Table 7: Comparison of PACO with three ACO-based algorithms.

Prob. 𝑁 𝐾 BKSIACS [12]SS_ACO [13]EACO [15]PACO

C1505524.61524.61 */3524.61 */55.23524.61 */—524.61 */0.79
C27510835.26836.18/26835.26 */70.43835.26 */—835.26 */163.44
C31008826.14835.6/101830.14/120.25826.14 */—829.92/183.08
C4150121028.421038.22/6171038.20/250.761041.83/—1040.23/547.88
C5199171291.451327.07/30801307.18/707.801338.48/—1348.73/1455.64
C6506555.43555.43 */5559.12/65.17555.43 */—555.43 */7.72
C77511909.68909.68 */41912.68/90.42909.68 */—909.68 */66.68
C81009865.94865.94 */115869.34/210.46865.94 */—868.61/146.5
C9150141162.551173.76/8531179.4/520.521168.81/—1171.94/614.53
C10199181395.851413.83/42231410.26/1012.231413.69/—1454.81/1114.21
C1112071042.111042.11 */2041044.12/232.461045.5/—1042.11 */95.33
C1210010819.56832.67/88824.31/156.47819.56 */—819.56 */122.87
C13120111541.141547.07/4281556.52/467.241554.93/—1562.64/156.32
C1410011866.37866.37 */125870.26/368.72866.37 */—866.37 */32.75

Notes: 𝑥 / 𝑦 = f(best solution)/shortest CPU Time (s), BKS is the best-known solution provided by published papers, —denotes that the data is not available, IACS used Intel Pentium III CPU 1000 MHz with 128 MB RAM, SS_ACO used IBM computer CPU 1600 MHz with 512 MB RAM, and EACO used Pentium IV CPU 3.0 GHz.