Mathematical Problems in Engineering The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Finite Element Optimised Back Analysis of In Situ Stress Field and Stability Analysis of Shaft Wall in the Underground Gas Storage Tue, 09 Feb 2016 08:42:00 +0000 A novel optimised back analysis method is proposed in this paper. The in situ stress field of an underground gas storage (UGS) reservoir in a Turkey salt cavern is analysed by the basic theory of elastic mechanics. A finite element method is implemented to optimise and approximate the objective function by systematically adjusting boundary loads. Optimising calculation is performed based on a novel method to reduce the error between measurement and calculation as much as possible. Compared with common back analysis methods such as regression method, the method proposed can further improve the calculation precision. By constructing a large circular geometric model, the effect of stress concentration is eliminated and a minimum difference between computed and measured stress can be guaranteed in the rectangular objective region. The efficiency of the proposed method is investigated and confirmed by its capability on restoring in situ stress field, which agrees well with experimental results. The characteristics of stress distribution of chosen UGS wells are obtained based on the back analysis results and by applying the corresponding fracture criterion, the shaft walls are proven safe. Yifei Yan, Bing Shao, Jianguo Xu, and Xiangzhen Yan Copyright © 2016 Yifei Yan et al. All rights reserved. An Improved Global Harmony Search Algorithm for the Identification of Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems Based on Volterra Filter Modeling Tue, 09 Feb 2016 08:08:23 +0000 This paper describes an improved global harmony search (IGHS) algorithm for identifying the nonlinear discrete-time systems based on second-order Volterra model. The IGHS is an improved version of the novel global harmony search (NGHS) algorithm, and it makes two significant improvements on the NGHS. First, the genetic mutation operation is modified by combining normal distribution and Cauchy distribution, which enables the IGHS to fully explore and exploit the solution space. Second, an opposition-based learning (OBL) is introduced and modified to improve the quality of harmony vectors. The IGHS algorithm is implemented on two numerical examples, and they are nonlinear discrete-time rational system and the real heat exchanger, respectively. The results of the IGHS are compared with those of the other three methods, and it has been verified to be more effective than the other three methods on solving the above two problems with different input signals and system memory sizes. Zongyan Li and Deliang Li Copyright © 2016 Zongyan Li and Deliang Li. All rights reserved. Cubic Trigonometric Nonuniform Spline Curves and Surfaces Tue, 09 Feb 2016 07:36:20 +0000 A class of cubic trigonometric nonuniform spline basis functions with a local shape parameter is constructed. Their totally positive property is proved. The associated spline curves inherit most properties of usual polynomial -spline curves and enjoy some other advantageous properties for engineering design. They have continuity at single knots. For equidistant knots, they have continuity and continuity for particular choice of shape parameter. They can express freeform curves as well as ellipses. The associated spline surfaces can exactly represent the surfaces of revolution. Thus the curve and surface representation scheme unifies the representation of freeform shape and some analytical shapes, which is popular in engineering. Lanlan Yan Copyright © 2016 Lanlan Yan. All rights reserved. Texture Classification Using Scattering Statistical and Cooccurrence Features Mon, 08 Feb 2016 14:14:21 +0000 Texture classification is an important research topic in image processing. In 2012, scattering transform computed by iterating over successive wavelet transforms and modulus operators was introduced. This paper presents new approaches for texture features extraction using scattering transform. Scattering statistical features and scattering cooccurrence features are derived from subbands of the scattering decomposition and original images. And these features are used for classification for the four datasets containing 20, 30, 112, and 129 texture images, respectively. Experimental results show that our approaches have the promising results in classification. Juan Wang, Jiangshe Zhang, and Jie Zhao Copyright © 2016 Juan Wang et al. All rights reserved. A New Least Squares Support Vector Machines Ensemble Model for Aero Engine Performance Parameter Chaotic Prediction Mon, 08 Feb 2016 14:12:03 +0000 Aiming at the nonlinearity, chaos, and small-sample of aero engine performance parameters data, a new ensemble model, named the least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) ensemble model with phase space reconstruction (PSR) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), is presented. First, to guarantee the diversity of individual members, different single