Mathematical Problems in Engineering http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Multiscale Hybrid Nonlocal Means Filtering Using Modified Similarity Measure Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:40:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/318341/ A new multiscale implementation of nonlocal means filtering (MHNLM) for image denoising is proposed. The proposed algorithm also introduces a modification of the similarity measure for patch comparison. Assuming the patch as an oriented surface, the notion of a normal vectors patch is introduced. The inner product of these normal vectors patches is defined and then used in the weighted Euclidean distance of intensity patches as the weight factor. The algorithm involves two steps: the first step is a multiscale implementation of an accelerated nonlocal means filtering in the discrete stationary wavelet domain to obtain a refined version of the noisy patches for later comparison. The next step is to apply the proposed modification of standard nonlocal means filtering to the noisy image using the reference patches obtained in the first step. These refined patches contain less noise, and consequently the computation of normal vectors and partial derivatives is more precise. Experimental results show equivalent or better performance of the proposed algorithm compared to various state-of-the-art algorithms. Zahid Hussain Shamsi and Dai-Gyoung Kim Copyright © 2015 Zahid Hussain Shamsi and Dai-Gyoung Kim. All rights reserved. Applying BAT Evolutionary Optimization to Image-Based Visual Servoing Thu, 27 Aug 2015 14:11:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/590138/ This paper presents a predictive control strategy for an image-based visual servoing scheme that employs evolutionary optimization. The visual control task is approached as a nonlinear optimization problem that naturally handles relevant visual servoing constraints such as workspace limitations and visibility restrictions. As the predictive scheme requires a reliable model, this paper uses a local model that is based on the visual interaction matrix and a global model that employs 3D trajectory data extracted from a quaternion-based interpolator. The work assumes a free-flying camera with 6-DOF simulation whose results support the discussion on the constraint handling and the image prediction scheme. Marco Perez-Cisneros, Gerardo Garcia-Gil, Sabrina Vega-Maldonado, J. Arámburo-Lizárraga, Erik Cuevas, and Daniel Zaldivar Copyright © 2015 Marco Perez-Cisneros et al. All rights reserved. Multithreshold Segmentation by Using an Algorithm Based on the Behavior of Locust Swarms Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:51:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/805357/ As an alternative to classical techniques, the problem of image segmentation has also been handled through evolutionary methods. Recently, several algorithms based on evolutionary principles have been successfully applied to image segmentation with interesting performances. However, most of them maintain two important limitations: (1) they frequently obtain suboptimal results (misclassifications) as a consequence of an inappropriate balance between exploration and exploitation in their search strategies; (2) the number of classes is fixed and known in advance. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic selection of pixel classes for image segmentation. The proposed method combines a novel evolutionary method with the definition of a new objective function that appropriately evaluates the segmentation quality with respect to the number of classes. The new evolutionary algorithm, called Locust Search (LS), is based on the behavior of swarms of locusts. Different to the most of existent evolutionary algorithms, it explicitly avoids the concentration of individuals in the best positions, avoiding critical flaws such as the premature convergence to suboptimal solutions and the limited exploration-exploitation balance. Experimental tests over several benchmark functions and images validate the efficiency of the proposed technique with regard to accuracy and robustness. Erik Cuevas, Adrián González, Fernando Fausto, Daniel Zaldívar, and Marco Pérez-Cisneros Copyright © 2015 Erik Cuevas et al. All rights reserved. A Real-Time Pothole Detection Approach for Intelligent Transportation System Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:44:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/869627/ In recent years, fast economic growth and rapid technology advance have led to significant impact on the quality of traditional transport system. Intelligent transportation system (ITS), which aims to improve the transport system, has become more and more popular. Furthermore, improving the safety of traffic is an important issue of ITS, and the pothole on the road causes serious harm to drivers’ safety. Therefore, drivers’ safety may be improved with the establishment of real-time pothole detection system for sharing the pothole information. Moreover, using the mobile device to detect potholes has been more popular in recent years. This approach can detect potholes with lower cost in a