Mediators of Inflammation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. LPS- and LTA-Induced Expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in Neonatal and Adult Blood: Role of MAPKs and NF-κB Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/283126/ As nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) seem to be critical mediators in the inflammatory response, we studied the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) on (a) the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs and (b) the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) with or without the specific inhibitors of these intracellular signal transduction pathways in neonatal cord and adult blood. TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations showed a sharp increase in the supernatants of cord and adult whole blood after stimulation. TNF-α concentrations were significantly higher, whereas IL-6 concentrations were tendentially lower in adult blood after stimulation. Stimulation with LPS or LTA resulted in a significantly decreased activation of p38 MAPK in neonatal compared with adult blood. Although LTA failed to induce additional ERK1/2 phosphorylation, LPS stimulation mediated the moderately increased levels of activated ERK1/2 in neonatal monocytes. The addition of the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 significantly decreased IL-6 and TNF-α production upon LPS or LTA stimulation. Furthermore, the inhibition of ERK1/2 was able to reduce LPS-stimulated TNF-α production in neonatal blood. We conclude that p38 MAPK as well as ERK1/2 phosphorylation is crucially involved in LPS activation and could explain the differences in early cytokine response between neonatal and adult blood. Lutz Koch, David Frommhold, Kirsten Buschmann, Navina Kuss, Johannes Poeschl, and Peter Ruef Copyright © 2014 Lutz Koch et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of IL-4 Gene Polymorphisms on Cytokine Production in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis and in Healthy Controls Wed, 29 Oct 2014 11:31:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/185757/ Chronic periodontitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of the teeth-supporting tissues in which genetic predisposition, dental plaque bacteria, and immune mechanisms all play important roles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of IL-4 gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis and to investigate the association between polymorphisms and cytokines production after bacterial stimulation. Sixty-two subjects (47 CP patients and 15 healthy controls) with detected two polymorphisms in the IL-4 gene (-590C/T and intron 3 VNTR) were examined. Production of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNFα, INFγ, and VEGF) was studied after in vitro stimulation of isolated peripheral blood by mitogens (Pokeweed mitogen, Concanavalin A), dental plaque bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia), and Heat Shock Protein (HSP) 70 by the Luminex multiplex cytokine analysis system. The results were correlated with IL-4 genotypes in patients with CP and healthy controls. The mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood of CP patients with selected IL-4 polymorphisms significantly altered the production of IFNγ, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-1α, TNFα, and IL-6 after stimulation by HSP 70 or selected bacteria (from to ). IL-4 gene polymorphisms may influence the function of mononuclear cells to produce not only interleukin-4 but also other cytokines, especially in patients with CP. Jirina Bartova, Petra Borilova Linhartova, Stepan Podzimek, Tatjana Janatova, Kazi Svobodova, Antonin Fassmann, Jana Duskova, Jaromir Belacek, and Lydie Izakovicova Holla Copyright © 2014 Jirina Bartova et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative Stress Markers and C-Reactive Protein Are Related to Severity of Heart Failure in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:23:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/147040/ Background. The aim of study was to determine relationships between functional capacity (NYHA class), left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF), hemodynamic parameters, and biomarkers of redox state and inflammation in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods. DCM patients (, aged years), NYHA class IIV, and LVEF % were studied. Controls comprised age-matched healthy volunteers (). Echocardiography and right heart catheterization were performed. Serum activities of superoxide dismutase isoenzymes (MnSOD and CuZnSOD), concentrations of uric acid (UA), malondialdehyde (MDA), and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. Results. MnSOD, UA, hs-CRP, and MDA were significantly higher in DCM patients compared to controls. Except MDA concentration, above parameters were higher in patients in III-IV NYHA class or with lower LVEF. hsCRP correlated with of MnSOD () and CuZnSOD activity (). Both isoenzymes positively correlated with mPAP and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (MnSOD, resp., and and CuZnSOD ; ). UA positively correlated with MnSOD (), mPAP (), and PVRI (). The negative correlation between LVEF and UA () was detected. Conclusion. There are relationships among the severity of symptoms of heart failure, echocardiographic hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress, and inflammatory activation. Increased MnSOD activity indicates the mitochondrial source of ROS in patients with advanced heart failure. Celina Wojciechowska, Ewa Romuk, Andrzej Tomasik, Bronisława Skrzep-Poloczek, Ewa Nowalany-Kozielska, Ewa Birkner, and Wojciech Jacheć Copyright © 2014 Celina Wojciechowska et al. All rights reserved. Estrogen Signaling in Metabolic Inflammation Thu, 23 Oct 2014 07:45:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/615917/ There is extensive evidence supporting the interference of inflammatory activation with metabolism. Obesity, mainly visceral obesity, is associated with a low-grade inflammatory state, triggered by metabolic surplus where specialized metabolic cells such as adipocytes activate cellular stress initiating and sustaining the inflammatory program. The increasing prevalence of obesity, resulting in increased cardiometabolic risk and precipitating illness