kernel LSSVMs are selected as base predictors, and they also output the primary prediction results independently. Then, all the primary prediction results are integrated to produce the most appropriate prediction results by another particular LSSVM—a multiple kernel LSSVM, which reduces the dependence of modeling accuracy on kernel function and parameters. Phase space reconstruction theory is applied to extract the chaotic characteristic of input data source and reconstruct the data sample, and particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to obtain the best LSSVM individual members. A case study is employed to verify the effectiveness of presented model with real operation data of aero engine. The results show that prediction accuracy of the proposed model improves obviously compared with other three models. Dangdang Du, Xiaoliang Jia, and Chaobo Hao Copyright © 2016 Dangdang Du et al. All rights reserved. An Improved Surface Simplification Method for Facial Expression Animation Based on Homogeneous Coordinate Transformation Matrix and Maximum Shape Operator Mon, 08 Feb 2016 11:22:57 +0000 Facial animation is one of the most popular 3D animation topics researched in recent years. However, when using facial animation, a 3D facial animation model has to be stored. This 3D facial animation model requires many triangles to accurately describe and demonstrate facial expression animation because the face often presents a number of different expressions. Consequently, the costs associated with facial animation have increased rapidly. In an effort to reduce storage costs, researchers have sought to simplify 3D animation models using techniques such as Deformation Sensitive Decimation and Feature Edge Quadric. The studies conducted have examined the problems in the homogeneity of the local coordinate system between different expression models and in the retainment of simplified model characteristics. This paper proposes a method that applies Homogeneous Coordinate Transformation Matrix to solve the problem of homogeneity of the local coordinate system and Maximum Shape Operator to detect shape changes in facial animation so as to properly preserve the features of facial expressions. Further, root mean square error and perceived quality error are used to compare the errors generated by different simplification methods in experiments. Experimental results show that, compared with Deformation Sensitive Decimation and Feature Edge Quadric, our method can not only reduce the errors caused by simplification of facial animation, but also retain more facial features. Juin-Ling Tseng Copyright © 2016 Juin-Ling Tseng. All rights reserved. Empirical Likelihood Inference for First-Order Random Coefficient Integer-Valued Autoregressive Processes Mon, 08 Feb 2016 11:05:18 +0000 We apply the empirical likelihood method to estimate the variance of random coefficient in the first-order random coefficient integer-valued autoregressive (RCINAR(1)) processes. The empirical likelihood ratio statistic is derived and some asymptotic theory for it is presented. Furthermore, a simulation study is presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. Zhiwen Zhao and Wei Yu Copyright © 2016 Zhiwen Zhao and Wei Yu. All rights reserved. Numerical Methods for Pricing American Options with Time-Fractional PDE Models Mon, 08 Feb 2016 10:03:44 +0000 In this paper we develop a Laplace transform method and a finite difference method for solving American option pricing problem when the change of the option price with time is considered as a fractal transmission system. In this scenario, the option price is governed by a time-fractional partial differential equation (PDE) with free boundary. The Laplace transform method is applied to the time-fractional PDE. It then leads to a nonlinear equation for the free boundary (i.e., optimal early exercise boundary) function in Laplace space. After numerically finding the solution of the nonlinear equation, the Laplace inversion is used to transform the approximate early exercise boundary into the time space. Finally the approximate price of the American option is obtained. A boundary-searching finite difference method is also proposed to solve the free-boundary time-fractional PDEs for pricing the American options. Numerical examples are carried out to compare the Laplace approach with the finite difference method and it is confirmed that the former approach is much faster than the latter one. Zhiqiang Zhou and Xuemei Gao Copyright © 2016 Zhiqiang Zhou and Xuemei Gao. All rights reserved. Design of a Distribution Network Using Primal-Dual Decomposition Mon, 08 Feb 2016 09:21:57 +0000 A method to solve the design of a distribution network for bottled drinks company is introduced. The distribution network proposed includes three stages: manufacturing centers, consolidation centers using cross-docking, and distribution centers. The problem is formulated using a mixed-integer programming model in the deterministic and single period contexts. Because the problem considers several elements in each stage, a direct solution is very