Table 6: Robustness analysis of pressure vessel design obtained by LSQEA.

MethodMin Average Standard
deviation of

LSQEA7204.9147277.26243.543
Rao and Xiong [12]7284.02NANA
Shih and Lai [60]8160.80NANA
Fu et al. [7]8048.619NANA
Sandgren [2]7982.5NANA