comprehensive environment. This study proposes a pothole detection method based on the mobile sensing. The accelerometer data is normalized by Euler angle computation and is adopted in the pothole detection algorithm to obtain the pothole information. Moreover, the spatial interpolation method is used to reduce the location errors from global positioning system (GPS) data. In experiments, the results show that the proposed approach can precisely detect potholes without false-positives, and the higher accuracy is performed by the proposed approach. Therefore, the proposed real-time pothole detection approach can be used to improve the safety of traffic for ITS. Hsiu-Wen Wang, Chi-Hua Chen, Ding-Yuan Cheng, Chun-Hao Lin, and Chi-Chun Lo Copyright © 2015 Hsiu-Wen Wang et al. All rights reserved. The Design of EMG Measurement System for Arm Strength Training Machine Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:37:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/356028/ The setup of interactive communication between arm strength training machine and the people will make exercise and rehabilitation therapy become more friendly. The employment of electromyographic not only can help physical therapy but also can achieve more effective rehabilitation. Both of the system hardware and software of the arm strength training machine with EMG system are well designed and described. The fundamental design of electromyographic measurement system based on a microcontroller is analyzed and discussed. The software programming is developed in MPLAB integrated development environment from the Microchip Technology Inc. and the friendly user interface is created as well. Finally, an arm strength training machine with electromyographic control system is realized and demonstrated. The experimental results show the feasibility and fidelity of the complete designed system. Tze-Yee Ho, Yuan-Joan Chen, Wei-Chang Hung, Kuan-Wei Ho, and Mu-Song Chen Copyright © 2015 Tze-Yee Ho et al. All rights reserved. Face Recognition Using MLP and RBF Neural Network with Gabor and Discrete Wavelet Transform Characterization: A Comparative Study Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:35:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/523603/ Face recognition has received a great attention from a lot of researchers in computer vision, pattern recognition, and human machine computer interfaces in recent years. Designing a face recognition system is a complex task due to the wide variety of illumination, pose, and facial expression. A lot of approaches have been developed to find the optimal space in which face feature descriptors are well distinguished and separated. Face representation using Gabor features and discrete wavelet has attracted considerable attention in computer vision and image processing. We describe in this paper a face recognition system using artificial neural networks like multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) where Gabor and discrete wavelet based feature extraction methods are proposed for the extraction of features from facial images using two facial databases: the ORL and computer vision. Good recognition rate was obtained using Gabor and DWT parameterization with MLP classifier applied for computer vision dataset. Fatma Zohra Chelali and Amar Djeradi Copyright © 2015 Fatma Zohra Chelali and Amar Djeradi. All rights reserved. Inferring Visual Perceptual Object by Adaptive Fusion of Image Salient Features Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:20:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/973241/ Saliency computational model with active environment perception can be useful for many applications including image retrieval, object recognition, and image segmentation. Previous work on bottom-up saliency computation typically relies on hand-crafted low-level image features. However, the adaptation of saliency computational model towards different kinds of scenes remains a challenge. For a low-level image feature, it can contribute greatly on some images but may be detrimental for saliency computation on other images. In this work, a novel data driven approach is proposed to adaptively select proper features for different kinds of images. This method exploits low-level features containing the most distinguishable salient information per image. Then the image saliency can be calculated based on the adaptive weight selection scheme. A large number of experiments are conducted on the MSRA database to compare the performance of the proposed method with the state-of-the-art saliency computational models. Xin Xu, Nan Mu, and Hong Zhang Copyright © 2015 Xin Xu et al. All rights reserved. Multiframe Superresolution Reconstruction Based on Self-Learning Method Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:30:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/181864/ One category of the superresolution algorithms widely used in practical applications is dictionary-based superresolution algorithms, which constructs a single high-resolution (HR) and high-clarity image from multiple low-resolution (LR) images. Despite the fact that general dictionary-based superresolution algorithms obtain redundant dictionaries from numerous HR-LR images, HR image distortion is unavoidable. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a multiframe superresolution reconstruction based on self-learning methods. First, multiple images from the same scene are selected to be both input and training images, and larger-scale images, which are also involved in the training set, are constructed from the learning dictionary. Then, different larger-scale images are constructed via repetition of the first step and the initial HR sets whose scale closely approximates that of the target HR image are finally obtained. Lastly, initial HR images are fused into one target HR image under the NLM idea, while the IBP idea is adopted to meet the global constraint. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm produces more accurate reconstructions than those produced by other general superresolution algorithms, while, in real scene experiments, the proposed algorithm can run well and create clearer HR images from input images captured by cameras. Shao-Shuo Mu, Ye Zhang, Ping Jia, Xun Yang, and Xiao-Feng Qiu Copyright © 2015 Shao-Shuo Mu et al. All rights reserved. A Study on Digital Analysis of Bach’s “Two-Part Inventions” Thu, 27 Aug 2015 11:25:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/560926/ In the field of music composition, creating polyphony is relatively one of the most difficult parts. Among them, the basis of multivoice polyphonic composition is two-part counterpoint. The main purpose of this paper is, through the computer technology, conducting a series of studies on “Two-Part Inventions” of Bach, a Baroque polyphony master. Based on digitalization, visualization and mathematical methods, data mining algorithm has been applied to identify bipartite characteristics and rules of counterpoint polyphony. We hope that the conclusions drawn from the article could be applied to the digital creation of polyphony. Xiao-Yi Song and Dong-Run Huang Copyright © 2015 Xiao-Yi Song and Dong-Run Huang. All rights reserved. Automatic Segmentation of Nature Object Using Salient Edge Points Based Active Contour Thu, 27 Aug 2015 09:51:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/174709/ Natural image segmentation is often a crucial first step for high-level image understanding, significantly reducing the complexity of content analysis of images. LRAC may have some disadvantages. (1) Segmentation results heavily depend on the initial contour selection which is a very skillful task. (2) In some situations, manual interactions are infeasible. To overcome these shortcomings, we propose a novel model for unsupervised segmentation of viewer’s attention object from natural images based on localizing region-based active model (LRAC). With aid of the color boosting Harris detector and the core saliency map, we get the salient object edge points. Then, these points are employed as the seeds of initial convex hull. Finally, this convex hull is improved by the edge-preserving filter to generate the initial contour for our automatic object segmentation system. In contrast with localizing region-based active contours that require considerable user interaction, the proposed method does not require it; that is, the segmentation task is fulfilled in a fully automatic manner. Extensive experiments results on a large variety of natural images demonstrate that our algorithm consistently outperforms the popular existing salient object segmentation methods, yielding higher precision and better recall rates. Our framework can reliably and automatically extract the object contour from the complex background. Shangbing Gao, Yunyang Yan, Youdong Zhang, Jingbo Zhou, Suqun Cao, and Jianxun Xue Copyright © 2015 Shangbing Gao et al. All rights reserved. Integrated Guidance and Control Method for the Interception of Maneuvering Hypersonic Vehicle Based on High Order Sliding Mode Approach Thu, 27 Aug 2015 07:08:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/648231/ This paper focuses on the integrated guidance and control (IGC) method applied in the interception of maneuvering near space hypersonic vehicles using the homogeneous high order sliding mode (HOSM) approach. The IGC model is derived by combining the target-missile relative motion and dynamic equations. Then, a fourth-order sliding mode controller is implemented in the augmented IGC model. To estimate the high order derivatives of the sliding manifold which is required in the HOSM method, an Arbitrary Order Robust Exact Differentiator is presented. At last, the idea of virtual control is introduced to alleviate the chattering of the control input without using any saturation functions which may lead to a loss of the robustness. And the stability of the closed-loop system with presented fourth-order homogeneous HOSM controller is also proved theoretically. Finally, simulation results are provided and analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in three typical engagement scenarios. Kang Chen, Bin Fu, Yuening Ding, and Jie Yan Copyright © 2015 Kang Chen et al. All rights reserved. Research and Simulation of the Electrical Vehicle Based Dynamical System Thu, 27 Aug 2015 