Mediators of Inflammation The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: The Molecular Connectivity between Insulin Resistance, Obesity, and Alzheimer’s Disease Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:45:59 +0000 Type 2 diabetes (T2DM), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and insulin resistance are age-related conditions and increased prevalence is of public concern. Recent research has provided evidence that insulin resistance and impaired insulin signalling may be a contributory factor to the progression of diabetes, dementia, and other neurological disorders. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common subtype of dementia. Reduced release (for T2DM) and decreased action of insulin are central to the development and progression of both T2DM and AD. A literature search was conducted to identify molecular commonalities between obesity, diabetes, and AD. Insulin resistance affects many tissues and organs, either through impaired insulin signalling or through aberrant changes in both glucose and lipid (cholesterol and triacylglycerol) metabolism and concentrations in the blood. Although epidemiological and biological evidence has highlighted an increased incidence of cognitive decline and AD in patients with T2DM, the common molecular basis of cell and tissue dysfunction is rapidly gaining recognition. As a cause or consequence, the chronic inflammatory response and oxidative stress associated with T2DM, amyloid-β (Aβ) protein accumulation, and mitochondrial dysfunction link T2DM and AD. Giuseppe Verdile, Kevin N. Keane, Vinicius F. Cruzat, Sandra Medic, Miheer Sabale, Joanne Rowles, Nadeeja Wijesekara, Ralph N. Martins, Paul E. Fraser, and Philip Newsholme Copyright © 2015 Giuseppe Verdile et al. All rights reserved. Modulatory Effects of Astragalus Polysaccharides on T-Cell Polarization in Mice with Polymicrobial Sepsis Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:57:58 +0000 Background. This study evaluated the impact of different doses of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on the functional status and phenotype of T cells during polymicrobial sepsis. Methods. On day 1 after cecal ligation and puncture, mice were treated with either saline, 100 (A100), 200 (A200), or 400 mg APS/kg body weight (BW) (A400) by an intraperitoneal injection daily for 4 days. All mice were sacrificed 5 days after the operation. Results. APS treatment reversed the sepsis-induced decrement in the T helper (Th) cell population, and the percentage of activated Th cells also increased in the spleen and Peyer’s patches. APS administration downregulated the percentages of circulating Th2 cells and regulatory T cells (Treg), and the percentage of Th17 cells in blood was upregulated in the A400 group. Weight loss and kidney injury were attenuated in the A100 and A200 groups but not in the A400 group at the end of the study. Conclusions. Treatments with 100 and 200 mg APS/kg BW reduced Treg populations and elicited a more-balanced Th1/Th2 response that consequently attenuated immunosuppression in polymicrobial sepsis. High-dose APS administration led to excessive responses of Th17 cells which may have adverse effects in sepsis-induced organ injury. Yu-Chen Hou, Jin-Ming Wu, Ming-Yang Wang, Ming-Hsun Wu, Kuen-Yuan Chen, Sung-Ling Yeh, and Ming-Tsan Lin Copyright © 2015 Yu-Chen Hou et al. All rights reserved. Sphingolipids as Regulators of the Phagocytic Response to Fungal Infections Wed, 25 Nov 2015 11:11:04 +0000 Fungal infections pose a significant risk for the increasing population of individuals who are immunocompromised. Phagocytes play an important role in immune defense against fungal pathogens, but the interactions between host and fungi are still not well understood. Sphingolipids have been shown to play an important role in many cell functions, including the function of phagocytes. In this review, we discuss major findings that relate to the importance of sphingolipids in macrophage and neutrophil function and the role of macrophages and neutrophils in the most common types of fungal infections, as well as studies that have linked these three concepts to show the importance of sphingolipid signaling in immune response to fungal infections. Arielle M. Bryan, Maurizio Del Poeta, and Chiara Luberto Copyright © 2015 Arielle M. Bryan et al. All rights reserved. MicroRNA-208a Dysregulates Apoptosis Genes Expression and Promotes Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis during Ischemia and Its Silencing Improves Cardiac Function after Myocardial Infarction Wed, 25 Nov 2015 07:10:30 +0000 Aims. miR-208a is associated with adverse outcomes in several cardiac pathologies known to have increased apoptosis, including myocardial infarction (MI). We investigated if miR-208a has proapoptotic effects on ischemic cardiomyocytes and if its silencing has therapeutic benefits in MI. Methods and Results. The effect of miR-208a on apoptosis during ischemia was studied in cultured neonatal mice myocytes transfected with agomir or antagomir. Differential gene expression was assessed using microarrays. MI was induced in male C57BL/6 mice randomly assigned to antagomir () or control group (), while sham group () had sham operation done. Antagomir group received miR208a antagomir, while control and sham group mice received vehicle only. At 7 and 28 days, echocardiography was done and thereafter hearts were harvested for analysis of apoptosis by TUNEL method, fibrosis using Masson’s trichrome, and hypertrophy using hematoxylin and eosin. miR-208a altered apoptosis genes expression and increased apoptosis in ischemic cardiomyocytes. Therapeutic inhibition of miR-208a decreased cardiac fibrosis, hypertrophy, and apoptosis and significantly improved cardiac function 28 days after MI. Conclusion. miR-208a alters apoptosis genes expression and promotes apoptosis in