such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver, cirrhosis, and certain types of cancer, constitutes a good example of this association. The metabolic actions of estrogens have been studied extensively and there is also accumulating evidence that estrogens influence immune processes. However, the connection between these two fields of estrogen actions has been underacknowledged since little attention has been drawn towards the possible action of estrogens on the modulation of metabolism through their anti-inflammatory properties. In the present paper, we summarize knowledge on the modification inflammatory processes by estrogens with impact on metabolism and highlight major research questions on the field. Understanding the regulation of metabolic inflammation by estrogens may provide the basis for the development of therapeutic strategies to the management of metabolic dysfunctions. Rosário Monteiro, Diana Teixeira, and Conceição Calhau Copyright © 2014 Rosário Monteiro et al. All rights reserved. Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Extract Ameliorates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity Associated Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Apoptosis in Rodent Model Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/983952/ The present investigation was designed to investigate the protective effect of (Beta vulgaris L.) beat root ethanolic extract (BVEE) on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and to elucidate the potential mechanism. Serum specific kidney function parameters (urea, uric acid, total protein, creatinine, and histopathology of kidney tissue) were evaluated to access gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. The oxidative/nitrosative stress (Lipid peroxidation, MDA, NP-SH, Catalase, and nitric oxide levels) was assessed. The inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-6, MPO, NF-κB (p65), and NF-κB (p65) DNA binding) and apoptotic marker (Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2) were also evaluated. BVEE (250 and 500 mg/kg) treatment along with gentamicin restored/increased the renal endogenous antioxidant status. Gentamicin-induced increased renal inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), nuclear protein expression of NF-κB (p65), NF-κB-DNA binding activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and nitric oxide level were significantly down regulated upon BVEE treatment. In addition, BVEE treatment significantly reduced the amount of cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, protein expression and increased the Bcl-2 protein expression. BVEE treatment also ameliorated the extent of histologic injury and reduced inflammatory infiltration in renal tubules. These findings suggest that BVEE treatment attenuates renal dysfunction and structural damage through the reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the kidney. Ali A. El Gamal, Mansour S. AlSaid, Mohammad Raish, Mohammed Al-Sohaibani, Shaza M. Al-Massarani, Ajaz Ahmad, Mohamed Hefnawy, Mohammed Al-Yahya, Omer A. Basoudan, and Syed Rafatullah Copyright © 2014 Ali A. El Gamal et al. All rights reserved. Mediators of Mast Cells in Bullous Pemphigoid and Dermatitis Herpetiformis Tue, 21 Oct 2014 13:09:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/936545/ Bullous pemphigoid (BP) and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) are skin diseases associated with inflammation. However, few findings exist concerning the role of mast cells in autoimmune blistering disease. Skin biopsies were taken from 27 BP and 14 DH patients, as well as 20 healthy individuals. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the localization and mast cell expression of TNFα and MMP9 in skin lesions and perilesional skin. The serum concentrations of TNFα, MMP9, chymase, tryptase, PAF, and IL-4 were measured by immunoassay. TNFα and MMP9 expression in the epidermis and in inflammatory influxed cells in the dermis was detected in skin biopsies from patients. Although these mediators were found to be expressed in the perilesional skin of all patients, the level was much lower than that in lesional skin. Increased serum PAF levels were observed in BP patients. Mast cells may play an essential role in activating inflammation, which ultimately contributes to the tissue damage observed in BP and DH. Our findings suggest that differences in the pattern of cytokine expression directly contribute to variations in cellular infiltration in DH and BP. Agnieszka Zebrowska, Malgorzata Wagrowska-Danilewicz, Marian Danilewicz, Olga Stasikowska-Kanicka, Lilianna Kulczycka-Siennicka, Anna Wozniacka, and Elzbieta Waszczykowska Copyright © 2014 Agnieszka Zebrowska et al. All rights reserved. NF-B/AP-1-Targeted Inhibition of Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Depigmenting Compound AP736 Derived from Natural 1,3-Diphenylpropane Skeleton Sun, 19 Oct 2014 09:09:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/354843/ AP736 was identified as an antimelanogenic drug that can be used for the prevention of melasma, freckles, and dark spots in skin by acting as a suppressor of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression. Since macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are critical for skin health, here we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of AP736. The effects of AP736 on various inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO)/prostaglandin (PG) E2 production, inflammatory gene expression, phagocytic uptake, and morphological changes were examined in RAW264.7 cells. AP736 was found to strongly inhibit the production of both NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, AP736 strongly inhibited both LPS-induced morphological changes and FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake. Furthermore, AP736 also downregulated the expression of multiple inflammatory genes, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, and interleukin- (IL-) 1β in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Transcription factor analysis, including upstream signalling events, revealed that both NF-κB and AP-1 were targeted by AP736 via inhibition of the IKK/IκBα and IRAK1/TAK1 pathways. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that AP736 is a potential anti-inflammatory drug due to its suppression of NF-κB-IKK/IκBα and AP-1-IRAK1/TAK1 signalling, which may make AP736 useful for the treatment of macrophage-mediated skin inflammation. Van Thai Ha, Heung Soo Beak, Eunji Kim, Kwang-Soo Baek, Muhammad Jahangir Hossen, Woo Seok Yang, Yong Kim, Jun Ho Kim, Sungjae Yang, Jeong-Hwan Kim, Yung Hyup Joo, Chang Seok Lee, Joonho Choi, Hong-Ju Shin, Sungyoul Hong, Song Seok Shin, and Jae Youl Cho Copyright © 2014 Van Thai Ha et al. All rights reserved. Scropolioside B Inhibits IL-1β and Cytokines Expression through NF-κB and Inflammasome NLRP3 Pathways Thu, 16 Oct 2014 08:29:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/819053/ Chronic inflammation is associated with various chronic illnesses including immunity disorders, cancer, neurodegeneration, and vascular diseases. Iridoids are compounds with anti-inflammatory properties. However their anti-inflammatory mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that scropolioside B, isolated from a Tibetan medicine (Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth.), blocked expressions of TNF, IL-1, and IL-32 through NF-κB pathway. Scropolioside B inhibited NF-κB activity in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 1.02 μmol/L. However, catalpol, similar to scropolioside B, was not effective in inhibiting NF-κB activity. Interestingly, scropolioside B and catalpol decreased the expression of NLRP3 and cardiolipin synthetase at both the mRNA and protein level. Our results showed that scropolioside B is superior in inhibiting the expression, maturation, and secretion of IL-1β compared to catalpol. These observations provide further understanding of the anti-inflammatory effects of iridoids and highlight scropolioside B as a potential drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. Tiantian Zhu, Liuqiang Zhang, Shuang Ling, Ju Duan, Fei Qian, Yiming Li, and Jin-Wen Xu Copyright © 2014 Tiantian Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Elevated OPN, IP-10, and Neutrophilia in Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Confirmed Tuberculosis Patients Wed, 15 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/513263/ Tuberculosis (TB) is the second most common cause of death from infectious diseases and results in high socioeconomic losses to many countries. Proper diagnosis is the first step in TB eradication. To develop a rapid, simple, and accurate diagnostic TB test and to characterize the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) genotypes and immune profiles of TB patients, a total of 37 TB patients and 30 healthy control (HC) from Metro Manila were enrolled. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reliably detected MTB infection. Manila genotype was identified by spoligotyping method in all TB patients. Osteopontin (OPN), interferon--induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10), and neutrophil counts were found to reflect the acute stage of MTB infection. The sensitivity and specificity were 94.6% and 93.3%, respectively, for both OPN and IP-10, and they were 83.8% and 78.6%, respectively, for neutrophils. The combination of OPN, IP-10, neutrophil count, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-, MCP-1, platelets, galectin-9, and leukocyte count correctly identifies all the HC and 96.3% of TB patients. LAMP method may serve as a rapid, supportive method in addition to time-consuming culture methods. OPN, IP-10, and neutrophil counts are useful in detecting MTB infection and may have utility in monitoring the course of the disease. Beata Shiratori, Susan Leano, Chie Nakajima, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Toshiro Niki, Yugo Ashino, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Elisabeth Telan, and Toshio Hattori Copyright © 2014 Beata Shiratori et al. All rights reserved. Development and Validation of Protein Microarray Technology for Simultaneous Inflammatory Mediator Detection in Human Sera Tue, 14 Oct 2014 07:54:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/820304/ Biomarkers, including cytokines, can help in the diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of treatment response across a wide range of disease settings. Consequently, the recent emergence of protein microarray technology, which is able to quantify a range of inflammatory mediators in a large number of samples simultaneously, has become highly desirable. However, the cost of commercial systems remains somewhat prohibitive. Here we show the development, validation, and implementation of an in-house microarray platform which enables the simultaneous quantitative analysis of multiple protein biomarkers. The accuracy and precision of the in-house microarray system were investigated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for pharmacokinetic assay validation. The assay fell within these limits for all but the very low-abundant cytokines, such as interleukin- (IL-) 10. Additionally, there were no significant differences between cytokine detection using our microarray system and the “gold standard” ELISA format. Crucially, future biomarker detection need not be limited to the 16 cytokines shown here but could be expanded as required. In conclusion, we detail a bespoke protein microarray system, utilizing well-validated ELISA reagents, that allows accurate, precise, and reproducible multiplexed biomarker quantification, comparable with commercial ELISA, and allowing customization beyond that of similar commercial microarrays. Senthooran Selvarajah, Ola H. Negm, Mohamed R. Hamed, Carolyn Tubby, Ian Todd, Patrick J. Tighe, Tim Harrison, and Lucy C. Fairclough Copyright © 2014 Senthooran Selvarajah et al. All rights reserved. Immune Activation, Immunosenescence, and Osteoprotegerin as Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction in Subclinical HIV-Associated Atherosclerosis Tue, 14 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/192594/ HIV-infected patients have a significantly greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Several markers including osteoprotegerin have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the relationship between T-cell phenotype, osteoprotegerin, and atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) in 94 HIV+ patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy with Framingham score <10%. As for the control group, 24 HIV-negative subjects were