07:08:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/929701/ This study developed a dynamic model of electric vehicle system by using the MATLAB/Simulink tool. The vehicle model comprises two system components: an electrical system and a suspension system. This study also designed various road conditions for simulating the motion of vehicle traveling along a road. The results show that the electrical and suspension system parameters can be adjusted immediately to enhance passenger comfort. The findings of this research have practical teaching applications. Students can modify the vehicle model parameters byes using the MATLAB graphical user interface, allowing them to observe the motion of vehicle under various road conditions. Ko-Chun Chen and Hsin-Yi Shih Copyright © 2015 Ko-Chun Chen and Hsin-Yi Shih. All rights reserved. The SSVEP-Based BCI Text Input System Using Entropy Encoding Algorithm Thu, 27 Aug 2015 07:07:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/234260/ The so-called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or motor neuron disease (MND) is a neurodegenerative disease with various causes. It is characterized by muscle spasticity, rapidly progressive weakness due to muscle atrophy, and difficulty in speaking, swallowing, and breathing. The severe disabled always have a common problem that is about communication except physical malfunctions. The steady-state visually evoked potential based brain computer interfaces (BCI), which apply visual stimulus, are very suitable to play the role of communication interface for patients with neuromuscular impairments. In this study, the entropy encoding algorithm is proposed to encode the letters of multilevel selection interface for BCI text input systems. According to the appearance frequency of each letter, the entropy encoding algorithm is proposed to construct a variable-length tree for the letter arrangement of multilevel selection interface. Then, the Gaussian mixture models are applied to recognize electrical activity of the brain. According to the recognition results, the multilevel selection interface guides the subject to spell and type the words. The experimental results showed that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline system, which does not consider the appearance frequency of each letter. Hence, the proposed approach is able to ease text input interface for patients with neuromuscular impairments. Yeou-Jiunn Chen, Shih-Chung Chen, Ilham A. E. Zaeni, Chung-Min Wu, Andrew Jason Tickle, and Pei-Jarn Chen Copyright © 2015 Yeou-Jiunn Chen et al. All rights reserved. Digital Hardware Realization of Forward and Inverse Kinematics for a Five-Axis Articulated Robot Arm Thu, 27 Aug 2015 06:49:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/906505/ When robot arm performs a motion control, it needs to calculate a complicated algorithm of forward and inverse kinematics which consumes much CPU time and certainty slows down the motion speed of robot arm. Therefore, to solve this issue, the development of a hardware realization of forward and inverse kinematics for an articulated robot arm is investigated. In this paper, the formulation of the forward and inverse kinematics for a five-axis articulated robot arm is derived firstly. Then, the computations algorithm and its hardware implementation are described. Further, very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL) is applied to describe the overall hardware behavior of forward and inverse kinematics. Additionally, finite state machine (FSM) is applied for reducing the hardware resource usage. Finally, for verifying the correctness of forward and inverse kinematics for the five-axis articulated robot arm, a cosimulation work is constructed by ModelSim and Simulink. The hardware of the forward and inverse kinematics is run by ModelSim and a test bench which generates stimulus to ModelSim and displays the output response is taken in Simulink. Under this design, the forward and inverse kinematics algorithms can be completed within one microsecond. Bui Thi Hai Linh and Ying-Shieh Kung Copyright © 2015 Bui Thi Hai Linh and Ying-Shieh Kung. All rights reserved. Investigation of Novel Noncontacting Measurement Method by the Design of Loop-Type Probe and Reconstruction of Radiation Modeling Thu, 27 Aug 2015 06:49:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/146406/ Because the ICs’ application frequency and speed become higher and trends of system packaging and device under test request higher reliability, a novel technology combining noncontacting measurement method and reconstructing radiation model was proposed to solve signal deliveries in system packages or PCBs. In this study, a novel noncontacting method for the ICs’ measurements was investigated by the design of loop-type near-field probe and reconstructed the radiation model to substitute the traditional measurement methods, such as using probes and SMA connectors. A near-field probe was used to receive the coupling signal. The assessing circuit modeling could be completed by some synthesized theorems. According to the study’s results, frequency responses of reconstruction model developed by theorems, radiation measurements, and