- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Malaria Research and Treatment
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 141734, 10 pages
Protective Effect of Quercetin on Chloroquine-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatotoxicity in Mice
Genotoxicity Laboratory, Toxicology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Lucknow 226 001, India
Received 28 November 2012; Revised 5 February 2013; Accepted 19 February 2013
Academic Editor: Mats Wahlgren
Copyright © 2013 Shrawan Kumar Mishra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- E. O. Titus, “Recent developments in the understanding of the pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action of chloroquine,” Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 369–379, 1989.
- P. Augustijns, P. Geusens, and N. Verbeke, “Chloroquine levels in blood during chronic treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 429–433, 1992.
- P. Augustijns and N. Verbeke, “Stereoselective pharmacokinetic properties of chloroquine and de-ethyl-chloroquine in humans,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 259–269, 1993.
- S. Krishna and N. J. White, “Pharmacokinetics of quinine, chloroquine and amodiaquine. Clinical implications,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 263–299, 1996.
- I. M. Meinao, E. I. Sato, L. E. C. Andrade, M. B. Ferraz, and E. Atra, “Controlled trial with chloroquine diphosphate in systemic lupus erythematosus,” Lupus, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 237–241, 1996.
- A. Y. Abdi, L. L. Gustafsson, O. Ericsson, and U. Hellgren, Handbook of Drugs for Tropical Parasitic Infections, Taylor & Francis, London, UK, 2nd edition, 1995.
- C. D. Klassen, Cassarett & Doull's Toxicology, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 7th edition, 2005.
- R. Wang, “Hydroxychloroquine cardiotoxicity,” Clinical Toxicology, vol. 33, pp. 475–486, 1995.
- R. Wilkinson, J. Mahatane, P. Wade, and G. Paevol, “Chloroquine poisoning,” British Medical Journal, vol. 32, pp. 307–504, 1993.
- D. K. Farver and M. N. Lavin, “Quinine-induced hepatotoxicity,” The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 32–34, 1999.
- W. Lee, “Drug-induced hepatotoxicity,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, pp. 474–485, 2003.
- A. C. Liu, “Hepatotoxic reaction to chloroquine phosphate in a patient with previously unrecognized porphyria cutanea tarda,” Western Journal of Medicine, vol. 162, no. 6, pp. 548–551, 1995.
- E. E. Dass and K. K. Shah, “Paracetamol and conventional antimalarial drugs induced hepatotoxicity and its protection by methionine in rats,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 1138–1142, 2000.
- L. Pari and P. Murugavel, “Protective effect of α-lipoic acid against chloroquine-induced hepatotoxicity in rats,” Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2004.
- E. O. Farombi, Y. Y. Shyntum, and G. O. Emerole, “Influence of chloroquine treatment and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection on some enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense indices in humans,” Drug and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 59–71, 2003.
- P. Srivastava, S. K. Puri, G. P. Dutta, and V. C. Pandey, “Status of oxidative stress and antioxidant defences during Plasmodium knowlesi infection and chloroquine treatment in Macaca mulatta,” International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 243–245, 1992.
- N. J. Siddiqi and A. S. Alhomida, “Status of hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defense systems during chloroquine treatment of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infected mice,” In Vivo, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 547–550, 1999.
- N. J. Siddiqi, A. S. Alhomida, G. P. Dutta, and V. C. Pandey, “Antagonist effect of chloroquine and tumor necrosis factor on hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in normal and Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis-infected mice,” In Vivo, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 67–70, 2002.
- V. O. Okeola, O. A. Adaramoye, C. M. Nneji, C. O. Falade, E. O. Farombi, and O. G. Ademowo, “Antimalarial and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds (black cumin) in mice infected with Plasmodium yoelli nigeriensis,” Parasitology Research, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 1507–1512, 2011.
- C. A. Rice-Evans, N. J. Miller, and G. Paganga, “Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 933–956, 1996.
- M. H. Gordon and A. Roedig-Penman, “Antioxidant activity of quercetin and myricetin in liposomes,” Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 79–85, 1998.
- K. Ishige, D. Schubert, and Y. Sagara, “Flavonoids protect neuronal cells from oxidative stress by three distinct mechanisms,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 433–446, 2001.
- T. Geetha, V. Malhotra, K. Chopra, and I. P. Kaur, “Antimutagenic and antioxidant/prooxidant activity of quercetin,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 2005.
- J. V. Formica and W. Regelson, “Review of the biology of quercetin and related bioflavonoids,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1061–1080, 1995.
- J. Ø. Moskaug, H. Carlsen, M. Myhrstad, and R. Blomhoff, “Molecular imaging of the biological effects of quercetin and quercetin-rich foods,” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 315–324, 2004.
- A. Kumar and R. Goyal, “Quercetin protects against acute immobilization stress-induced behaviors and biochemical alterations in mice,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 469–473, 2008.
