Table 1: The optimum seismic designs comparison for the gravity retaining wall.

Design variableOptimal values (m)
CSSHBB-BC [15]BB-BC [15]PSO [15]

1.1371.7340.9030.566
0.4400.5530.6502.000
0.3530.4670.6890.200
3.2003.0142.6912.000
2.2610.7190.5150.645
0.2000.2000.2000.200
Best weight (kN)322.293328.297337.607344.700
Average weight (kN)329.893337.860345.652351.189
Number of analysis4,40010,00010,00010,000
2.1522.5042.0032.097
1.2001.2001.2001.200
7.1547.4595.9217.182