ischemic cardiomyocytes, and its silencing attenuates apoptosis, fibrosis, and hypertrophy after MI, with significant improvement in cardiac function. Hasahya Tony, Kai Meng, Bangwei Wu, Aijia Yu, Qiutang Zeng, Kunwu Yu, and Yucheng Zhong Copyright © 2015 Hasahya Tony et al. All rights reserved. Systemic Inflammatory Markers Are Closely Associated with Atherogenic Lipoprotein Subfractions in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography Wed, 25 Nov 2015 05:49:49 +0000 Objective. To investigate the relationship between inflammatory markers and atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions. Methods. We studied 520 eligible subjects who were not receiving any lipid-lowering therapy. The inflammatory markers including white blood cell (WBC) count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and D-dimer were measured. A multimarker inflammatory index was developed. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) separation processes were performed using Lipoprint System. Results. In age- and sex-adjusted analysis, several inflammatory markers (WBC count, hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR) were positively related to circulating non-HDL cholesterol and remnant cholesterol (, all). Among lipoprotein subfractions, we observed a positive association of inflammatory markers with very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, small LDL cholesterol, and LDL score (, all). Meanwhile, a negative association was detected between inflammatory markers and mean LDL particle size () or large HDL cholesterol (). Moreover, we found that the relationships between multimarker index quartiles and small LDL cholesterol, LDL score, and mean LDL particle size were slightly stronger in patients with CAD. Conclusions. Systemic inflammatory markers are positively correlated with small LDL cholesterol and LDL score while being negatively linked with mean LDL particle size and large HDL cholesterol, highlighting the potential contribution to increased cardiovascular risk. Yan Zhang, Sha Li, Rui-Xia Xu, Cheng-Gang Zhu, Yuan-Lin Guo, Na-Qiong Wu, Jing Sun, and Jian-Jun Li Copyright © 2015 Yan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo Experiments with Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Pulp-Dentin Complex Regeneration Tue, 24 Nov 2015 08:14:54 +0000 In recent years, many studies have examined the pulp-dentin complex regeneration with DPSCs. While it is important to perform research on cells, scaffolds, and growth factors, it is also critical to develop animal models for preclinical trials. The development of a reproducible animal model of transplantation is essential for obtaining precise and accurate data in vivo. The efficacy of pulp regeneration should be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using animal models. This review article sought to introduce in vivo experiments that have evaluated the potential of dental pulp stem cells for pulp-dentin complex regeneration. According to a review of various researches about DPSCs, the majority of studies have used subcutaneous mouse and dog teeth for animal models. There is no way to know which animal model will reproduce the clinical environment. If an animal model is developed which is easier to use and is useful in more situations than the currently popular models, it will be a substantial aid to studies examining pulp-dentin complex regeneration. Sunil Kim, Su-Jung Shin, Yunjung Song, and Euiseong Kim Copyright © 2015 Sunil Kim et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Weight-Reduction in Obese Mice Lacking Toll-Like Receptor 5 and C57BL/6 Mice Fed a Low-Fat Diet Mon, 23 Nov 2015 08:32:45 +0000 Background. This study aims to investigate the effect of feeding low-fat diet (LFD) to diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice lacking TLR5 (TLR5−/−), which have a tendency to develop glucose intolerance with increased adiposity, compared to that in C57BL/6 mice. Results. TLR5−/− and C57BL/6 male mice were divided into three subgroups: (1) control, mice were fed a standard AIN-76A (fat: 11.5 kcal%) diet for 12 weeks; (2) DIO, mice were fed a 58 kcal% high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks; and (3) diet, mice were fed a HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity and then switched to a 10.5 kcal% LFD for 4 weeks. The glucose intolerance in DIO TLR5−/− mice was more significant than that in DIO C57BL/6 mice and was not attenuated by a switch to the LFD. Weight-reduction with LFD had significantly decreased the epididymal fat mass in C57BL/6 mice but not in TLR5−/− mice. In addition, the LFD-fed TLR5−/− mice showed significantly higher expression of ghrelin in the serum and resistin in the epididymal fat than that in C57BL/6 mice. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that TLR5 gene knockout impairs some effects of weight-reduction in DIO. Shao-Chun Wu, Cheng-Shyuan Rau, Tsu-Hsiang Lu, Siou-Ling Tzeng, Yi-Chan Wu, Chia-Jung Wu, Chia-Wei Lin, and Ching-Hua Hsieh Copyright © 2015 Shao-Chun Wu et al. All rights reserved. Mediators of Inflammation in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: State of the Art Mon, 23 Nov 2015 08:21:19 +0000 Sylvie Hermouet, Hans C. Hasselbalch, and Vladan Čokić Copyright © 2015 Sylvie Hermouet et al. All rights reserved. Linking Endotoxins, African Dust PM10 and Asthma in an Urban and Rural Environment of Puerto Rico Sun, 22 Nov 2015 08:23:47 +0000 African Dust Events (ADE) are a seasonal phenomenon that has been suggested to exacerbate respiratory and proinflammatory diseases in Puerto Rico (PR). Increases in PM10 concentration and the effects of biological endotoxins (ENX) are critical factors to consider during these storms. ENX promote proinflammatory responses in lungs of susceptible individuals through activation of the Toll-like receptors (TLR2/4) signaling