- M. F. Molina, I. Sanchez-Reus, I. Iglesias, and J. Benedi, “Quercetin, a flavonoid antioxidant, prevents and protects against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in mouse liver,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1398–1402, 2003.
- E. J. Freireich, E. A. Gehan, D. P. Rall, L. H. Schmidt, and H. E. Skipper, “Quantitative comparison of toxicity of anticancer agents in mouse, rat, hamster, dog, monkey, and man,” Cancer Chemotherapy Reports, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 219–244, 1966.
- S. K. Mishra, P. Singh, and S. K. Rath, “A study of toxicity and differential gene expression in murine liver following exposure to anti-malarial drugs: amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine,” Malaria Journal, vol. 10, article 109, 2011.
- WHO Malaria Factsheet, (refrence no 24 in modified manuscript), http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/.
- Guidelines of Natural Health Research Institute, Bloomingdale, Ill, USA on Extrapolation of Animal dosages to humans, http://www.naturalhealthresearch.org/nhri/?p=10099.
- A publication of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 20460 discussing the criteria for dose selection based on surface area, metabolism and pharmacokinetic index, http://www.epa.gov/raf/publications/pdfs/recommended-use-of-bw34.pdf.
- P. Singh, S. K. Mishra, S. Noel, S. Sharma, and S. K. Rath, “Acute exposure of apigenin induces hepatotoxicity in Swiss mice,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 2, Article ID e31964, 2012.
- H. Ohkawa, N. Ohishi, and K. Yagi, “Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 351–358, 1979.
- A. K. Sinha, “Colorimetric assay of catalase,” Analytical Biochemistry, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 389–394, 1972.
- P. Kakkar, B. Das, and P. N. Vishwanathan, “A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase,” Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics, vol. 21, pp. 130–132, 1984.
- I. Carlberg and B. Mannervik, “Glutathione reductase,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 113, pp. 484–490, 1985.
- A. Wendel, “Glutathione peroxidase,” in Enzymatic Basis of Detoxication, W. B. Jakoby, Ed., pp. 333–348, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1980.
- G. L. Ellman, “Tissue sulfhydryl groups,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 70–77, 1959.
- O. H. Lowry, N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randall, “Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 265–275, 1951.
- M. W. Pfaffl, “A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR,” in Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 29, pp. 45–50, 2001.
- J. Ozer, M. Ratner, M. Shaw, W. Bailey, and S. Schomaker, “The current state of serum biomarkers of hepatotoxicity,” Toxicology, vol. 245, no. 3, pp. 194–205, 2008.
- T. Yamamoto, R. Kikkawa, H. Yamada, and I. Horii, “Identification of oxidative stress-related proteins for predictive screening of hepatotoxicity using a proteomic approach,” Journal of Toxicological Sciences, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 213–227, 2005.
- H. Jaeschke, Y. S. Ho, M. A. Fisher, J. A. Lawson, and A. Farhood, “Glutathione peroxidase-deficient mice are more susceptible to neutrophil-mediated hepatic parenchymal cell injury during endotoxemia: importance of an intracellular oxidant stress,” Hepatology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 443–450, 1999.
- L. L. de Zwart, J. H. N. Meerman, J. N. M. Commandeur, and N. P. E. Vermeulen, “Biomarkers of free radical damage applications in experimental animals and in humans,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 26, no. 1-2, pp. 202–226, 1999.
- A. Meister and M. E. Anderson, “Glutathione,” Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol. 52, pp. 711–760, 1983.
- P. Werner and G. Cohen, “Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) as a marker of oxidative injury to brain mitochondria,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 679, pp. 364–369, 1993.
- I. Fridovich, “Superoxide dismutases. An adaptation to a paramagnetic gas,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 264, no. 14, pp. 7761–7764, 1989.
- S. Shull, N. H. Heintz, M. Periasamy et al., “Differential regulation of antioxidant enzymes in response to oxidants,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 266, no. 36, pp. 24398–24403, 1991.
- J. M. Mates, C. Perez-Gomez, and I. Nunez, “Antioxidant enzymes and human diseases,” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 595–603, 1999.
- R. R. Jenkins and A. Goldfarb, “Introduction: oxidant stress, aging, and exercise,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 210–212, 1993.
- Y. Kono and I. Fridovich, “Superoxide radical inhibits catalase,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 257, no. 10, pp. 5751–5754, 1982.
- R. Jayaraj, T. Anand, and P. V. L. Rao, “Activity and gene expression profile of certain antioxidant enzymes to microcystin-LR induced oxidative stress in mice,” Toxicology, vol. 220, no. 2-3, pp. 136–146, 2006.
- P. V. Limaye, N. Raghuram, and S. Sivakami, “Oxidative stress and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in the renal cortex of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 243, no. 1-2, pp. 147–152, 2003.