complicated. For medium-to-large instances the problem falls into large scale. Based on that, a primal-dual decomposition known as cross decomposition is proposed in this paper. This approach allows exploring simultaneously the primal and dual subproblems of the original problem. A comparison of the direct solution with a mixed-integer lineal programming solver versus the cross decomposition is shown for several randomly generated instances. Results show the good performance of the method proposed. J. A. Marmolejo, R. Rodríguez, O. Cruz-Mejia, and J. Saucedo Copyright © 2016 J. A. Marmolejo et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Polyphase Codes Radar Signals in Low SNR Mon, 08 Feb 2016 08:38:14 +0000 A novel effective detection method is proposed for electronic intelligence (ELINT) systems detecting polyphase codes radar signal in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) scenario. The core idea of the proposed method is first to calculate the time-frequency distribution of polyphase codes radar signals via Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD); then the modified Hough transform (HT) is employed to cumulate all the energy of WVD’s ridges effectively to achieve signal detection. Compared with the generalised Wigner Hough transform (GWHT) method, the proposed method has a superior performance in low SNR and is not sensitive to the code type. Simulation results verify the validity of the proposed method. Runlan Tian, Guoyi Zhang, Rui Zhou, and Wei Dong Copyright © 2016 Runlan Tian et al. All rights reserved. Specific -Admissibility and Design Issues for Uncertain Descriptor Systems with Parametric Uncertainty in the Derivative Matrix Mon, 08 Feb 2016 07:32:42 +0000 Stability analysis issues and controller synthesis for descriptor systems with parametric uncertainty in the derivative matrix are discussed in this paper. The proposed descriptor system can extend the system’s modeling extent of physical and engineering systems from the traditional state-space model. First, based on the extended -stability definitions for the descriptor model, necessary and sufficient admissibility and -admissibility conditions for the unforced nominal descriptor system are derived and formulated by compact forms with strict linear matrix inequality (LMI) manner. In contrast, existing results need to involve nonstrict LMIs, which cannot be evaluated by current LMI solvers and need some extra treatments. Deducing from the obtained distinct results, the roust admissibility and -admissibility of the descriptor system with uncertainties in both the derivative matrix and the system’s matrices thus can be coped. Furthermore, by involving a proportional and derivative state feedback (PDSF) control law, we further address the controller design for the resulting closed-loop systems. Since all the proposed criteria are explicitly expressed in terms of the strict LMIs, we can use applicable LMI solvers for evaluating the feasible solutions. Finally, the efficiency and practicability of the proposed approach are demonstrated by two illustrative examples. Chih-Peng Huang Copyright © 2016 Chih-Peng Huang. All rights reserved. Discussion on the Time-Harmonic Elastodynamic Half-Space Green’s Function Obtained by Superposition Sun, 07 Feb 2016 15:15:28 +0000 The time-harmonic elastodynamic half-space Green’s function derived by Banerjee and Mamoon by way of superposition is discussed and examined against another semianalytical solution and a numerical solution. It is shown that Banerjee and Mamoon’s solution gives infinite z-displacement response when the depth of the source goes to infinity, which is unreasonable and does not agree with other solutions. A possible problem in the derivation is that it is inappropriate to directly extend the results of Mindlin’s superposition method for the elastostatic half-space problem to the dynamic case. The superposition of the six full-space elastodynamic solutions does not satisfy the required boundary conditions of the half-space elastodynamic problem as in the static case and thus does not solve the dynamic half-space problem. Huina Yuan and Ziyang Pan Copyright © 2016 Huina Yuan and Ziyang Pan. All rights reserved. Fusion of IR and Visual Images Based on Gaussian and Laplacian Decomposition Using Histogram Distributions and Edge Selection Sun, 07 Feb 2016 13:38:45 +0000 We propose a novel fusion method of IR (infrared) and visual images to combine distinct information from two sources. To decompose an image into its low and high frequency components, we use Gaussian and Laplacian decomposition. The strong high frequency information in the two sources can be easily fused by selecting the large magnitude of Laplacian images. The distinct low frequency information, however, is not as easily determined. As such, we use histogram distributions of the two sources. Therefore, experimental results show that the fused images can contain the dominant characteristics of both sources. Seohyung Lee and Daeho Lee Copyright © 2016 Seohyung Lee and Daeho Lee. All rights reserved. Coordination of Supply Chain