Table 3: Performance of celestial OD system under different noise distributions.

Noise distributionRMS (after convergence)Maximum (after convergence)
Position error/mVelocity error/m/sPosition error/mVelocity error/m/s

Normal
distribution
EKF271.6409530.287641703.0005810.613708
UKF245.9393020.219864593.8290980.563749
UPF245.2296830.219566593.8020480.563396

Student’s t distributionEKF387.6180440.411669827.3583000.972190
UKF257.1043600.261611604.3252650.664447
UPF246.2941970.250511587.1542290.639735

Uniform
distribution
EKF385.8036090.398842994.7142640.902353
UKF350.0795160.339869888.7906770.788940
UPF349.5373250.338473880.4172060.782641