enrolled. c-IMT was assessed by ultrasound. CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation (CD38+ HLADR+) and senescence (CD57+ CD28−) were measured by flow cytometry. IL-6 and OPG levels were measured by ELISA kit. c-IMT was higher in HIV+ than in controls. Among HIV+ patients, 44.7% had pathological c-IMT (≥0.9 mm). CD8+ T-cell activation and senescence and OPG plasma levels were higher in HIV+ patients than in controls. Subjects with pathological c-IMT exhibited higher CD8+ immune activation and immunosenescence and OPG levels than subjects with normal c-IMT. Multivariate analysis showed that age, CD8+ CD38+ HLADR+, and CD8+ CD28− CD57+ were independently associated with pathological c-IMT. Several factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in HIV patients. Immune activation and immunosenescence of CD8+ T cell together with OPG plasma levels might be associated with the development and progression of early atherosclerosis, even in the case of viral suppression. Alessandra D’Abramo, Maria Antonella Zingaropoli, Alessandra Oliva, Claudia D’Agostino, Samir Al Moghazi, Giulia De Luca, Marco Iannetta, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, and Vincenzo Vullo Copyright © 2014 Alessandra D’Abramo et al. All rights reserved. A3 Adenosine Receptor Allosteric Modulator Induces an Anti-Inflammatory Effect: In Vivo Studies and Molecular Mechanism of Action Mon, 13 Oct 2014 12:36:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/708746/ The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is overexpressed in inflammatory cells and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals with inflammatory conditions. Agonists to the A3AR are known to induce specific anti-inflammatory effects upon chronic treatment. LUF6000 is an allosteric compound known to modulate the A3AR and render the endogenous ligand adenosine to bind to the receptor with higher affinity. The advantage of allosteric modulators is their capability to target specifically areas where adenosine levels are increased such as inflammatory and tumor sites, whereas normal body cells and tissues are refractory to the allosteric modulators due to low adenosine levels. LUF6000 administration induced anti-inflammatory effect in 3 experimental animal models of rat adjuvant induced arthritis, monoiodoacetate induced osteoarthritis, and concanavalin A induced liver inflammation in mice. The molecular mechanism of action points to deregulation of signaling proteins including PI3K, IKK, IκB, Jak-2, and STAT-1, resulting in decreased levels of NF-κB, known to mediate inflammatory effects. Moreover, LUF6000 induced a slight stimulatory effect on the number of normal white blood cells and neutrophils. The anti-inflammatory effect of LUF6000, mechanism of action, and the differential effects on inflammatory and normal cells position this allosteric modulator as an attractive and unique drug candidate. Shira Cohen, Faina Barer, Sara Bar-Yehuda, Adriaan P. IJzerman, Kenneth A. Jacobson, and Pnina Fishman Copyright © 2014 Shira Cohen et al. All rights reserved. Diethylcarbamazine Reduces Chronic Inflammation and Fibrosis in Carbon Tetrachloride- (CCl4-) Induced Liver Injury in Mice Mon, 13 Oct 2014 11:25:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/696383/ This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of DEC on the CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice. Chronic inflammation was induced by i.p. administration of CCl4 0.5 μL/g of body weight through two injections a week for 6 weeks. DEC (50 mg/kg) was administered by gavage for 12 days before finishing the CCl4 induction. Histological analyses of the DEC-treated group exhibited reduced inflammatory process and prevented liver necrosis and fibrosis. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses of the DEC-treated group showed reduced COX-2, IL1, MDA, TGF-, and SMA immunopositivity, besides exhibiting decreased IL1, COX-2, NFB, IFN, and TGF expressions in the western blot analysis. The DEC group enhanced significantly the IL-10 expression. The reduction of hepatic injury in the DEC-treated group was confirmed by the COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression levels. Based on the results of the present study, DEC can be used as a potential anti-inflammatory drug for chronic hepatic inflammation. Sura Wanessa Santos Rocha, Maria Eduarda Rocha de França, Gabriel Barros Rodrigues, Karla Patrícia Sousa Barbosa, Ana Karolina Santana Nunes, André Filipe Pastor, Anne Gabrielle Vasconcelos Oliveira, Wilma Helena Oliveira, Rayana Leal Almeida Luna, and Christina Alves Peixoto Copyright © 2014 Sura Wanessa Santos Rocha et al. All rights reserved. LPS from P. gingivalis and Hypoxia Increases Oxidative Stress in Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts and Contributes to Periodontitis Mon, 13 Oct 2014 10:44:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/986264/ Oxidative stress is characterized by an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plays a key role in the progression of inflammatory diseases. We hypothesize that hypoxic and inflammatory events induce oxidative stress in the periodontal ligament (PDL) by activating NOX4. Human primary PDL fibroblasts were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis (LPS-PG), a periodontal pathogen bacterium under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. By quantitative PCR, immunoblot, immunostaining, and a specific ROS assay we determined the amount of NOX4, ROS, and several redox systems. Healthy and inflamed periodontal tissues were collected to evaluate NOX4 and redox systems by immunohistochemistry. We found significantly increased NOX4 levels after hypoxic or inflammatory stimulation in PDL cells () which was even more pronounced after combination of the stimuli. This was accompanied by a significant upregulation of ROS and catalase (). However, prolonged incubation with both stimuli induced a reduction of catalase indicating a collapse of the protective machinery favoring ROS increase and the progression of inflammatory oral diseases. Analysis of inflamed tissues confirmed our hypothesis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the interplay of NOX4 and redox systems is crucial for ROS formation which plays a pivotal role during oral