simulated by EM methods were highly curve fitting. Sung-Mao Wu, Cheng-Fu Yang, Yin-Hsiu Yeh, Hsin-Fang Li, and Ren-Fang Hsu Copyright © 2015 Sung-Mao Wu et al. All rights reserved. The Wavelength-Locking of High-Power 808 nm Semiconductor Laser Thu, 27 Aug 2015 06:38:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/450324/ A distributed feedback (DFB) laser of 808 nm is produced in this paper whose optical power is 2 W, cavity length is 3 mm, and injecting width is 200 μm. A second-order grating formed into an InGaP/GaAs/InGaP multilayer structure provides the optical distributed feedback. The holographic lithography method is adopted to make Bragg gratings in p-waveguide layer (Λ = 240 nm) of the GaAs epitaxial wafers. The best experimental conditions are determined by analyzing the surface morphology and three-dimensional holographic grating. In addition, the output power data and wavelength of the distributed feedback laser emitting at different temperatures are presented. And the wavelength varies with temperature at a rate of 0.062 nm/K. Finally, the conclusion is drawn that this kind of DFB laser has a better temperature stabilized wavelength and narrower line width. Hai-Xia Guo, Zai-Jin Li, Hui Li, Feng Gao, Hai-Bin Tang, Bao-Hua Shi, and Yi Qu Copyright © 2015 Hai-Xia Guo et al. All rights reserved. 3D Reconstruction from IR Thermal Images and Reprojective Evaluations Thu, 27 Aug 2015 06:29:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/520534/ Infrared thermography has been widely used in various domains to measure the temperature distributions of objects and surfaces. The methodology can be further extended to 3D applications if the spatial information of the temperature distribution is available. This paper proposes a 3D infrared imaging approach based on silhouette volume intersection to reconstruct volumetric temperature data of enclosed objects. 3D IR images are taken from various angles and integrated with 2D RGB images to effectively reconstruct a 3D model of the object's temperature distributions. Various automatic thresholding methods are also compared and evaluated by reprojection scoring to systematically assess the effectiveness and accuracy of the different approaches. Experiment results have demonstrated the ability of the system to provide an estimate to the 3D location of an internal heat source from images taken externally. Chia-Yen Chen, Chia-Hung Yeh, Bao Rong Chang, and Jun-Ming Pan Copyright © 2015 Chia-Yen Chen et al. All rights reserved. Applying the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process to Construct the Product Innovative Service System of Wedding Photography Apparel Thu, 27 Aug 2015 06:28:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/171204/ This study aimed to investigate the indicators of the wedding photography apparel product system in order to construct the wedding photography apparel product system indicators and analyze the hieratical weights of the wedding photography apparel product system indicators. By using the Delphi method and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, this study constructed the questionnaire for wedding photography apparel product system indicator weights. This study used the mean and standard deviation to learn about the distribution of opinions of the experts and scholars. According to the findings of this study, for the fuzzy weight analysis results of the wedding photography apparel product system indicators, the most important indicators are the product-service indicators. Moreover, for the product-service indicators, the wedding apparel package service is the most important. For the information platform indicator, the wedding apparel style opinion platform is the most important. For the maintenance and recycling indicators, the wedding apparel second-hand auction/donation is the most important. For the sales market indicators, the wedding apparel store sales/rental is the most important. The main purpose of the indicators of the wedding photography apparel product system constructed in this study is to propose detailed items and connotations to provide a substantial reference and basis of business strategic indicators for the wedding photography enterprises. Jui-Che Tu and Chi-Ling Hu Copyright © 2015 Jui-Che Tu and Chi-Ling Hu. All rights reserved. A Novel Soundproof Ventilation Plant Design with High Performance and No Energy Consumption Thu, 27 Aug 2015 05:54:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/496748/ This paper proposes an advanced approach for designing soundproof windows with good ventilation. The structure of this study is based on three acoustics theorem and can reduce noise and ventilate the space at the same time. Using this structure on wall can help also avoid noise interference effect indoors and increase air quality. This study uses plants as appropriate soundproof structure to improve carbon dioxide content for providing better living environment. Simulations of the sound field and CFD demonstrate that the structure has good performance on noise reduction and effect of ventilation. Ya-Lin Yu, Yu-Tin Chao, Lai-Chung Lee, Jia-Yush Yen, and Yun-Chiu Fan Copyright © 2015 