948303.fig.003a
(a)  Deterministic crowding
948303.fig.003b
(b) Probabilistic crowding
948303.fig.003c
(c) Sequential fitness sharing
948303.fig.003d
(d) Clearing procedure
948303.fig.003e
(e) CBN
948303.fig.003f
(f) SCGA
948303.fig.003g
(g) AEGA
948303.fig.003h
(h) Clonal selction algorithm
948303.fig.003i
(i) AiNet
948303.fig.003j
(j) CAB
Figure 3: Typical results of the maximization of . (a)–(j) Local and global optima located by all ten algorithms in the performance comparison.