diseases. L. Gölz, S. Memmert, B. Rath-Deschner, A. Jäger, T. Appel, G. Baumgarten, W. Götz, and S. Frede Copyright © 2014 L. Gölz et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Rose Hip Preparation with Enhanced Anti-Inflammatory and Chondroprotective Effects Mon, 13 Oct 2014 10:03:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/105710/ Rose hip powder (RHP) alleviates osteoarthritis (OA) due to its anti-inflammatory and cartilage-protective properties. Substances contained in RHP might contribute to its clinical efficacy. The activity of two RHP (i.e., RH-A, from the whole fruit, RH-B, from fruits without seeds) was investigated in human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and primary chondrocytes (NHAC-kn). RH-A and RH-B diminished the secretion of chemokines and cytokines in LPS/IFN--activated PBL, including CCL5/RANTES, CXCL10/IP-10, interleukin- (IL-) 6, and IL-12. Most effects were transcriptional, since gene expression levels were significantly influenced by RH-A and RH-B. In IL-1 treated normal chondrocytes (NHAC-kn), both RH preparations reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4. These changes are associated with diminished inflammatory damage or cartilage erosion. Principal component analysis revealed that (1) RH-A and RH-B modified a large pattern of biomarkers, and (2) RH-B outperformed RH-A. Furthermore, RH-B contained more chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory constituents than RH-A. Thus, RHP contributed to restore cellular homeostasis in PBL and chondrocytes. RH preparations from fruits without seeds are thus expected to have an improved OA-preventive or OA-therapeutic profile, as subsequently shown in a related clinical trial. Joseph Schwager, Nathalie Richard, Rotraut Schoop, and Swen Wolfram Copyright © 2014 Joseph Schwager et al. All rights reserved. Cardiac Fibroblasts Aggravate Viral Myocarditis: Cell Specific Coxsackievirus B3 Replication Mon, 13 Oct 2014 09:40:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/519528/ Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease caused by viral infection. Different subpopulations of leukocytes enter the cardiac tissue and lead to severe cardiac inflammation associated with myocyte loss and remodeling. Here, we study possible cell sources for viral replication using three compartments of the heart: fibroblasts, cardiomyocytes, and macrophages. We infected C57BL/6j mice with Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and detected increased gene expression of anti-inflammatory and antiviral cytokines in the heart. Subsequently, we infected cardiac fibroblasts, cardiomyocytes, and macrophages with CVB3. Due to viral infection, the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and IFN-β was significantly increased in cardiac fibroblasts compared to cardiomyocytes or macrophages. We found that in addition to cardiomyocytes cardiac fibroblasts were infected by CVB3 and displayed a higher virus replication (132-fold increase) compared to cardiomyocytes (14-fold increase) between 6 and 24 hours after infection. At higher virus concentrations, macrophages are able to reduce the viral copy number. At low virus concentration a persistent virus infection was determined. Therefore, we suggest that cardiac fibroblasts play an important role in the pathology of CVB3-induced myocarditis and are another important contributor of virus replication aggravating myocarditis. Diana Lindner, Jia Li, Konstantinos Savvatis, Karin Klingel, Stefan Blankenberg, Carsten Tschöpe, and Dirk Westermann Copyright © 2014 Diana Lindner et al. All rights reserved. A Natural Flavonoid Glucoside, Icariin, Regulates Th17 and Alleviates Rheumatoid Arthritis in a Murine Model Mon, 13 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/392062/ Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that causes deformity of the joints and physical disability. Icariin, a natural flavonoid glucoside isolated from plants in the Epimedium family, has been proven to have various pharmacological activities. A recent study showed that icariin suppressed cartilage and bone degradation in mice of collagen-induced arthritis. However, the mechanism needs to be further investigated. In our current study, we found that icariin reduced the arthritis score and the incidence of arthritis compared with that in mice treated with water. Icariin inhibits the expression of various osteoclastogenic markers, such as β3 integrin, cathepsin K, and MMP9 in vitro. Icariin treatment in mice with CIA also resulted in less number of Th17 cells and decreased ratio of CD4+IL-17+ cells. The alleviated arthritis score and incidence of arthritis and reduced serum levels of IgG2a induced by icariin were abolished with additional IL-17 administration. Furthermore, icariin inhibited STAT3 activation in T cells and STAT3 inhibitor resulted in decreased IL-17 production and alleviated RA. In conclusion, icariin decreases Th17 cells and suppresses the production of IL-17, which contributes to the alleviated rheumatoid arthritis, through the inhibition of STAT3 activation. Liqun Chi, Wenyuan Gao, Xiangrong Shu, and Xin Lu Copyright © 2014 Liqun Chi et al. All rights reserved. Macadamia Oil Supplementation Attenuates Inflammation and Adipocyte Hypertrophy in Obese Mice Mon, 22 Sep 2014 07:27:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/870634/ Excess of saturated fatty acids in the diet has been associated with obesity, leading to systemic disruption of insulin signaling, glucose intolerance, and inflammation. Macadamia oil administration has been shown to improve lipid profile in humans. We evaluated the effect of macadamia oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profile, and adipocyte size in high-fat diet (HF) induced obesity in mice. C57BL/6 male mice (8 weeks) were divided into four groups: (a) control diet (CD), (b) HF, (c) CD supplemented with macadamia oil by gavage at 2 g/Kg of body weight, three times per week, for 12 weeks (CD + MO), and (d) HF diet supplemented with macadamia oil (HF + MO). CD and HF mice were supplemented with water. HF mice showed hypercholesterolemia and decreased insulin sensitivity as also previously shown. HF induced inflammation in adipose tissue and peritoneal macrophages, as well as adipocyte hypertrophy. Macadamia oil supplementation attenuated hypertrophy of adipocytes and inflammation in the adipose