Ya-Lin Yu et al. All rights reserved. Development and Application of the Stereo Vision Tracking System with Virtual Reality Wed, 26 Aug 2015 14:31:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/545498/ A virtual reality (VR) driver tracking verification system is created, of which the application to stereo image tracking and positioning accuracy is researched in depth. In the research, the feature that the stereo vision system has image depth is utilized to improve the error rate of image tracking and image measurement. In a VR scenario, the function collecting behavioral data of driver was tested. By means of VR, racing operation is simulated and environmental (special weathers such as raining and snowing) and artificial (such as sudden crossing road by pedestrians, appearing of vehicles from dead angles, roadblock) variables are added as the base for system implementation. In addition, the implementation is performed with human factors engineered according to sudden conditions that may happen easily in driving. From experimental results, it proves that the stereo vision system created by the research has an image depth recognition error rate within 0.011%. The image tracking error rate may be smaller than 2.5%. In the research, the image recognition function of stereo vision is utilized to accomplish the data collection of driver tracking detection. In addition, the environmental conditions of different simulated real scenarios may also be created through VR. Chia-Sui Wang, Ko-Chun Chen, Tsung Han Lee, and Kuei-Shu Hsu Copyright © 2015 Chia-Sui Wang et al. All rights reserved. ModelSim/Simulink Cosimulation and FPGA Realization of a Multiaxis Motion Controller Wed, 26 Aug 2015 14:29:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/202474/ This paper is to implement a multiaxis servo controller and a motion trajectory planning within one chip. At first, SoPC (system on a programmable chip) technology which is composed of an Altera FPGA (field programmable gate arrays) chip and an embedded soft-core Nios II processor is taken as the development of a multiaxis motion control IC. The multiaxis motion control IC has two modules. The first module is Nios II processor which realizes the motion trajectory planning by software. It includes the step, circular, window, star, and helical motion trajectory. The second module presents a function of the multiaxis position/speed/current controller IP (intellectual property) by hardware. And VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language) is applied to describe the multiaxis servo controller behavior. Before the FPGA realization, a cosimulation work by ModelSim/Simulink is applied to test the VHDL code. Then, this IP combined by Nios II processor will be downloaded to FPGA. Therefore, a fully digital multiaxis motion controller can be realized by a single FPGA chip. Finally, to verify the effectiveness and correctness of the proposed multiaxis motion control IP, a three-axis motion platform (XYZ table) is constructed and some experimental results are presented. Ying-Shieh Kung, Jin-Mu Lin, Yu-Jen Chen, and Hsin-Hung Chou Copyright © 2015 Ying-Shieh Kung et al. All rights reserved. Design of a Code-Maker Translator Assistive Input Device with a Contest Fuzzy Recognition Algorithm for the Severely Disabled Wed, 26 Aug 2015 14:10:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/780849/ This study developed an assistive system for the severe physical disabilities, named “code-maker translator assistive input device” which utilizes a contest fuzzy recognition algorithm and Morse codes encoding to provide the keyboard and mouse functions for users to access a standard personal computer, smartphone, and tablet PC. This assistive input device has seven features that are small size, easy installing, modular design, simple maintenance, functionality, very flexible input interface selection, and scalability of system functions, when this device combined with the computer applications software or APP programs. The users with severe physical disabilities can use this device to operate the various functions of computer, smartphone, and tablet PCs, such as sending e-mail, Internet browsing, playing games, and controlling home appliances. A patient with a brain artery malformation participated in this study. The analysis result showed that the subject could make himself familiar with operating of the long/short tone of Morse code in one month. In the future, we hope this system can help more people in need. Chung-Min Wu and Jyun-Slan Liou Copyright © 2015 Chung-Min Wu and Jyun-Slan Liou. All rights reserved. Assessment of In-Cloud Enterprise Resource Planning System Performed in a Virtual Cluster Wed, 26 Aug 2015 14:08:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/213461/ This paper introduces a high-performed high-availability in-cloud enterprise resources planning (in-cloud ERP) which has deployed in the virtual machine cluster. The proposed approach can resolve the crucial problems of ERP failure due to unexpected downtime and failover between physical hosts in enterprises, causing operation termination and hence data loss. Besides, the proposed one together with the