Table 6: Comparison of PACO with three PSO-based algorithms.

No.Problem 𝑁 𝐾 BKSDPSO-SA [18]SR-2 [20]CPSO-SA [19]PACO

1A-n33-k5325661661 */32.2661 */13661 */0.7661 */0.12
2A-n46-k7457914914 */128.9914 */23917/2.4914 */0.16
3A-n60-k959913541354 */308.81355/401354 */6.51354 */14.15
4B-n35-k5345955955 */37.6955 */14955 */1.2955 */0.06
5B-n45-k5445751751 */134.2751 */20751 */4.8751 */1.12
6B-n68-k967912721272 */344.21274/501274/27.21275/87.19
7B-n78-k10771012211239/429.41223/641237/241221 */54.38
8E-n30-k3293534534 */28.4534 */16534 */0.3534 */0.05
9E-n51-k5505521528/300.5521 */22521 */4.6521 */0.51
10E-n76-k7757682688/526.5682 */60692/9.5685/18.95
11F-n72-k4714237244/398.3237 */53237 */5.3237 */6.28
12F-n135-k7134711621215/1526.31162 */2581200/202.81170/246.85
13M-n101-k1010010820824/874.2820 */114825/6.1820 */66.02
14M-n121-k7120710341038/1733.51036/891039/51.51034 */8.18
15P-n76-K4754593602/496.3594/48596/27.6593 */8.61
16P-n101-k41004681694/977.5683/86691/29.4683/25.7

Notes: 𝑥 / 𝑦 = f(best solution)/shortest CPU Time (s), BKS is the best-known solution provided by published papers, DPSO-SA used Intel Pentium IV CPU 1.8 GHz with 256 M RAM, SR-2 used Intel Pentium IV CPU 3.4 GHz with 1 GB RAM, and CPSO-SA used Intel Core 2 CPU E8400 3 GHz with 3.5 G RAM.