tissue and macrophages. Edson A. Lima, Loreana S. Silveira, Laureane N. Masi, Amanda R. Crisma, Mariana R. Davanso, Gabriel I. G. Souza, Aline B. Santamarina, Renata G. Moreira, Amanda Roque Martins, Luis Gustavo O. de Sousa, Sandro M. Hirabara, and Jose C. Rosa Neto Copyright © 2014 Edson A. Lima et al. All rights reserved. Role of Cytokines and Toll-Like Receptors in the Immunopathogenesis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome Mon, 22 Sep 2014 06:27:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/758639/ Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system, mostly triggered by an aberrant immune response to an infectious pathogen. Although several infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of GBS, not all such infected individuals develop this disease. Moreover, infection with a single agent might also lead to different subtypes of GBS emphasizing the role of host factors in the development of GBS. The host factors regulate a broad range of inflammatory processes that are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases including GBS. Evidences suggest that systemically and locally released cytokines and their involvement in immune-mediated demyelination and axonal damage of peripheral nerves are important in the pathogenesis of GBS. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) link innate and adaptive immunity through transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines. TLR genes may increase susceptibility to microbial infections; an attenuated immune response towards antigen and downregulation of cytokines occurs due to mutation in the gene. Herein, we discuss the crucial role of host factors such as cytokines and TLRs that activate the immune response and are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Kishan Kumar Nyati and Kashi Nath Prasad Copyright © 2014 Kishan Kumar Nyati and Kashi Nath Prasad. All rights reserved. Immunometabolism: Molecular Mechanisms, Diseases, and Therapies Mon, 22 Sep 2014 06:07:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/585708/ José Cesar Rosa Neto, Fábio Santos Lira, and William Tadeu Festuccia Copyright © 2014 José Cesar Rosa Neto et al. All rights reserved. Troglitazone and Δ2Troglitazone Enhance Adiponectin Expression in Monocytes/Macrophages through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway Mon, 22 Sep 2014 05:36:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/726068/ Accumulating evidence indicates that the regimen to increase adiponectin will provide a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Here, we tested the effect of troglitazone (TG) and its newly synthesized derivative, 5-[4-(6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-chroman-2-yl-methoxy)-benzylidene]-2,4-thiazolidinedione (Δ2troglitazone, (Δ2TG)), on the adiponectin expression in monocytes/macrophages and the relative mechanisms. The expression of adiponectin was located in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions from patients and cholesterol-fed rabbits. TG and Δ2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in THP-1 cells by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. TG induced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPARγ-dependent pathway whereas Δ2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPARγ-independent pathway in THP-1 cells. Both TG and Δ2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. TG and Δ2TG decreased the adhesion of THP-1 cells to TNF-α-treated HUVECs and the inhibitory effect was abolished by specific antiadiponectin antibodies. TG- and Δ2TG-induced suppression on monocyte adhesion were inhibited by a selective AMPK inhibitor compound C. Our data suggest that the inhibitory effect of TG and Δ2TG on monocyte adhesion might be at least in part through de novo adiponectin expression and activation of an AMPK-dependent pathway, which might play an important role in anti-inflammation and antiatherosclerosis. Jaw-Shiun Tsai, Lee-Ming Chuang, Ching-Shih Chen, Chan-Jung Liang, Yuh-Lien Chen, and Ching-Yu Chen Copyright © 2014 Jaw-Shiun Tsai et al. All rights reserved. An In Vitro Model to Evaluate the Impact of the Soluble Factors from the Colonic Mucosa of Collagenous Colitis Patients on T Cells: Enhanced Production of IL-17A and IL-10 from Peripheral CD4+ T Cells Sun, 21 Sep 2014 07:37:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/879843/ Soluble factors from intestinal mucosal cells contribute to immune homeostasis in the gut. We have established an in vitro model to investigate the regulatory role of soluble factors from inflamed intestinal mucosa of collagenous colitis (CC) patients in the differentiation of T cells. Peripheral blood CD4+ T cells from healthy donors were polyclonally activated in the presence of conditioned medium (CM) generated from denuded biopsies (DNB) or isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) from mucosal biopsies from CC patients compared to noninflamed controls, to determine proliferation and secretion of cytokines involved in T-cell differentiation. Compared to controls, we observed significantly increased production of the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-6, and IL-1β and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in the presence of CC-DNB-CM. The most pronounced effect of CC-LPMC-CM on peripheral CD4+ T cells was a trend towards increased production of IL-17A and IL-10. A trend towards reduced inhibition of T-cell proliferation was noted in the presence of CC-DNB-CM. In conclusion, our in vitro model reveals implications of soluble factors from CC colonic mucosa on peripheral T cells, enhancing their production of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Ashok Kumar Kumawat, Nils Nyhlin, Anna Wickbom, Curt Tysk, Johan Bohr, Olof Hultgren, and Elisabeth Hultgren Hörnquist Copyright © 2014 Ashok Kumar Kumawat et al. All rights reserved. Biomarker Analysis Revealed Distinct Profiles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Infants with Ocular Lesions of Congenital Toxoplasmosis Thu, 18 Sep 2014 11:17:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/910621/ Toxoplasma gondii is the main infectious cause of human posterior retinochoroiditis, the most frequent clinical manifestation of congenital toxoplasmosis. This investigation was performed after neonatal screening to