access control authentication and network security is capable of preventing intrusion hacked and/or malicious attack via internet. Regarding system assessment, cost-performance (C-P) ratio, a remarkable cost effectiveness evaluation, has been applied to several remarkable ERP systems. As a result, C-P ratio evaluated from the experiments shows that the proposed approach outperforms two well-known benchmark ERP systems, namely, in-house ECC 6.0 and in-cloud ByDesign. Bao Rong Chang, Hsiu-Fen Tsai, Chia-Yen Chen, and Yun-Che Tsai Copyright © 2015 Bao Rong Chang et al. All rights reserved. UTAUT2 Based Predictions of Factors Influencing the Technology Acceptance of Phablets by DNP Wed, 26 Aug 2015 13:51:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/603747/ The smart mobile devices have emerged during the past decade and have become one of the most dominant consumer electronic products. Therefore, exploring and understanding the factors which can influence the acceptance of novel mobile technology have become the essential task for the vendors and distributors of mobile devices. The Phablets, integrated smart devices combining the functionality and characteristics of both tablet PCs and smart phones, have gradually become possible alternatives for smart phones. Therefore, predicting factors which can influence the acceptance of Phablets have become indispensable for designing, manufacturing, and marketing of such mobile devices. However, such predictions are not easy. Meanwhile, very few researches tried to study related issues. Consequently, the authors aim to explore and predict the intentions to use and use behaviors of Phablets. The second generation of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) is introduced as a theoretic basis. The Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) based Network Process (DNP) will be used to construct the analytic framework. In light of the analytic results, the causal relationships being derived by the DEMATEL demonstrate the direct influence of the habit on other dimensions. Also, based on the influence weights being derived, the use intention, hedonic motivation, and performance expectancy are the most important dimensions. The analytic results can serve as a basis for concept developments, marketing strategy definitions, and new product designs of the future Phablets. The proposed analytic framework can also be used for predicting and analyzing consumers’ preferences toward future mobile devices. Chi-Yo Huang and Yu-Sheng Kao Copyright © 2015 Chi-Yo Huang and Yu-Sheng Kao. All rights reserved. Enhancement of Selective Siphon Control Method for Deadlock Prevention in FMSs Wed, 26 Aug 2015 13:50:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/196514/ One novel control policy named selective siphon control policy is proposed to solve for deadlock problems of flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs). The new policy not only solves the deadlock problem successfully but also obtains maximally permissive controllers. According to our awareness, the policy is the first one to achieve the goal of obtaining maximally permissive controllers for all S3PR (one system of simple sequential processes with resources, S3PR) models in existing literature. However, one main problem is still needed to solve in their algorithm. The problem is that the proposed policy cannot check the exact number of maximally permissive states of a deadlock net in advance. After all iterating steps, the final maximally permissive states can then be known. Additionally, all legal markings are still to be checked again and again until all critical markings vanished. In this paper, one computationally improved methodology is proposed to solve the two problems. According to the experimental results, the computational efficiency can be enhanced based on the proposed methodology in this paper. Yen-Liang Pan, Cheng-Fu Yang, and Mu-Der Jeng Copyright © 2015 Yen-Liang Pan et al. All rights reserved. Chaotic Path Planner of Autonomous Mobile Robots Based on the Standard Map for Surveillance Missions Wed, 26 Aug 2015 12:09:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/263964/ This paper proposes a fusion iterations strategy based on the Standard map to generate a chaotic path planner of the mobile robot for surveillance missions. The distances of the chaotic trajectories between the adjacent iteration points which are produced by the Standard map are too large for the robot to track. So a fusion iterations strategy combined with the large region iterations and the small grids region iterations is designed to resolve the problem. The small region iterations perform the iterations of the Standard map in the divided small grids, respectively. It can reduce the adjacent distances by dividing the whole surveillance workspace into small grids. The large region iterations combine all the small grids region iterations into a whole, switch automatically among the small grids, and maintain the chaotic characteristics of the robot to guarantee the surveillance missions. Compared to simply using the Standard map in the whole workspace, the proposed strategy can decrease the adjacent distances according