Table 2: Solution comparison of the proposed algorithm and genetic algorithm (GA).

Problem numberGAProposed method
(x, y, z)Objective value(x, y, z)Objective value

1 (4 boxes)(30, 30, 6)5400(28, 26, 6)4368
2 (6 boxes)(33, 26, 7)6006(35, 28, 6)5880
3 (7 boxes)(25, 25, 10)6250(31, 16, 12)5952