with One Supplier and Two Competing Risk-Averse Retailers under an Option Contract Sun, 07 Feb 2016 08:59:58 +0000 This paper studies an option contract for coordinating a supply chain comprising one risk-neutral supplier and two risk-averse retailers engaged in promotion competition in the selling season. For a given option contract, in decentralized case, each risk-averse retailer decides the optimal order quantity and the promotion policy by maximizing the conditional value-at-risk of profit. Based on the retailers’ decision, the supplier derives the optimal production policy by maximizing expected profit. In centralized case, the optimal decision of the supply chain system is obtained. Based on the decentralized and centralized decision, we find the coordination conditions of the supply chain system, which can optimize the supply chain system profit and make the profits of the supply chain members achieve Pareto optimum. As for the subchain, we also find the coordination conditions, which generalize the results of the supply chain with one supplier and one retailer. Our analysis and numerical experiments show that there exists a unique Nash equilibrium between two retailers, and the optimal order quantity of each retailer increases (decreases) with its own (competitor’s) promotion level. Rui Wang, Shiji Song, and Cheng Wu Copyright © 2016 Rui Wang et al. All rights reserved. Simulation Study on Miscibility Effect of CO2/Solvent Injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery at Nonisothermal Conditions Thu, 04 Feb 2016 12:55:04 +0000 The minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) determines the main mechanism of CO2 flooding, which is either an immiscible or miscible process. This paper examines the recovery improvements of CO2 flooding in terms of both the injection temperature and solvent composition. The results show that a lower temperature injection and LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) mixture can considerably improve oil recovery due to the reduced MMP in the swept area caused by the injected solvent. For the pure CO2 injection at the reservoir temperature, oil recovery is 59% after 1.0 PV CO2 injection. The oil recoveries by CO2-LPG mixtures are improved to 73% with 0.1 mole fractions of LPG and 81% with 0.2 mole fractions of LPG. The recovery factor from low-temperature CO2 injection is 78%, which is 32% higher compared to the isothermal case. The recoveries obtained by low-temperature CO2-LPG injection increase up to 87% of the initial oil. Heat transfer between the reservoir and the formation of over/underburden should be considered in order to describe the process more accurately. Additionally, the recovery factors from the heat transfer models are decreased by 4–12% in comparison with the original nonisothermal models. Moon Sik Jeong and Kun Sang Lee Copyright © 2016 Moon Sik Jeong and Kun Sang Lee. All rights reserved. Structural Controllability of Discrete-Time Linear Control Systems with Time-Delay: A Delay Node Inserting Approach Thu, 04 Feb 2016 10:53:15 +0000 This paper is concerned with the structural controllability analysis for discrete-time linear control systems with time-delay. By adding virtual delay nodes, the linear systems with time-delay are transformed into corresponding linear systems without time-delay, and the structural controllability of them is equivalent. That is to say, the time-delay does not affect or change the controllability of the systems. Several examples are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results. Ailing Qi, Xuewei Ju, Qing Zhang, and Zengqiang Chen Copyright © 2016 Ailing Qi et al. All rights reserved. Improvement of the Efficiency of the Axial-Flow Pump at Part Loads due to Installing Outlet Guide Vanes Mechanism Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:20:38 +0000 In order to investigate the influence of adjustable outlet guide vane on the hydraulic performance of axial-flow pump at part loads, the axial-flow pump with 7 different outlet guide vane adjustable angles was simulated based on the RNG turbulent model and Reynolds time-averaged equations. The Vector graphs of airfoil flow were analyzed in the different operating conditions for different adjustable angles of guide vane. BP-ANN prediction model was established about the effect of adjustable outlet guide vane on the hydraulic performance of axial-flow pump based on the numerical results. The effectiveness of prediction model was verified by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The results show that, with the adjustable angle of guide vane increasing along clockwise, the high efficiency area moves to the large flow rate direction; otherwise, that moves to the small flow rate direction. The internal flow field of guide vane is improved by adjusting angle, and the flow separation of tail and guide vane inlet ledge are decreased or eliminated, so that the hydraulic efficiency of pumping system will be improved. The prediction accuracy of BP-ANN model is 1%, which can meet the requirement of practical engineering. Fan Yang, Hao-ru Zhao, and