Table 6: RUL prognostic comparison with 4 methods.

Actual RULHSMM (joint multisteps)Relative errorHSMM (multisteps)Relative errorHSMM (one-step)Relative errorHSMMRelative error

30.0029.3982.006729.39802.006729.39802.006730.25580.8527
26.0025.21423.022428.58549.943827.85367.129129.964315.2473
22.0022.51722.350726.061618.461825.329715.135229.795435.4336
17.0017.51343.019915.38979.472118.32747.808519.498114.6947
15.0016.07767.183713.70828.611917.625117.500919.208128.054
12.0013.16259.687813.489212.409715.447628.730218.866657.2217
11.0012.966717.87913.330325.265314.309630.086910.24716.8445
9.009.78668.740113.235219.415613.529050.322410.029111.4344
5.006.055821.11668.029235.84597.022440.44909.767595.35

MAPE8.3341 (%)15.7147 (%)22.1298 (%)29.4592 (%)