pathways. The objective of the study was to evaluate the toxicological and proinflammatory responses stimulated by ADE PM10 ENX reaching PR using human bronchial epithelial cells. PM10 organic extracts from a rural and urban site in PR (March 2004) were obtained from ADE and non-ADE and compared. A retrospective data analysis (PM10 concentration, aerosol images, and pediatric asthma claims) was performed from 2000 to 2012 with particular emphasis in 2004 to classify PM samples. Urban extracts were highly toxic, proinflammatory (IL-6/IL-8 secretion), and induced higher TLR4 expression and NF-κB activation compared to rural extracts. ENX were found to contribute to cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses provoked by urban ADE PM10 exposure suggesting a synergistic potency of local and natural ENX incoming from ADE. The contribution of ADE PM10 ENX is valuable in order to understand interactions and action mechanisms of airborne pollutants as asthma triggers in PR. Mario G. Ortiz-Martínez, Rosa I. Rodríguez-Cotto, Mónica A. Ortiz-Rivera, Cedric W. Pluguez-Turull, and Braulio D. Jiménez-Vélez Copyright © 2015 Mario G. Ortiz-Martínez et al. All rights reserved. Glycyrrhizic Acid Promotes M1 Macrophage Polarization in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages Associated with the Activation of JNK and NF-κB Thu, 19 Nov 2015 16:29:27 +0000 The roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza species (licorice) have been widely used as natural sweeteners and herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice on macrophage polarization. Both phenotypic and functional activities of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) treated by GA were assessed. Our results showed that GA obviously increased the cell surface expression of CD80, CD86, and MHCII molecules. Meanwhile, GA upregulated the expression of CCR7 and the production of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and NO (the markers of classically activated (M1) macrophages), whereas it downregulated the expression of MR, Ym1, and Arg1 (the markers of alternatively activated (M2) macrophage). The functional tests showed that GA dramatically enhanced the uptake of FITC-dextran and E. coli K88 by BMDMs and decreased the intracellular survival of E. coli K88 and S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that JNK and NF-κB activation are required for GA-induced NO and M1-related cytokines production, while ERK1/2 pathway exhibits a regulatory effect via induction of IL-10. Together, these findings indicated that GA promoted polarization of M1 macrophages and enhanced its phagocytosis and bactericidal capacity. The results expanded our knowledge about the role of GA in macrophage polarization. Yulong Mao, Baikui Wang, Xin Xu, Wei Du, Weifen Li, and Youming Wang Copyright © 2015 Yulong Mao et al. All rights reserved. Nerve Blockage Attenuates Postoperative Inflammation in Hippocampus of Young Rat Model with Surgical Trauma Thu, 19 Nov 2015 11:41:29 +0000 It is hypothesized that central nervous system inflammation induced by systematic inflammation due to surgical trauma plays a critical role in postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The potential inhibitory effect of nerve blockage with local anesthetics on peripheral inflammatory response has been reported. We hypothesize that nerve blockage may be effective in reducing postoperative inflammation and cognitive decline. The rats at the age of 4 weeks were subjected to general anesthesia and humeral fracture fixation, in combination with brachial plexus block, saline versus ropivacaine, respectively. The rats from control group underwent general anesthesia only. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines in plasma and in hippocampus was measured. Open field test and new object recognition task were performed before surgery and on postoperative days (POD) 1, 3, and 7. Compared with control group, the level of cytokines in plasma and hippocampus revealed an obvious increase in surgery groups. The effect of brachial plexus block on decreasing cytokines was observed. The rats exposed to surgery without brachial plexus block showed behavior impairment. Our results indicated that nerve blockage could downregulate proinflammatory cytokines in hippocampus after humeral fixation surgery, which may ameliorate the postoperative cognitive dysfunction in young rats. Yi He, Zhi Li, and Yun-Xia Zuo Copyright © 2015 Yi He et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Oral L-Carnitine on Liver Functions after Transarterial Chemoembolization in Intermediate-Stage HCC Patients Thu, 19 Nov 2015 11:12:13 +0000 Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is usually followed by hepatic dysfunction. We evaluated the effects of L-carnitine on post-TACE impaired liver functions. Methods. 53 cirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma patients at Osaka Medical College were enrolled in this study and assigned into either L-carnitine group receiving 600 mg oral L-carnitine daily or control group. Liver functions were evaluated at pre-TACE and 1, 4, and 12 weeks after TACE. Results. The L-carnitine group maintained Child-Pugh (CP) score at 1 week after TACE and exhibited significant improvement at 4 weeks after TACE (). Conversely, the control group reported a significant CP score deterioration at 1 week () and 12 weeks after TACE (). L-carnitine suppressed serum albumin deterioration at 1 week after TACE. There were significant differences between L-carnitine and control groups regarding mean serum albumin changes from baseline to 1 week () and 4 weeks after TACE (). L-carnitine caused prothrombin time improvement from baseline to 1, 4 (), and 12 weeks after TACE. Total bilirubin mean changes from baseline to 1 week after TACE exhibited significant differences between L-carnitine and control groups (). The hepatoprotective effects of L-carnitine were enhanced by branched chain amino acids combination. Conclusion. L-carnitine maintained and improved liver functions after TACE. Abeer Hassan, Yasuhiro Tsuda, Akira Asai, Keisuke Yokohama, Ken Nakamura, Tetsuya Sujishi, Hideko Ohama, Yusuke Tsuchimoto, Shinya Fukunishi, Usama M. Abdelaal, Usama A. Arafa, Ali T. Hassan, Ali M. Kassem, and Kazuhide Higuchi Copyright © 2015 Abeer Hassan et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Bariatric Weight Loss on the Adipose Lipolytic Transcriptome in Obese Humans Wed, 18 Nov 2015 12:04:11 +0000 Background. Dysregulated lipolysis has been implicated in mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease and inflammation in obesity. Purpose. We sought to examine the effect of bariatric weight loss on adipose tissue lipolytic gene expression and their relationship to systemic metabolic parameters in obese subjects. Methods/Results. We biopsied subcutaneous adipose tissue in 19 obese individuals (BMI 42 ± 5 kg/m2, 79% female) at baseline and after a mean period of 8 ± 5 months (range 3–15 months) following bariatric surgery. We performed adipose tissue mRNA expression of proteins involved in triglyceride hydrolysis and correlated their weight loss induced alterations with systemic parameters associated with cardiovascular disease risk. mRNA transcripts of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and lipid droplet proteins comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) and perilipin increased significantly after weight loss ( for all). ATGL expression correlated inversely with plasma triglyceride (TG), hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), and glucose, and HSL expression correlated negatively with glucose, while CGI-58 was inversely associated with HbA1C. Conclusion. We observed increased expression of adipose tissue lipolytic genes following bariatric weight loss which correlated inversely with systemic markers of lipid and glucose metabolism. Functional alterations in lipolysis in human adipose tissue may play a role in shaping cardiometabolic phenotypes in human obesity. Shakun Karki, Melissa G. Farb, Samantha Myers, Caroline Apovian, Donald T. Hess, and Noyan Gokce Copyright © 2015 Shakun Karki et al. All rights reserved. Quantitative In Vivo Detection of Chlamydia muridarum Associated Inflammation in a Mouse Model Using Optical Imaging Wed, 18 Nov 2015 12:02:23 +0000 Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial sexually transmitted disease with over 1.3 million cases reported to the CDC in 2010. While Chlamydia infection is easily treated with antibiotics, up to 70% of infections are asymptomatic and go untreated. The current mouse model relies on invasive upper genital tract gross pathology readouts at ~60–80 days postinfection. High throughput optical imaging through the use of biomarkers has been successfully used to quickly evaluate several disease processes. Here we evaluate Neutrophil Elastase 680 (Elastase680) for its ability to measure Chlamydia muridarum associated inflammation in live mice using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS). Optical imaging was able to distinguish with statistical significance between vaccinated and nonvaccinated mice as well as mock-challenged and challenged mice 2 weeks after challenge which was 9 weeks sooner than typical gross pathological assessment. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of neutrophils and correlated well with both in vivo and ex vivo imaging. In this report we demonstrate that Elastase680 can be used as a molecular imaging biomarker for inflammation associated with chlamydial infection in a mouse model and that these biomarkers can significantly decrease the time for pathology evaluation and thus increase the rate of therapeutics discovery. Manishkumar Patel, Shu-An Lin, Melissa A. Boddicker, Christopher DeMaula, Brett Connolly, Bohumil Bednar, Jon H. Heinrichs, and Jeffrey G. Smith Copyright © 2015 Manishkumar Patel et al. All rights reserved. Altered Innate Immune Responses in Neutrophils from Patients with Well- and Suboptimally Controlled Asthma Wed, 18 Nov 2015 11:36:36 +0000 Background. Respiratory infections are a major cause of asthma exacerbations where neutrophilic inflammation dominates and is associated with steroid refractory asthma. Structural airway cells in asthma differ from nonasthmatics; however it is unknown if neutrophils differ. We investigated neutrophil immune responses in patients who have good () and suboptimal () asthma symptom control. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils from (ACQ < 0.75, ), (ACQ > 0.75, ), and healthy controls (HC) () were stimulated with bacterial (LPS (1 μg/mL), fMLF (100 nM)), and viral (imiquimod (3 μg/mL), R848 (1.5 μg/mL), and poly I:C (10 μg/mL)) surrogates or live rhinovirus (RV) 16 (MOI1). Cell-free supernatant was collected after 1 h for neutrophil elastase (NE) and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 measurements or after 24 h for CXCL8 release. Results. Constitutive NE was enhanced in neutrophils compared to HC. fMLF stimulated neutrophils from but not produced 50% of HC levels. fMLF induced MMP-9 was impaired in and compared to HC. fMLF stimulated CXCL8 but not MMP-9 was positively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. and responded similarly to other stimuli. Conclusions. Circulating neutrophils are different in asthma; however, this is likely to be related to airflow limitation rather than asthma control. Francesca S. M. Tang, Gloria J. Foxley, Peter G. Gibson, Janette K. Burgess, Katherine J. Baines, and Brian G. Oliver Copyright © 2015 Francesca S. M. Tang et al. All rights reserved. Serum Galectin-9 Levels Are Associated with Coronary Artery Disease in Chinese Individuals Wed, 18 Nov 2015 06:11:13 +0000 Background. Recently, several studies