Chao Liu Copyright © 2016 Fan Yang et al. All rights reserved. Determining Sustainable Land Use by Modal Split Shift Strategy for Low Emissions: Evidence from Medium-Sized Cities of China Thu, 04 Feb 2016 06:34:18 +0000 The rapid urbanization in medium-sized cities in China has led to revolution of transportation systems resulting in negative impacts on the environment. Evaluating the relationship among land use, modal split, and traffic emission can help propose regional optimal land use pattern by modal shift strategy to reduce carbon emissions. Data were collected from seven medium-sized cities in China. The study first evaluated the land use that influences mode split and the relationship between modal split and traffic emission. Then a sustainable mode shift strategy was provided to reduce emissions. Lastly, we provided constructive suggestions for sustainable land use pattern by mode shift strategy. To reduce emission per trip, nonmotorized trip modes and public transit should be increased, and, accordingly, the residence-industry and residence-retain mix entropy should be increased. The study found that the regions with job-housing balance or retail-housing mix could increase the mode share of nonmotorized vehicle traffic and reduce car use. The modal shift can in the future benefit emission reductions. Wenzhu Zhou and Zhibin Li Copyright © 2016 Wenzhu Zhou and Zhibin Li. All rights reserved. Influence of Thermal Radiation on Unsteady MHD Free Convection Flow of Jeffrey Fluid over a Vertical Plate with Ramped Wall Temperature Thu, 04 Feb 2016 06:01:41 +0000 Influence of thermal radiation on unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) free convection flow of Jeffrey fluid over a vertical plate with ramped wall temperature is studied. The Laplace transform technique is used to obtain the analytical solutions. Expressions for skin friction and Nusselt number are also obtained. Results of velocity and temperature distributions are shown graphically for embedded parameters such as Jeffrey fluid parameter , Prandtl number , Grashof number , Hartmann number , radiation parameter , and dimensionless time . It is observed that the amplitude of velocity and temperature profile for isothermal are always higher than ramped wall temperature. Nor Athirah Mohd Zin, Ilyas Khan, and Sharidan Shafie Copyright © 2016 Nor Athirah Mohd Zin et al. All rights reserved. Applying Hybrid Decision-Making Method Based on Fuzzy AHP-WOWA Operator for Emergency Alternative Evaluation of Unattended Train Operation Metro System Thu, 04 Feb 2016 05:58:00 +0000 Optimal alternative selection to address the emergency situation is critical for dispatcher group in Unattended Train Operation (UTO) to guide emergency process. It is difficult to provide the precise decision value under one criterion and to evaluate the emergency alternatives among multiple dispatchers. This paper presents a hybrid emergency decision-making method integrating fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) described by linguistic terms with enhanced weighted ordered weighted averaging (WOWA) operator. The enhanced WOWA operator aggregates the preference matrices of multidispatcher through the constructed emergency response task model of dispatcher group in OCC. This calculation approach takes into consideration the relations of emergency tasks to derive the importance weights of dispatchers and integrates them into the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator weights based on a fuzzy membership relation. A case study of applying the method in an emergency of a train fire is given to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of the methods associated with the group multicriteria decision-making (GMCDM) theory in emergency management of UTO metro system. Bobo Zhao, Tao Tang, and Bin Ning Copyright © 2016 Bobo Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Modeling and Characteristics Analysis for a Buck-Boost Converter in Pseudo-Continuous Conduction Mode Based on Fractional Calculus Wed, 03 Feb 2016 07:59:53 +0000 In recent days, fractional calculus (FC) has been accepted as a novel modeling tool that can extend the descriptive power of the traditional calculus. Fractional-order descriptiveness can increase the flexibility and degrees of freedom of the model by means of fractional parameters. Based on the fact that real capacitors and inductors are “intrinsic” fractional order, fractional calculus is introduced into the modeling process to establish a fractional-order state-space averaging model of the Buck-Boost converter in pseudo-continuous conduction mode (PCCM). Orders of the model are considered as extra parameters, and these parameters have significant influences on the performance of the model. The inductor current, the inductor current ripple, the amplitude of the output voltage, and the transfer functions of the fractional-order model are all related to orders. The contrast simulation experiments are conducted to investigate the performance of integer-order and fractional-order Buck-Boost converters in PCCM. Results of numerical