to the divided size of the small grids and is convenient for the robot to track. Caihong Li, Yong Song, Fengying Wang, Zhenying Liang, and Baoyan Zhu Copyright © 2015 Caihong Li et al. All rights reserved. Fast Model Predictive Control Combining Offline Method and Online Optimization with K-D Tree Wed, 26 Aug 2015 12:02:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/982041/ Computation time is the main factor that limits the application of model predictive control (MPC). This paper presents a fast model predictive control algorithm that combines offline method and online optimization to solve the MPC problem. The offline method uses a k-d tree instead of a table to implement partial enumeration, which accelerates online searching operation. Only a part of the explicit solution is stored in the k-d tree for online searching, and the k-d tree is updated in runtime to accommodate the change in the operating point. Online optimization is invoked when searching on the k-d tree fails. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm is efficient on both small-scale and large-scale processes. The average speedup factor in the large-scale process is at least 6, the worst-case speedup factor is at least 2, and the performance is less than 0.05% suboptimal. Yi Ding, Zuhua Xu, Jun Zhao, and Zhijiang Shao Copyright © 2015 Yi Ding et al. All rights reserved. Equilibrium Customer Strategies in the Queue with Threshold Policy and Setup Times Wed, 26 Aug 2015 09:47:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/361901/ We consider the equilibrium behavior of customers in the queue with policy and setup times. The server is shut down once the system is empty and begins an exponential setup time to start service again when the number of customers in the system accumulates the threshold . We consider the equilibrium threshold strategies for fully observable case and mixed strategies for fully unobservable case, respectively. We get various performance measures of the system and investigate some numerical examples of system size, social benefit, and expected cost function per unit time for the two different cases under equilibrium customer strategies. Peishu Chen, Wenhui Zhou, and Yongwu Zhou Copyright © 2015 Peishu Chen et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Vehicle Steering and Driving Bifurcation Characteristics Wed, 26 Aug 2015 09:36:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/847258/ The typical method of vehicle steering bifurcation analysis is based on the nonlinear autonomous vehicle model deriving from the classic two degrees of freedom (2DOF) linear vehicle model. This method usually neglects the driving effect on steering bifurcation characteristics. However, in the steering and driving combined conditions, the tyre under different driving conditions can provide different lateral force. The steering bifurcation mechanism without the driving effect is not able to fully reveal the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics. Aiming at the aforementioned problem, this paper analyzed the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics with the consideration of driving effect. Based on the 5DOF vehicle system dynamics model with the consideration of driving effect, the 7DOF autonomous system model was established. The vehicle steering and driving bifurcation dynamic characteristics were analyzed with different driving mode and driving torque. Taking the front-wheel-drive system as an example, the dynamic evolution process of steering and driving bifurcation was analyzed by phase space, system state variables, power spectral density, and Lyapunov index. The numerical recognition results of chaos were also provided. The research results show that the driving mode and driving torque have the obvious effect on steering and driving bifurcation characteristics. Xianbin Wang and Shuming Shi Copyright © 2015 Xianbin Wang and Shuming Shi. All rights reserved. A Threat Assessment Model under Uncertain Environment Wed, 26 Aug 2015 09:16:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/878024/ Threat evaluation is extremely important to decision makers in many situations, such as military application and physical protection systems. In this paper, a new threat assessment model based on interval number to deal with the intrinsic uncertainty and imprecision in combat environment is proposed. Both objective and subjective factors are taken into consideration in the proposed model. For the objective factors, the genetic algorithm (GA) is used to search out an optimal interval number representing all the attribute values of each object. In addition, for the subjective factors, the interval Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is adopted to determine each object’s threat weight according to the experience of commanders/experts. Then a discounting method is proposed to integrate the objective and subjective factors. At last, the ideal of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is applied to obtain the threat ranking of all the objects. A real application is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. Yong Deng Copyright © 2015 Yong Deng. All rights reserved.