identify biomarkers of immunity associated with immunopathological features of the disease by flow cytometry. The study included infected infants without NRL and with retinochoroidal lesions (ARL, ACRL, and CRL) as well as noninfected individuals (NI). Our data demonstrated that leukocytosis, with increased monocytes and lymphocytes, was a relevant hematological biomarker of ARL. Immunophenotypic analysis also revealed expansion of CD14+CD16+HLA- monocytes and cytotoxic NK-cells in ARL. Moreover, augmented TCRγδ+ and CD8+ T-cell counts were apparently good biomarkers of morbidity. Biomarker network analysis revealed that complex and intricated networks underscored the negative correlation of monocytes with NK- and B-cells in NRL. The remarkable lack of connections involving B-cells and a relevant shift of NK-cell connections from B-cells toward T-cells observed in ARL were outstanding. A tightly connected biomarker network was observed in CRL, with relevant connections of NK- and CD8+ T-cells with a broad range of cell subsets. Our findings add novel elements to the current knowledge on the innate and adaptive immune responses in congenital toxoplasmosis. Anderson Silva Machado, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos Carneiro, Samantha Ribeiro Béla, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz Andrade, Daniel Vitor Vasconcelos-Santos, José Nélio Januário, Jordana G. Coelho-dos-Reis, Eloisa Amália Vieira Ferro, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Ricardo Wagner Almeida Vitor, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, and UFMG Congenital Toxoplasmosis Brazilian Group —UFMG-CTBG Copyright © 2014 Anderson Silva Machado et al. All rights reserved. No Signs of Inflammation during Knee Surgery with Ischemia: A Study Involving Inhaled Nitric Oxide Thu, 18 Sep 2014 08:40:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/620281/ Nitric oxide donors and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) may decrease ischemia/reperfusion injury as reported in animal and human models. We investigated whether the attenuation of reperfusion injury, seen by others, in patients undergoing knee arthroplasty could be reproduced when patients had spinal anesthesia. 45 consecutive patients were randomized into three groups (). Groups 1 and 3 were receiving iNO 80 ppm or placebo (nitrogen, N2) throughout the entire operation, and group 2 only received iNO in the beginning and at the end of the operation. Blood samples were collected before surgery, at the end of the surgery, and 2 hours postoperatively. Muscle biopsies were taken from quadriceps femoris muscle before and after ischemia. There were no increases in plasma levels of soluble adhesion molecules: ICAM, VCAM, P-selectin, E-selectin, or of HMGB1, in any of the groups. There were low numbers of CD68+ macrophages and of endothelial cells expression of ICAM, VCAM, and P-selectin in the muscle analyzed by immunohistochemistry, prior to and after ischemia. No signs of endothelial cell activation or inflammatory response neither systemically nor locally could be detected. The absence of inflammatory response questions this model of ischemia/reperfusion, but may also be related to the choice of anesthetic method EudraCTnr. Lars Hållström, Claes Frostell, Anders Herrlin, Eva Lindroos, Ingrid Lundberg, and Anne Soop Copyright © 2014 Lars Hållström et al. All rights reserved. Toll-Like Receptor 2 as a Regulator of Oral Tolerance in the Gastrointestinal Tract Wed, 17 Sep 2014 11:35:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/606383/ Food allergy, other adverse immune responses to foods, inflammatory bowel disease, and eosinophilic esophagitis have become increasingly common in the last 30 years. It has been proposed in the “hygiene hypothesis” that dysregulated immune responses to environmental microbial stimuli may modify the balance between tolerance and sensitization in some patients. Of the pattern recognition receptors that respond to microbial signals, toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent the most investigated group. The relationship between allergy and TLR activation is currently at the frontier of immunology research. Although TLR2 is abundant in the mucosal environment, little is known about the complex relationship between bystander TLR2 activation by the commensal microflora and the processing of oral antigens. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the relationship between TLR2 and oral tolerance, with an emphasis on regulatory T cells, eosinophils, B cells, IgA, intestinal regulation, and commensal microbes. Matthew C. Tunis and Jean S. Marshall Copyright © 2014 Matthew C. Tunis and Jean S. Marshall. All rights reserved. Preventive Effects of Chitosan Coacervate Whey Protein on Body Composition and Immunometabolic Aspect in Obese Mice Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:33:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/281097/ Functional foods containing bioactive compounds of whey may play an important role in prevention and treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prospects of the biotechnological process of coacervation of whey proteins (CWP) in chitosan and test its antiobesogenic potential. Methods. CWP (100 mg·kg·day) was administered in mice with diet-induced obesity for 8 weeks. The animals were divided into four groups: control normocaloric diet gavage with water (C) or coacervate (C-CWP), and high fat diet gavage with water (HF) or coacervate (HF-CWP). Results. HF-CWP reduced weight gain and serum lipid fractions and displayed reduced adiposity and insulin. Adiponectin was significantly higher in HF-CWP group when compared to the HF. The level of LPS in HF-W group was significantly higher when compared to HF-CWP. The IL-10 showed an inverse correlation between the levels of insulin and glucose in the mesenteric adipose tissue in the HF-CWP group. CWP promoted an increase in both phosphorylation AMPK and the amount of ATGL in the mesenteric adipose tissue in HF-CWP group. Conclusion. CWP was able to modulate effects, possibly due to its high biological value of proteins. We observed a protective effect against obesity and improved the inflammatory milieu of white adipose tissue. Gabriel Inácio de Morais Honorato de Souza, Aline Boveto Santamarina, Aline Alves de Santana, Fábio Santos Lira, Rachel