B in mitochondrial homeostasis and the inflammation signaling pathway in a p53-independent manner. Furthermore, our study provides novel insights into the role of the RR in inflammatory diseases. Er-Chieh Cho, Mei-Ling Kuo, Jia-hui Cheng, Yu-Chi Cheng, Yi-Chen Hsieh, Yun-Ru Liu, Rong-Hong Hsieh, and Yun Yen Copyright © 2015 Er-Chieh Cho et al. All rights reserved. FCGR2A Promoter Methylation and Risks for Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment Responses in Kawasaki Disease Mon, 18 May 2015 11:26:24 +0000 Kawasaki disease (KD) is characterized by pediatric systemic vasculitis of an unknown cause. The low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-a (FCGR2A) gene was reported to be involved in the susceptibility of KD. DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic mechanisms that control gene expression; thus, we hypothesized that methylation status of CpG islands in FCGR2A promoter associates with the susceptibility and therapeutic outcomes of Kawasaki disease. In this study, 36 KD patients and 24 healthy subjects from out-patient clinic were recruited. Eleven potential methylation sites within the targeted promoter region of FCGR2A were selected for investigation. We marked the eleven methylation sites from A to K. Our results indicated that methylation at the CpG sites G, H, and J associated with the risk of KD. CpG sites B, C, E, F, H, J, and K were found to associate with the outcomes of IVIG treatment. In addition, CpG sites G, J, and K were predicted as transcription factors binding sites for NF-kB, Myc-Max, and SP2, respectively. Our study reported a significant association among the promoter methylation of FCGR2A, susceptibility of KD, and the therapeutic outcomes of IVIG treatment. The methylation levels of CpG sites of FCGR2A gene promoter should be an important marker for optimizing IVIG therapy. Ho-Chang Kuo, Yu-Wen Hsu, Mei-Shin Wu, Peng Yeong Woon, Henry Sung-Ching Wong, Li-Jen Tsai, Ruo-Kai Lin, Sukhontip Klahan, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, and Wei-Chiao Chang Copyright © 2015 Ho-Chang Kuo et al. All rights reserved. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs4236480) in TRPV5 Calcium Channel Gene Is Associated with Stone Multiplicity in Calcium Nephrolithiasis Patients Mon, 18 May 2015 09:46:58 +0000 Nephrolithiasis is characterized by calcification of stones in the kidneys from an unknown cause. Animal models demonstrated the functional roles of the transient receptor potential vanilloid member 5 (TRPV5) gene in calcium renal reabsorption and hypercalciuria. Therefore, TRPV5 was suggested to be involved in calcium homeostasis. However, whether genetic polymorphisms of TRPV5 are associated with kidney stone multiplicity or recurrence is unclear. In this study, 365 Taiwanese kidney-stone patients were recruited. Both biochemical data and DNA samples were collected. Genotyping was performed by a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. We found that a TRPV5 polymorphism (rs4236480) was observed to be associated with stone multiplicity of calcium nephrolithiasis, as the risk of stone multiplicity was higher in patients with the TT+CT genotype than in patients with the CC genotype . In summary, despite the complexity of nephrolithiasis and the potential association of numerous calcium homeostatic absorption/reabsorption factors, TRPV5 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of calcium nephrolithiasis. Anas Khaleel, Mei-Shin Wu, Henry Sung-Ching Wong, Yu-Wen Hsu, Yii-Her Chou, and Hsiang-Yin Chen Copyright © 2015 Anas Khaleel et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Inflammatory/Necrosis Biomarkers in the Fracture of the Femur Treated with Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation Thu, 14 May 2015 08:28:19 +0000 Pertrochanteric fractures are common injuries in adults and source of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Different surgical techniques were recommended for their treatment but undoubtedly they add an additional inflammatory trauma along the fracture itself. Many attempts to quantify the degree of approach-related trauma are carried out through measurements of systemic inflammatory parameters. In this study we prospectively analyzed laboratory data of 20 patients over eighty with pertrochanteric fracture of the femur treated with proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA). This is an excellent device for osteosynthesis because it can be easily and quickly inserted by a mini-incision providing stable fixation and early full mobilization. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and plasma creatin kinase (CK) were evaluated 1 hour preoperatively and 24 hours postoperatively. Our results show that PFNA did not induce significant increments in serum levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6; CRP was elevated preoperatively in correlation with waiting time for surgery; CRP and CK showed a significant increment in the first postoperatory day; CK increment was correlated with surgical time length. We conclude that, for the markers we analyzed, PFNA shows a low biomechanical-inflammatory profile that represents an advantage over other techniques. Mariapaola Marino, Giuseppe Palmieri, Marco Peruzzi, Flavia Scuderi, and Emanuela Bartoccioni Copyright © 2015 Mariapaola Marino et al. All rights reserved. Kaurenoic Acid Possesses Leishmanicidal Activity by Triggering a NLRP12/IL-1β/cNOS/NO Pathway Wed, 13 May 2015 08:34:17 +0000 Leishmania amazonensis (L. amazonensis) infection can cause severe local and diffuse injuries in humans, a condition clinically known as American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Currently, the therapeutic approach for ACL is based on Glucantime, which shows high toxicity and poor effectiveness. Therefore, ACL remains a neglected disease with limited options for treatment. Herein, the in vitro antiprotozoal effect and mechanisms of the diterpene kaurenoic acid [ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid] (KA) against L. amazonensis were investigated. KA exhibited a direct antileishmanial effect on L. amazonensis promastigotes. Importantly, KA also reduced the intracellular number of amastigote forms and percentage of infected peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice. Mechanistically, KA treatment reestablished the production of nitric oxide (NO) in a constitutive NO synthase- (cNOS-) dependent manner, subverting the NO-depleting escape mechanism of L. amazonensis. Furthermore, KA induced increased production of IL-1β and expression of the inflammasome-activating component NLRP12. These findings demonstrate the leishmanicidal capability of KA against L. amazonensis in macrophage culture by triggering a NLRP12/IL-1β/cNOS/NO mechanism. Milena Menegazzo Miranda, Carolina Panis, Suelen Santos da Silva, Juliana Aparecida Macri, Natalia Yoshie Kawakami, Thiago Hideki Hayashida, Tiago Bervelieri Madeira, Vinicius Ricardo Acquaro Jr., Suzana Lucy Nixdorf, Luciana Pizzatti, Sérgio Ricardo Ambrósio, Rubens Cecchini, Nilton Syogo Arakawa, Waldiceu Aparecido Verri Jr., Ivete Conchon Costa, and Wander Rogério Pavanelli Copyright © 2015 Milena Menegazzo Miranda et al. All rights reserved. AP-1-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Nanostructured, Self-Assembling S5 Peptide Tue, 12 May 2015 14:22:35 +0000 Peptide-based therapeutics have received increasing attention in medical research. However, the local delivery of such therapeutics poses unique challenges. Self-assembling peptides that use decorated nanofibers are one approach by which these therapeutics may be delivered. We previously found that the self-assembling K5 peptide affects the anti-inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to investigate another self-assembling peptide, S5. Unlike the K5 peptide which has a positive charge, the S5 peptide has a free hydroxyl (-OH) group. We first examined whether the S5 peptide regulates the inflammatory response in primary cells and found that the S5 peptide reduced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated bone marrow-derived macrophages. Moreover, the S5 peptide significantly downregulated cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, TNF-α, and interleukin- (IL-) 1β expression by blocking the nuclear translocation of c-Jun. Consistent with this finding, the S5 peptide diminished the activation of inflammatory signaling enzymes related to p38. The S5 peptide also inhibited the formation of the p38/c-Jun signaling complex in RAW264.7 cells. Similarly, p38 and MKK3/6 were inhibited by the S5 peptide in LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the S5 peptide could exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the c-Jun/p38 signaling pathway. Woo Seok Yang, Young-Jin Son, Mi-Yeon Kim, Soochan Kim, Jong-Hoon Kim, and Jae Youl Cho Copyright © 2015 Woo Seok Yang et al. All rights reserved. Ouabain Modulates Zymosan-Induced Peritonitis in Mice Mon, 11 May 2015 11:49:29 +0000 Ouabain, a potent inhibitor of the Na+, K+-ATPase, was identified as an endogenous substance. Recently, ouabain was shown to affect various immunological processes. We have previously demonstrated the ability of ouabain to modulate inflammation, but little is known about the mechanisms involved. Thus, the aim of the present work is to evaluate the immune modulatory role of ouabain on zymosan-induced peritonitis in mice. Our results show that ouabain decreased plasma exudation (33%). After induction of inflammation, OUA treatment led to a 46% reduction in the total number of cells, as a reflex of a decrease of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which does not appear to be due to cell death. Furthermore, OUA decreased TNF-α (57%) and IL-1β (58%) levels, without interfering with IL-6 and IL-10. Also, in vitro experiments show that ouabain did not affect endocytic capacity. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) shows that zymosan treatment increased (85%) NF-κB binding activity and that ouabain reduced (30%) NF-κB binding activity induced by zymosan. Therefore, our data suggest that ouabain modulated acute inflammatory response, reducing the number of cells and cytokines levels in the peritoneal cavity, as well as NFκB activation, suggesting a new mode of action of this substance. Jacqueline Alves Leite, Anne Kaliery De Abreu Alves, José Guilherme Marques Galvão, Mariana Pires Teixeira, Luiz Henrique Agra Cavalcante-Silva, Cristoforo Scavone, Alexandre Morrot, Vivian Mary Rumjanek, and Sandra Rodrigues-Mascarenhas Copyright © 2015 Jacqueline Alves Leite et al. All rights reserved. Atorvastatin Improves Inflammatory Response in Atherosclerosis by Upregulating the Expression of GARP Sun, 10 May 2015 06:39:52 +0000 Regulatory T cells play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. GARP is a newly biological membrane molecule existed on activated Tregs, which is related to the release of TGF-β. The antiatherosclerosis effects of statins partly depend on their multiple immune modulatory potencies. In this paper, we present that atorvastatin could upregulate the expression of GARP and TGF-β in CD4+ T cells and increase the numbers of CD4+LAP+ and CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in ApoE−/− mice. Also, we indicate that atorvastatin promotes the aggregation of GARP+ and Foxp3+ cells and secretory of the TGF-β1 in atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, we prove that atorvastatin could delay the procession of atherosclerosis and improve the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. Interestingly, we report that inhibition of GARP distinctly inhibits the anti-inflammatory effects of atorvastatin. We conclude that atorvastatin improves the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis partly by upregulating the expression of GARP on regulatory T cells. Xiaoqi Zhao, Yuzhou Liu, Yucheng Zhong, Bo Liu, Kunwu Yu, Huairui Shi, Ruirui Zhu, Kai Meng, Wei Zhang, Bangwei Wu, and Qiutang Zeng Copyright © 2015 Xiaoqi Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Increased Migratory and Activation Cell Markers of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes in an Experimental Model of Nephrotic Syndrome Thu, 07 May 2015 17:24:21 +0000 The present study aimed to evaluate the expression of CD80 and CD18 in subpopulations of peripheral blood leukocytes and oxidative kidney damage in rats with nephrotic syndrome (NS) induced by doxorubicin (Dox) in comparison to control animals at different time points. Male adult Wistar rats were submitted to 24-hour urine and blood collection for biochemical and immunological analysis at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after Dox injection. After euthanasia, the kidneys were removed for histological analysis and the evaluation of oxidative stress. The phenotypic characterization of leukocytes was performed using flow cytometry. Dox-injected animals exhibited increased CD18 expression in cytotoxic T lymphocytes, NK cells, and monocytes and high CD80 expression in monocytes. Kidney oxidative damage was positively correlated with CD80 expression in monocytes and serum levels of creatinine. These results suggest that phagocytic and cytotoxic cells are preferentially recruited to the tissue injury site, which may contribute to kidney dysfunction in this animal model of NS. The blockade of integrin and costimulatory molecules may provide new therapeutic opportunities for NS. Wagner de Fátima Pereira, Gustavo Eustáquio Alvim Brito-Melo, Cláudia Martins Carneiro, Dirceu de Sousa Melo, Karine Beatriz Costa, Fábio Lourenço Tadeu Guimarães, Etel Rocha-Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano Vieira, and Ana Cristina Simões e Silva Copyright © 2015 Wagner de Fátima Pereira et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidative Strategy for Inflammatory Diseases Thu, 07 May 2015 13:56:45 +0000 Yung-Hsiang Chen, Ping H. Wang, Pote Sriboonlue, and Yuh-Lien Chen Copyright © 2015 Yung-Hsiang Chen et al. All rights reserved.