and circuit simulations demonstrate that the proposed theoretical analysis is effective; the fractional-order model of the Buck-Boost converter in PCCM has certain theoretical and practical significance for modeling and performance analysis of other electrical or electronic equipment. Ningning Yang, Chaojun Wu, Rong Jia, and Chongxin Liu Copyright © 2016 Ningning Yang et al. All rights reserved. On the Coefficients of the Singularities of the Solution of Maxwell’s Equations near Polyhedral Edges Wed, 03 Feb 2016 06:24:59 +0000 The solution fields of Maxwell’s equations are known to exhibit singularities near corners, crack tips, edges, and so forth of the physical domain. The structures of the singular fields are well known up to some undetermined coefficients. In two-dimensional domains with corners and cracks, the unknown coefficients are real constants. However, in three-dimensional domains the unknown coefficients are functions defined along the corresponding edges. This paper proposes explicit formulas for the computation of these coefficients in the case of two-dimensional domains with corners and three-dimensional domains with straight edges. The coefficients of the singular fields along straight edges of three-dimensional domains are represented in terms of Fourier series. The formulas presented are aimed at the numerical approximation of the coefficients of the singular fields. They can also be used for the construction of adaptive -nodal finite-element procedures for the efficient numerical treatment of Maxwell’s equations in nonsmooth domains. Boniface Nkemzi Copyright © 2016 Boniface Nkemzi. All rights reserved. Short-Term Speed Prediction Using Remote Microwave Sensor Data: Machine Learning versus Statistical Model Tue, 02 Feb 2016 12:59:11 +0000 Recently, a number of short-term speed prediction approaches have been developed, in which most algorithms are based on machine learning and statistical theory. This paper examined the multistep ahead prediction performance of eight different models using the 2-minute travel speed data collected from three Remote Traffic Microwave Sensors located on a southbound segment of 4th ring road in Beijing City. Specifically, we consider five machine learning methods: Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN), nonlinear autoregressive model with exogenous inputs neural network (NARXNN), support vector machine with radial basis function as kernel function (SVM-RBF), Support Vector Machine with Linear Function (SVM-LIN), and Multilinear Regression (MLR) as candidate. Three statistical models are also selected: Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), Vector Autoregression (VAR), and Space-Time (ST) model. From the prediction results, we find the following meaningful results: () the prediction accuracy of speed deteriorates as the prediction time steps increase for all models; () the BPNN, NARXNN, and SVM-RBF can clearly outperform two traditional statistical models: ARIMA and VAR; () the prediction performance of ANN is superior to that of SVM and MLR; () as time step increases, the ST model can consistently provide the lowest MAE comparing with ARIMA and VAR. Han Jiang, Yajie Zou, Shen Zhang, Jinjun Tang, and Yinhai Wang Copyright © 2016 Han Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Interpretation of MUSIC for Location Detecting of Small Inhomogeneities Surrounded by Random Scatterers Tue, 02 Feb 2016 10:46:15 +0000 We consider the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm for identifying the locations of small electromagnetic inhomogeneities surrounded by random scatterers. For this purpose, we rigorously analyze the structure of MUSIC-type imaging function by establishing a relationship with zero-order Bessel function of the first kind. This relationship shows certain properties of the MUSIC algorithm, explains some unexplained phenomena, and provides a method for improvements. Won-Kwang Park Copyright © 2016 Won-Kwang Park. All rights reserved. On Characterization of Rough Type-2 Fuzzy Sets Tue, 02 Feb 2016 09:34:51 +0000 Rough sets theory and fuzzy sets theory are important mathematical tools to deal with uncertainties. Rough fuzzy sets and fuzzy rough sets as generalizations of rough sets have been introduced. Type-2 fuzzy set provides additional degree of freedom, which makes it possible to directly handle high uncertainties. In this paper, the rough type-2 fuzzy set model is proposed by combining the rough set theory with the type-2 fuzzy set theory. The rough type-2 fuzzy approximation operators induced from the Pawlak approximation space are defined. The rough approximations of a type-2 fuzzy set in the generalized Pawlak approximation space are also introduced. Some basic properties of the rough type-2 fuzzy approximation operators and the generalized rough type-2 fuzzy approximation operators are discussed. The connections between special crisp binary relations and generalized rough type-2 fuzzy approximation operators are further examined. The axiomatic characterization of generalized rough type-2 fuzzy approximation operators is also