Table 2: Optimal settings of the relays for an IEEE 8-bus test system (LP problem).

AlgorithmLinprogPSOOriginal NM-PSOProposed NM-PSO
Relay TDSTDSTDSTDS

16000.10070.10000.10000.1000
28000.24850.21910.22600.2178
35000.22940.22720.23690.2240
48000.11150.11040.12340.1097
56000.10030.10000.10750.1000
65000.38580.38440.38820.3850
76000.11030.10300.12330.1028
85000.35750.36450.35870.3537
96000.10010.10000.10070.1000
105000.29470.34760.29630.2943
116000.17940.21020.19580.1786
125000.55910.60000.61940.5954
136000.10070.10000.10000.1000
148000.10940.10000.10300.1000

Obj-Fun1.96402.04682.02781.9783