Table 4: Numerical results obtained from the proposed AIA-PSO algorithm for solving 14 UGO problems.

TP numberFunction nameGlobal minimumRequired accuracySuccess rate (%) MCCT (sec)

1SHCB−1.0316 100−1.0316−1.0316−1.03160.0000000039.69
2GP3 1003330.0000000037.80
3ES−1 100−1−1−10.0000000042.08
4B20 1000.000000000.000000000.000000000.0000000040.43
5DJ0 1000.00000000 39.43
6Booth0 1000.000000000.000000000.000000000.0000000037.48
7RC5/ 1000.397887350.397887350.397887350.0000000040.53
8RA−2 100−2−2−20.0000000039.17
9RS20 100 0.00000000 37.49
10RS50 100 304.23
11SH−186.7309 100−186.7309−186.7309−186.73090.0000000054.70
12ZA20 1000.000000000.000000000.000000000.0000000040.31
13ZA50 100 0.00000000 144.38
14ZA100 100 192.06

: the objective value obtained using the best AIA-PSO solution.
: mean objective value obtained using the AIA-PSO solutions.
: the worst objective value obtained using the worst AIA-PSO solution.