suggest that galectin-9 (Gal-9) might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, the exact role of Gal-9 in atherosclerosis remains to be elucidated. Methods. Serum Gal-9, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interferon- (IFN-) γ, interleukin- (IL-) 4, IL-17, and transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β1 were measured. The effect of Gal-9 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated in patients with normal coronary artery (NCA). Results. The lowest level of Gal-9 was found in the ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) group, followed by the non-ST-segment elevation ACS (NSTEACS), the NCA, and the stable angina pectoris (SAP) groups, respectively. Additionally, Gal-9 was found to be independently associated with hs-CRP, lipoprotein(a), and creatinine. Notably, Gal-9 was also noted to be an independent predictor of the Gensini score. Moreover, Gal-9 suppressed T-helper 17 (Th17) and expanded regulatory T cells (Tregs), resulting in decreased IL-17 production and increased secretion of TGF-β1. Conclusions. Serum Gal-9 is associated with not only coronary artery disease (CAD), but also the severity of coronary arteries stenosis. Gal-9 can expand Tregs and suppress Th17 development in activated PBMC, implying that Gal-9 has the potential to dampen the development of atherosclerosis and may be a new therapy for CAD. Ruirui Zhu, Cheng Liu, Hongxia Tang, Qiutang Zeng, Xiang Wang, Zhengfeng Zhu, Yuzhou Liu, Xiaobo Mao, and Yucheng Zhong Copyright © 2015 Ruirui Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Role of Calprotectin as a Modulator of the IL27-Mediated Proinflammatory Effect on Endothelial Cells Tue, 17 Nov 2015 06:58:26 +0000 An underlying endothelial dysfunction plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events and is the central feature of atherosclerosis. The protein-based communication between leukocytes and inflamed endothelial cells leading to diapedesis has been largely investigated and several key players such as IL6, TNFα, or the damage associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP) calprotectin are now well identified. However, regarding cytokine IL27, the controversial current knowledge about its inflammatory role and the involved regulatory elements requires clarification. Therefore, we examined the inflammatory impact of IL27 on primary endothelial cells and the potentially modulatory effect of calprotectin on both transcriptome and proteome levels. A qPCR-based screening demonstrated high IL27-mediated gene expression of IL7, IL15, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Calprotectin time-dependent downregulatory effects were observed on IL27-induced IL15 and CXCL10 gene expression. A mass spectrometry-based approach of IL27 ± calprotectin cell stimulation enlightened a calprotectin modulatory role in the expression of 28 proteins, mostly involved in the mechanism of leukocyte transmigration. Furthermore, we showed evidence for STAT1 involvement in this process. Our findings provide new evidence about the IL27-dependent proinflammatory signaling which may be under the control of calprotectin and highlight the need for further investigations on molecules which might have antiatherosclerotic functions. Susann A. Dorosz, Aurélien Ginolhac, Thilo Kähne, Michael Naumann, Thomas Sauter, Alexandre Salsmann, and Jean-Luc Bueb Copyright © 2015 Susann A. Dorosz et al. All rights reserved. Sphingolipids in High Fat Diet and Obesity-Related Diseases Mon, 16 Nov 2015 16:17:18 +0000 Nutrient oversupply associated with a high fat diet (HFD) significantly alters cellular metabolism, and specifically including sphingolipid metabolism. Sphingolipids are emerging as bioactive lipids that play key roles in regulating functions, in addition to their traditional roles as membrane structure. HFD enhances de novo sphingolipid synthesis and turnover of sphingolipids via the salvage pathway, resulting in the generation of ceramide, and more specifically long chain ceramide species. Additionally, HFD elevates sphingomyelin and sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) levels in several tissues including liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and cardiovascular tissues. HFD-stimulated sphingolipid generation contributes to systemic insulin resistance, dysregulated lipid accumulation, and cytokine expression and secretion from skeletal muscle and adipose tissues, exacerbating obesity-related conditions. Furthermore, altered sphingolipid levels, particularly ceramide and sphingomyelin, are involved in obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. In this review, HFD-mediated sphingolipid metabolism and its impact on HFD-induced biology and pathobiology will be discussed. Songhwa Choi and Ashley J. Snider Copyright © 2015 Songhwa Choi and Ashley J. Snider. All rights reserved. Caffeine Mitigates Lung Inflammation Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion of Lower Limbs in Rats Mon, 16 Nov 2015 16:14:41 +0000 Reperfusion of ischemic limbs can induce inflammation and subsequently cause acute lung injury. Caffeine, a widely used psychostimulant, possesses potent anti-inflammatory capacity. We elucidated whether caffeine can mitigate lung inflammation caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) of the lower limbs. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to receive IR, IR plus caffeine (IR + Caf group), sham-operation (Sham), or sham plus caffeine ( in each group). To induce IR, lower limbs were bilaterally tied by rubber bands high around each thigh for 3 hours followed by reperfusion for 3 hours. Caffeine (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) was administered immediately after reperfusion. Our histological assay data revealed characteristics of severe lung inflammation in the IR group and mild to moderate characteristic of lung inflammation in the IR + Caf group. Total cells number and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the IR group were significantly higher than those of the IR + Caf group ( and , resp.). Similarly, pulmonary concentrations of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) and pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity of the IR group were significantly higher than those of the IR + Caf group (all ). These data clearly demonstrate that caffeine could mitigate lung inflammation induced by ischemia-reperfusion of the lower limbs. Wei-Chi Chou, Ming-Chang Kao, Chung-Tai Yue, Pei-Shan Tsai, and Chun-Jen Huang Copyright © 2015 Wei-Chi Chou et al. All rights reserved. Distinct Functions of Neutrophil in Cancer and Its Regulation Mon, 16 Nov 2015 13:07:09 +0000 Neutrophils are the most abundant of all white blood cells in the human circulation and are usually associated with inflammation and with fighting infections. In recent years the role immune cells play in cancer has been a matter of increasing interest. In this context the function of neutrophils is controversial as neutrophils were shown to possess both tumor promoting and tumor limiting properties. Here we provide an up-to-date review of the pro- and antitumor properties neutrophils possess as well as the environmental cues that regulate these distinct functions. Zvi Granot and Jadwiga Jablonska Copyright © 2015 Zvi Granot and Jadwiga Jablonska. All rights reserved. 3,5,4′-Tri-O-acetylresveratrol Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome via MAPK/SIRT1 Pathway Mon, 16 Nov 2015 12:49:00 +0000 The aim of the present research was to investigate the protecting effects of 3,5,4′-tri-O-acetylresveratrol (AC-Rsv) on LPS-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Lung injuries have been evaluated by histological examination, wet-to-dry weight ratios, and cell count and protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Inflammation was assessed by MPO activities and cytokine secretion in lungs and cells. The results showed that AC-Rsv significantly reduced the mortality of mice stimulated with LPS. Pretreatment of AC-Rsv attenuated LPS-induced histological changes, alleviated pulmonary edema, reduced blood vascular leakage, and inhibited the MPO activities in lungs. What was more, AC-Rsv and Rsv treatment reduced the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in lungs and NR8383 cells, respectively. Further exploration revealed that AC-Rsv and Rsv treatment relieved LPS-induced inhibition on SIRT1 expression and restrained the activation effects of LPS on MAPKs and NF-κB activation both in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, in vivo results have also demonstrated that the protecting effects of Rsv on LPS-induced inflammation would be neutralized when SIRT1 was in-hibited by EX527. Taken together, these results indicated that AC-Rsv protected lung tissue against LPS-induced ARDS by attenuating inflammation via p38 MAPK/SIRT1 pathway. Lijie Ma, Yilin Zhao, Ruixuan Wang, Tingting Chen, Wangping Li, Yandong Nan, Xueying Liu, and Faguang Jin Copyright © 2015 Lijie Ma et al. All rights reserved. Plasma Nitration of High-Density and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Receiving Kidney Transplants Sun, 15 Nov 2015 12:17:43 +0000 Background. Functional abnormalities of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) could contribute to cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients. We measured a validated marker of HDL dysfunction, nitrated apolipoprotein A-I, in kidney transplant recipients to test the hypothesis that a functioning kidney transplant reduces serum nitrated apoA-I concentrations. Methods. Concentrations of nitrated apoA-I and apoB were measured using indirect sandwich ELISA assays on sera collected from each transplant subject before transplantation and at 1, 3, and 12 months after transplantation. Patients were excluded if they have history of diabetes, treatment with lipid-lowering medications or HIV protease inhibitors, prednisone dose > 15 mg/day, nephrotic range proteinuria, serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL, or active inflammatory disease. Sera from 18 transplanted patients were analyzed. Four subjects were excluded due to insufficient data. Twelve and eight patients had creatinine < 1.5 mg/dL at 3 and 12 months after transplantation, respectively. Results. Nitrated apoA-I was significantly reduced at 12 months after transplantation (). The decrease in apoA-I nitration was associated with significant reduction in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (). In contrast to apoA-I, nitrated apoB was not affected after kidney transplantation. Conclusions. Patients with well-functioning grafts had significant reduction in nitrated apoA-I 12 months after kidney transplantation. Further studies are needed in a large cohort to determine if nitrated apoA-I can be used as a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk stratification in chronic kidney disease. Ahmed Bakillah, Fasika Tedla, Isabelle Ayoub, Devon John, Allen J. Norin, M. Mahmood Hussain, and Clinton Brown Copyright © 2015 Ahmed Bakillah et al. All rights reserved. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Role of Oleic Acid-Triggered Lung Injury and Inflammation Thu, 12 Nov 2015 09:19:33 +0000 Lung injury especially acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be triggered by diverse stimuli, including fatty acids and microbes. ARDS affects thousands of people worldwide each year, presenting high mortality rate and having an economic impact. One of the hallmarks of lung injury is edema formation with alveoli flooding. Animal models are used to study lung injury. Oleic acid-induced lung injury is a widely used model resembling the human disease. The oleic acid has been linked to metabolic and inflammatory diseases; here we focus on lung injury. Firstly, we briefly discuss ARDS and secondly we address the mechanisms by which oleic acid triggers lung injury and inflammation. Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Adriana Ribeiro Silva, Patrícia Burth, Mauro Velho Castro-Faria, and Hugo Caire Castro-Faria-Neto Copyright © 2015 Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque et al. All rights reserved. Inflammation as a Keystone of Bone Marrow Stroma Alterations in Primary Myelofibrosis Thu, 12 Nov 2015 06:17:09 +0000 Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a clonal myeloproliferative neoplasm where severity as well as treatment complexity is mainly attributed to a long lasting disease and presence of bone marrow stroma alterations as evidenced by myelofibrosis, neoangiogenesis, and osteosclerosis. While recent understanding of mutations role in hematopoietic cells provides an explanation for pathological myeloproliferation, functional involvement of stromal cells in the disease pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The current dogma is that stromal changes are secondary to the cytokine “storm” produced by the hematopoietic clone cells. However, despite therapies targeting the myeloproliferation-sustaining clones, PMF is still regarded as an incurable disease except for patients, who are successful recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Although the clinical benefits of these inhibitors have been correlated with a marked reduction in serum proinflammatory cytokines produced by the hematopoietic clones, further demonstrating the importance of inflammation in the pathological process, these treatments do not address the role of the altered bone marrow stroma in the pathological process. In this review, we propose hypotheses suggesting that the stroma is inflammatory-imprinted by clonal hematopoietic cells up to a point where it becomes “independent” of hematopoietic cell stimulation, resulting in an inflammatory vicious circle requiring combined stroma targeted therapies. Christophe Desterke, Christophe Martinaud, Nadira Ruzehaji, and Marie-Caroline Le Bousse-Kerdilès Copyright © 2015 Christophe Desterke et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Therapeutic Blockades of Dust Particles-Induced Ca2+ Signaling and Proinflammatory Cytokine IL-8 in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Tue, 10 Nov 2015 13:57:09 +0000 Bronchial epithelial cells are the first barrier of defense against respiratory pathogens. Dust particles as extracellular stimuli are associated with inflammatory reactions after inhalation. It has been reported that dust particles induce intracellular Ca2+ signal, which subsequently increases cytokines production such as interleukin- (IL-) 8. However, the study of therapeutic blockades of Ca2+ signaling induced by dust particles in human bronchial epithelial cells is poorly understood. We investigated how to modulate dust particles-induced Ca2+ signaling and proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 expression. Bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to PM10 dust particles and subsequent mediated intracellular Ca2+ signaling and reactive oxygen species signal. Our results show that exposure to several inhibitors of Ca2+ pathway attenuated the PM10-induced Ca2+ response and subsequent IL-8 mRNA expression. PM10-mediated Ca2+ signal and IL-8 expression were attenuated by several pharmacological blockades such as antioxidants, IP3-PLC blockers, and TRPM2 inhibitors. Our results show that blockades of PLC or TRPM2 reduced both of PM10-mediated Ca2+ signal and IL-8 expression, suggesting that treatment with these blockades should be considered for potential therapeutic trials in pulmonary epithelium for inflammation caused by environmental events such as seasonal dust storm. Ju Hee Yoon, Sung Hwan Jeong, and Jeong Hee Hong Copyright © 2015 Ju Hee Yoon et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Trial and In Vitro Study for the Role of Cartilage and Synovia in Acute Articular Infection Tue, 10 Nov 2015 13:45:28 +0000 Objective. Osteoarthritis is a long-term complication of acute articular infections. However, the roles of cartilage and synovia in this process are not yet fully understood. Methods. Patients with acute joint infections were enrolled in a prospective clinical trial and the cytokine composition of effusions compared in patients with arthroplasty (n = 8) or with intact joints (n = 67). Cytokines and cell function were also analyzed using a human in vitro model of joint infection. Results. Synovial IL-1β levels were significantly higher in patients with arthroplasty (p = 0.004). Higher IL-1β concentrations were also found in the in vitro model without chondrocytes (p < 0.05). The anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were consistently expressed in vivo and in vitro, showing no association with the presence of cartilage or chondrocytes. In contrast, FasL levels increased steadily in vitro, reaching higher levels without chondrocytes (p < 0.05). Likewise, the viability of synovial fibroblasts (SFB) during infection was higher in the presence of chondrocytes. The cartilage-metabolism markers aggrecan and bFGF were at higher concentrations in intact joints, but also synthesized by SFB. Conclusions. Our data suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of cartilage associated with the SFBs’ increased resistance to infections, which displayed the ability to effectively synthesize cartilage metabolites.The trial is registered with DRKS 00003536, MISSinG. Elia R. Langenmair, Eva J. Kubosch, Gian M. Salzmann, Samuel Beck, and Hagen Schmal Copyright © 2015 Elia R. Langenmair et al. All rights reserved. Th1 and Th17 Cells in Tuberculosis: Protection, Pathology, and Biomarkers Tue, 10 Nov 2015 11:44:17 +0000 The outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection ranges from a complete pathogen clearance through asymptomatic latent infection (LTBI) to active tuberculosis (TB) disease. It is now understood that LTBI and active TB represent a continuous spectrum of states with different degrees of pathogen “activity,” host pathology, and immune reactivity. Therefore, it is important to differentiate LTBI and active TB and identify active TB stages. CD4+ T cells play critical role during Mtb infection by mediating protection, contributing to inflammation, and regulating immune response. Th1 and Th17 cells are the main effector CD4+ T cells during TB. Th1 cells have been shown to contribute to TB protection by secreting IFN-γ and activating antimycobacterial action in macrophages. Th17 induce neutrophilic inflammation, mediate tissue damage, and thus have been implicated in TB pathology. In recent years new findings have accumulated that alter our view on the role of Th1 and Th17 cells during Mtb infection. This review discusses these new results and how they can be implemented for TB diagnosis and monitoring. I. V. Lyadova and A. V. Panteleev Copyright © 2015 I. V. Lyadova and A. V. Panteleev. All rights reserved. Cytokines as Mediators of Pain-Related Process in Breast Cancer Mon, 09 Nov 2015 08:58:14 +0000 Pain is a clinical sign of inflammation found in a wide variety of chronic pathologies, including cancer. The occurrence of pain in patients carrying breast tumors is reported and is associated with aspects concerning disease spreading, treatment, and surgical intervention. The persistence of pain in patients submitted to breast surgery is estimated in a range from 21% to 55% and may affect patients before and after surgery. Beyond the physical compression exerted by the metastatic mass expansion and tissue injury found in breast cancer, inflammatory components that are significantly produced by the host-tumor interaction can significantly contribute to the generation of pain. In this context, cytokines have been studied aiming to establish a cause-effect relationship in cancer pain-related syndromes, especially the proinflammatory ones. Few reports have investigated the relationship between pain and cytokines in women carrying advanced breast cancer. In this scenario, the present review analyzes the main cytokines produced in breast cancer and discusses the evidences from literature regarding its role in specific clinical features related with this pathology. Carolina Panis and Wander Rogério Pavanelli Copyright © 2015 Carolina Panis and Wander Rogério Pavanelli. All rights reserved. Expression of Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 and Related Cytokines in Patients with Hepatic Cystic and Alveolar Echinococcosis Mon, 09 Nov 2015 08:20:59 +0000 Several studies have demonstrated the important role of Toll-like receptors in various parasitic infections. This study aims to explore expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and related cytokines in patients with human cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE). 78 subjects including AE group (), CE group (), and healthy controls (HC, ) were enrolled in this study. The mRNA expression levels of TLR2 and TLR4 in blood and hepatic tissue and plasma levels related cytokines were detected by using ELISA. Median levels of TLR2 mRNA in AE and CE groups were significantly elevated as compared with that in healthy control group. Median levels of TLR4 expression were increased in AE and CE. Plasma concentration levels of IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10 were slightly increased in AE and CE groups compared with those in HC group with no statistical differences (). The IL-23 concentration levels were significantly higher in AE and CE groups than that in HC subjects with statistical significance. The increased expression of TLR2 and IL-23 might play a potential role in modulating tissue infiltrative growth of the parasite and its persistence in the human host. Tuerhongjiang Tuxun, Hai-Zhang Ma, Shadike Apaer, Heng Zhang, Amina Aierken, Yu-Peng Li, Ren-Yong Lin, Jin-Ming Zhao, Jin-Hui Zhang, and Hao Wen Copyright © 2015 Tuerhongjiang Tuxun et al. All rights reserved. Constitutive Activation of the Nlrc4 Inflammasome Prevents Hepatic Fibrosis and Promotes Hepatic Regeneration after Partial Hepatectomy Mon, 09 Nov 2015 08:00:40 +0000 TThe molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of hepatic fibrosis are not fully understood. The Nlrc4 inflammasome detects cytosolic presence of bacterial components, activating inflammatory cytokines to facilitate clearance of pathogens and infected cells. We hypothesized that low-grade constitutive activation of the Nlrc4 inflammasome may lead to induced hepatocyte proliferation and prevent the development of hepatic fibrosis. The gene of Nlrc4 contains two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), one located within the Nlrc4 promoter and one contained within exon 5. These SNPs regulate Nlrc4 gene transcription and activation as measured through gene reporter assays and IL-1β secretion. The 17C-6 mice have increased IL-1β in plasma after chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration compared to B6 mice. After two-thirds partial hepatectomy (2/3PH) 17C-6 mice have earlier restoration of liver mass with greater cyclin D1 protein and BrdU incorporation compared to B6 mice at several time points. These data reveal mild constitutive activation of the Nlrc4 inflammasome as the results of two SNPs, which leads to the stimulation of hepatocyte proliferation. The increased liver regeneration induces rapid liver mass recovery after hepatectomy and may prevent the development of hepatotoxin-induced liver fibrosis. David A. DeSantis, Chih-Wei Ko, Lan Wang, Peter Lee, and Colleen M. Croniger Copyright © 2015 David A. DeSantis et al. All rights reserved.