presented. Finally, the attribute reduction of type-2 fuzzy information systems is investigated. Tao Zhao and Zhenbo Wei Copyright © 2016 Tao Zhao and Zhenbo Wei. All rights reserved. Theory and Applications of Data Clustering Tue, 02 Feb 2016 08:39:54 +0000 Costas Panagiotakis, Emmanuel Ramasso, Paraskevi Fragopoulou, and Daniel Aloise Copyright © 2016 Costas Panagiotakis et al. All rights reserved. Maximum Temperature in Dry Surface Grinding for High Peclet Number and Arbitrary Heat Flux Profile Mon, 01 Feb 2016 14:34:19 +0000 Regarding heat transfer in dry surface grinding, simple asymptotic expressions of the maximum temperature for large Peclet numbers are derived. For this purpose, we consider the most common heat flux profiles reported in the literature, such as constant, linear, triangular, and parabolic. In the constant case, we provide a refinement of the expression given in the literature. In the linear case, we derive the same expression found in the literature, being the latter fitted by using a linear regression. The expressions for the triangular and parabolic cases are novel. J. L. González-Santander Copyright © 2016 J. L. González-Santander. All rights reserved. Equilibrium and Optimal Strategies in M/M/1 Queues with Working Vacations and Vacation Interruptions Mon, 01 Feb 2016 14:14:05 +0000 We consider the customers equilibrium and socially optimal joining-balking behavior in single-server Markovian queues with multiple working vacations and vacation interruptions. Arriving customers decide whether to join the system or balk, based on a linear reward-cost structure that incorporates their desire for service, as well as their unwillingness for waiting. We consider that the system states are observable, partially observable, and unobservable, respectively. For these cases, we first analyze the stationary behavior of the system and get the equilibrium strategies of the customers and compare them to socially optimal balking strategies numerically. Ruiling Tian, Linmin Hu, and Xijun Wu Copyright © 2016 Ruiling Tian et al. All rights reserved. Evolutionary Spectral Analyses of a Powerful Typhoon at the Sutong Bridge Site Based on the HHT Mon, 01 Feb 2016 13:03:54 +0000 To investigate the nonstationary characteristics of strong typhoons, this paper considers the evolutionary spectral characteristics of strong typhoons based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). Discrete expressions are determined for the evolutionary spectral analysis based on the HHT. The study indicates that the classic empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method fails to extract all of the high-frequency fluctuations from wind velocity data, and the time-averaged power spectrum obtained directly using the HHT cannot provide the true wind velocity spectrum. The degrees of nonstationarity of different-order IMF components are analysed and a synthesized method of analysing the evolutionary spectrum and time-averaged power spectrum of a strong typhoon is proposed. To avoid the energy leakage problem that exists in HHT spectral analyses, the Gram-Schmidt method is used to orthogonalize the intrinsic mode function (IMF) components. The study indicates that when the orthogonalization is implemented in accordance with the sequence from high-order IMF components to low-order ones, the orthogonalized components retain the same good Hilbert property as that of the IMFs. The synthesized method proposed yields a time-averaged power spectrum that is consistent with the Fourier spectrum in value and can produce the energy distributions of a typhoon in the time and frequency domains simultaneously. Lin Ma, Da-jun Zhou, Ai-min Yuan, and Hao Wang Copyright © 2016 Lin Ma et al. All rights reserved. Mode Evaluation and Structure Design of Connection between Pole and Base of Roadside Breakaway Sign in China Mon, 01 Feb 2016 11:17:58 +0000 In order to present reliable mode and structure of connection between pole and base for breakaway sign, mode evaluation and structure design were conducted in this paper. AHP was adopted to evaluate connection modes between sign pole and base. Analytic hierarchy with double criterion layer and corresponding judgment matrix were established. Through qualitative analysis, powers of indexes were given and evaluation results were presented based on standardization process of each evaluation index. It shows that brittle connection mode comes in the first place, the plastic connection mode comes second, and rigid connection mode comes last. Two brittle connection structures were designed through the finite element simulation analysis. By ANSYS software, stress data were given for recessed and hole-type connection design structure. It can be found that maximum tensile stress data of two connection structures are all more than ultimate tensile strength of steel. Thus it can be concluded that two connection structures designed in this paper can be breakaway in collision and protect the safety of vehicle occupants. Liang Xu, Guozhu Cheng, Qiuyue Jiang, and Yufeng Guo Copyright © 2016 Liang Xu et al. All rights reserved.