Modelling and Simulation in Engineering http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Numerical Evaluation of a Light-Gas Gun Facility for Impact Test Tue, 19 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/501434/ Experimental tests which match the application conditions might be used to properly evaluate materials for specific applications. High velocity impacts can be simulated using light-gas gun facilities, which come in different types and complexities. In this work different setups for a one-stage light-gas gun facility have been numerically analyzed in order to evaluate their suitability for testing materials and composites used as armor protection. A maximal barrel length of 6 m and a maximal reservoir pressure of a standard industrial gas bottle (20 MPa) were chosen as limitations. The numerical predictions show that it is not possible to accelerate the projectile directly to the desired velocity with nitrogen, helium, or hydrogen as propellant gas. When using a sabot corresponding to a higher bore diameter, the necessary velocity is achievable with helium and hydrogen gases. C. Rahner, H. A. Al-Qureshi, D. Stainer, D. Hotza, and M. C. Fredel Copyright © 2014 C. Rahner et al. All rights reserved. A Two-Stage Fuzzy Logic Control Method of Traffic Signal Based on Traffic Urgency Degree Mon, 04 Aug 2014 08:37:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/694185/ City intersection traffic signal control is an important method to improve the efficiency of road network and alleviate traffic congestion. This paper researches traffic signal fuzzy control method on a single intersection. A two-stage traffic signal control method based on traffic urgency degree is proposed according to two-stage fuzzy inference on single intersection. At the first stage, calculate traffic urgency degree for all red phases using traffic urgency evaluation module and select the red light phase with large traffic urgency as the next phase to switch. At the second stage, green delay of the current green phase is determined by fuzzy inference based on the amount of vehicles of current green phase and next green phase. The average vehicle delays are used to evaluate the performance of the fuzzy signal controller. Finally, comparisons have been made with pretimed controller and fuzzy logic controller without considering the urgency of red phase. Simulation results show the performance of our proposed method. Yan Ge Copyright © 2014 Yan Ge. All rights reserved. Computer Aided Modeling and Analysis of Five-Phase PMBLDC Motor Drive for Low Power High Torque Application Wed, 23 Jul 2014 13:44:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/686373/ In order to achieve high torque at low power with high efficiency, a new five-phase permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor design was analyzed and optimized. A similar three-phase motor having the same ratio (inner diameter () and length of the stator ()) is compared for maximum torque and torque ripple of the designed five-phase PMBLDC motor. Maxwell software was used to build finite element simulation model of the motor. The internal complicated magnetic field distribution and dynamic performance simulation were obtained in different positions. No load and load characteristics of the five-phase PMBLDC motor were simulated, and the power consumption of materials was computed. The conformity of the final simulation results indicates that this method can be used to provide a theoretical basis for further optimal design of this new type of motor with its drive so as to improve the starting torque and reduce torque ripple of the motor. M. A. Inayathullaah and R. Anita Copyright © 2014 M. A. Inayathullaah and R. Anita. All rights reserved. Schedulability Analysis for Rate Monotonic Algorithm-Shortest Job First Using UML-RT Wed, 23 Jul 2014 10:59:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/206364/ System modelling with a unified modelling language (UML) is an active research area for developing real-time system development. UML is widely used modelling language in software engineering community, to specify the requirement, and analyse the target system successfully. UML can be used to provide multiple views of the system under design with the help of a variety of structural and behavioural diagrams at an early stage. UML-RT (unified modelling language-real time) is a language used to build an unambiguous executable specification of a real-time system based on UML concepts. This paper presents a unified modeling approach for a newly proposed rate monotonic scheduling algorithm-shortest job first (RMA-SJF) for partitioned, semipartitioned and global scheduling strategies in multiprocessor architecture using UML-RT for different system loads. As a technical contribution, effective processor utilization of individual processors and success ratio are analyzed for various scheduling principles and compared with EDF and D_EDF to validate our proposal. S. Ewins Pon Pushpa and Manamalli Devasikamani