Table 2: Results of performance comparisons of LSQEA, QGA, and RGA.

Best valueMean function value (standard deviation)
Test functionGlobally minimal
function value
LSQEAQGARGALSQEAQGARGA

−15.000−15.000−15.000−14.998
(0.005)
−14.997
(0.007)
−14.988
(0.055)
−15.000
7117.9617135.4407178.1687390.259
(197.317)
7614.255
(322.821)
7791.224
(480.058)
7049.331
680.630680.660680.804680.772
(0.104)
681.459
(0.836)
681.515
(0.891)
680.630
24.30624.46224.69424.981
(0.479)
25.980
(0.886)
26.051
(1.697)
24.306