Table 5: Optimal settings of the relays for an IEEE 14-bus test system (MINLP problem).

AlgorithmPSOOriginal NM-PSOProposed NM-PSO
relay TDS TDS TDS

1881 0.17468070.20247360.3038
2579 0.10005150.17295400.1211
3408 0.27464220.21084370.1418
4216 0.12392610.15742370.1184
5758 0.10597000.18607000.1184
6296 0.16072270.26942000.1020
7532 0.21924350.11874190.1718
8226 0.13352060.16052700.1452
9444 0.18125040.14545370.1258
10488 0.33475280.11544500.1523
11477 0.17175160.28815500.1006
12352 0.10152950.23572200.1414
13394 0.15463550.22123500.1307
14418 0.10003620.20033580.1250
15333 0.13423160.24043590.1872
16149 0.14511260.22681170.2302
17216 0.38802680.24141770.3258
18110 0.11721010.14181000.1301
19164 0.27371680.13791080.3402
20151 0.23221700.17082110.1057
21100 0.39981210.13081150.1534
22174 0.62433390.14273260.1473
23119 0.55561930.14571500.2554
24147 0.72693070.15433150.1437
25133 0.20761270.14831020.3358
26260 0.31073510.16313990.2024
27150 0.10051500.23641500.1641
28204 0.12301270.30701540.1779
29245 0.22882000.25642000.2033
30150 0.10001000.25571000.2124
31241 0.17762470.17651640.2053
32100 0.10661000.10001000.1001
33177 0.10001080.22521000.1511
34123 0.25181000.28581120.2285
35100 0.38611000.23491000.3681
36146 0.11321210.13111000.1300
3736 0.1000100.2869110.3143
38238 0.21822450.15272490.1892
39268 0.20902690.18502660.1596
40113 0.10001000.25291000.1485

Obj-Fun4.22333.63623.1829