de Laquila, Mayara Franzoi Moreno, Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro, Claudia Maria da Penha Oller do Nascimento, Bruno Rodrigues, Elisa Esposito, and Lila Missae Oyama Copyright © 2014 Gabriel Inácio de Morais Honorato de Souza et al. All rights reserved. Markers of Inflammation and Fibrosis in the Orbital Fat/Connective Tissue of Patients with Graves’ Orbitopathy: Clinical Implications Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/412158/ Purpose. To assess FGF-, TGF-, and COX2 expression and immunocompetent cells in the orbital tissue of patients with severe and mild Graves’ orbitopathy. Patients and Methods. Orbital tissue was taken from 27 patients with GO: (1) severe GO (), the mean clinical activity score (CAS) being 8.5 (SD 2.5); and (2) mild GO (), the mean CAS being 2.2 (SD 0.8), and from 10 individuals undergoing blepharoplasty. The expression of CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, and CD68 and FGF-, TGF-, and COX2 in the orbital tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical methods. Results. We demonstrated predominant CD4+ T cells in severe GO. CD68 expression was observed in the fibrous connective area of mild GO and was robust in severe GO, while the prominent TGF- expression was seen in all GO. Increased FGF- expression was observed in the fibroblasts and adipocytes of severe GO. No expression of COX2 was found in patients with GO. Conclusions. Macrophages and CD4 T lymphocytes are both engaged in the active/severe and long stage of inflammation in the orbital tissue. FGF- and TGF- expression may contribute to tissue remodeling, fibrosis, and perpetuation of inflammation in the orbital tissue of GO especially in severe GO. Przemyslaw Pawlowski, Joanna Reszec, Anja Eckstein, Kristian Johnson, Andrzej Grzybowski, Lech Chyczewski, and Janusz Mysliwiec Copyright © 2014 Przemyslaw Pawlowski et al. All rights reserved. Intestinal Parasites Coinfection Does Not Alter Plasma Cytokines Profile Elicited in Acute Malaria in Subjects from Endemic Area of Brazil Tue, 16 Sep 2014 12:06:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/857245/ In Brazil, malaria is prevalent in the Amazon region and these regions coincide with high prevalence of intestinal parasites but few studies explore the interaction between malaria and other parasites. Therefore, the present study evaluates changes in cytokine, chemokine, C-reactive protein, and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in 264 individuals, comparing plasma from infected individuals with concurrent malaria and intestinal parasites to individuals with either malaria infection alone and uninfected. In the studied population 24% of the individuals were infected with Plasmodium and 18% coinfected with intestinal parasites. Protozoan parasites comprised the bulk of the intestinal parasites infections and subjects infected with intestinal parasites were more likely to have malaria. The use of principal component analysis and cluster analysis associated increased levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and CRP and low levels of IL-17A predominantly with individuals with malaria alone and coinfected individuals. In contrast, low levels of almost all inflammatory mediators were associated predominantly with individuals uninfected while increased levels of IL-17A were associated predominantly with individuals with intestinal parasites only. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in our population, the infection with intestinal parasites (mainly protozoan) does not modify the pattern of cytokine production in individuals infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax. Juan Camilo Sánchez-Arcila, Daiana de Souza Perce-da-Silva, Mariana Pinheiro Alves Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Nunes Rodrigues-da-Silva, Virginia Araujo Pereira, Cesarino Junior Lima Aprígio, Cleoni Alves Mendes Lima, Bruna de Paula Fonseca e Fonseca, Dalma Maria Banic, Josué da Costa Lima-Junior, and Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira Copyright © 2014 Juan Camilo Sánchez-Arcila et al. All rights reserved. The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis Mon, 15 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/376518/ Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and β-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis. Halina Milnerowicz, Radosław Bukowski, Monika Jabłonowska, Milena Ściskalska, and Stanisław Milnerowicz Copyright © 2014 Halina Milnerowicz et al. All rights reserved. MicroRNA-146a Decreases High Glucose/Thrombin-Induced Endothelial Inflammation by Inhibiting NAPDH Oxidase 4 Expression Sun, 14 Sep 2014 06:22:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/379537/ Diabetes is associated with hyperglycemia and increased thrombin production. However, it is unknown whether a combination of high glucose and thrombin can modulate the expression of NAPDH oxidase (Nox) subtypes in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Moreover, we investigated the role of a diabetes-associated microRNA (miR-146a) in a diabetic atherothrombosis model. We showed that high glucose (HG) exerted a synergistic effect with thrombin to induce a 10.69-fold increase in Nox4 mRNA level in HAECs. Increased Nox4 mRNA expression was associated with increased Nox4 protein expression and ROS production. Inflammatory cytokine kit identified that the treatment increased IL-8 and IL-6 levels. Moreover, HG/thrombin treatment caused an 11.43-fold increase of THP-1 adhesion to HAECs. In silico analysis identified the homology between miR-146a and the 3′-untranslated region of the Nox4 mRNA, and a luciferase reporter assay confirmed that the miR-146a mimic bound to this Nox4 regulatory region. Additionally, miR-146a expression was decreased to 58% of that in the control, indicating impaired feedback restraint of HG/thrombin-induced endothelial inflammation. In contrast, miR-146a mimic transfection attenuated HG/thrombin-induced upregulation of Nox4 expression, ROS generation, and inflammatory phenotypes. In conclusion, miR-146a is involved in the regulation of endothelial inflammation via modulation of Nox4 expression in a diabetic atherothrombosis model. Huang-Joe Wang, Yuan-Li Huang, Ya-Yun Shih, Hsing-Yu Wu, Ching-Tien Peng, and Wan-Yu Lo Copyright © 2014 Huang-Joe Wang et al. All rights reserved.