Table 2: Simulation parameters.

Simulation parameterValue

Network area A 10000 m × 10000 m
Number of sensor node 𝑛 n o d e 50–500
Number of macronode 𝑛 m a c r o 10
Available energy on sensors 𝐸 n o d e 120 J
Sensing radius of sensor node 𝑅 n o d e 𝑠 300 m
Communication radius of sensor node 𝑅 n o d e 𝑐 600 m
Communication radius of macronode 𝑅 m a c r o 𝑐 3500 m
Bandwidth of sensor node 𝐵 n o d e 250 kb/s
Number of disjoint multipath k 3
Number of simulation rounds500
Number of packet in each round1
Size of packet in each round m 400 bits
Probability of node failure 𝑝 n o d e 0.02
Energy consumption of sending circuit 𝑎 1 1 40 nJ/bit
Energy consumption of receiving circuit 𝑎 1 2 80 nJ/bit
Energy consumption of sending amplifier 𝑎 2 200 pJ/bit/m2
Channel attenuation index n 2
Energy consumption of data fusion e n e D F 4 nJ/bit
Energy consumption of updating routing table e n e R T 2 nJ/bit