Copyright © 2014 S. Ewins Pon Pushpa and Manamalli Devasikamani. All rights reserved. M/M/1 Multiple Vacation Queueing Systems with Differentiated Vacations Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/158247/ We consider a multiple vacation queueing system in which a vacation following a busy period has a different distribution from a vacation that is taken without serving at least one customer. For ease of analysis it is assumed that the service times are exponentially distributed and the two vacation types are also exponentially distributed but with different means. The steady-state solution is obtained. Oliver C. Ibe and Olubukola A. Isijola Copyright © 2014 Oliver C. Ibe and Olubukola A. Isijola. All rights reserved. Estimation of Grain Orientation in an Anisotropic Weld by Using a Model of Ultrasonic Propagation in an Inverse Scheme Tue, 01 Jul 2014 13:36:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/637476/ The initial step towards a nondestructive technique that estimates grain orientation in an anisotropic weld is presented in this paper. The purpose is to aid future forward simulations of ultrasonic NDT of this kind of weld to achieve a better result. A forward model that consists of a weld model, a transmitter model, a receiver model, and a 2D ray tracing algorithm is introduced. An inversion based on a multiobjective genetic algorithm is also presented. Experiments are conducted for both P and SV waves in order to collect enough data used in the inversion. Calculation is conducted to fulfill the estimation with both the synthetic data and the experimental data. Concluding remarks are presented at the end of the paper. Qingwei Liu and Håkan Wirdelius Copyright © 2014 Qingwei Liu and Håkan Wirdelius. All rights reserved. Soil Saturated Simulation in Embankment during Strong Earthquake by Effect of Elasticity Modulus Tue, 01 Jul 2014 10:03:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/191460/ The dynamic analysis process was started after failure in some embankments during an earthquake. In this context, maximum displacement was reported at the crest based on interaction between structure and reservoir. This paper investigates the dynamic behavior of short embankment on soft soil. For this purpose, numerical analysis was carried out using ANSYS13 program based on finite-element method. Simulated models were vibrated by strong earthquake, so the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and duration were 0.65 g and 5.02 seconds, respectively. The comparison results were discussed in key points of plane strain analysis based on modulus ratio between saturated embankment and foundation. As concluded, the modulus ratio between 0.53 and 0.66 led to having a minimum value of horizontal displacement, relative displacement in vertical direction, and shear stress. Consequently, the shear stress was increased while the modulus ratio was decreased. Finally, to avoid more rigidity in the embankment on the soft soil, optimum modulus ratio was recommended at 0.66 in order to reduce the probabilistic of body cracks at the crest with respect to homogeneous behavior during an earthquake. Behrouz Gordan, Azlan Adnan, and Mariyana A. K. Aida Copyright © 2014 Behrouz Gordan et al. All rights reserved. A Simple Procedure for Searching Pareto Optimal Front in Machining Process: Electric Discharge Machining Thu, 26 Jun 2014 13:19:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/594054/ Optimum control parameter setting in complex and stochastic type processes is one of the most challenging problems to the process engineers. As such, effective model development and determination of optimal operating conditions of electric discharge machining process (EDM) are reasonably difficult. In this apper, an easy to handle optimization procedure, weight-varying multiobjective simulated annealing, is proposed and is applied to optimize two conflicting type response parameters in EDM—material removal rate (MRR) and average surface roughness (Ra) simultaneously. A solution set is generated. The Pareto optimal front thus developed is further modeled. An inverse solution procedure is devised so that near-optimum process parameter settings can be determined for specific need based requirements of process engineers. The results are validated. Ushasta Aich and Simul Banerjee Copyright © 2014 Ushasta Aich and Simul Banerjee. All rights reserved. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Thermoelectric-Solar Hybrid Energy System Using an Inverse Dynamic Analysis Input Shaper Tue, 24 Jun 2014 12:55:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/376781/ This study presents the behavioral model of thermal temperature and power generation of a thermoelectric-solar hybrid energy system exposed to dynamic transient sources. In the development of thermoelectric-solar hybrid energy system, studies have focused on the regulation of both systems separately. In practice, a separate control system affects hardware pricing. In this study, an inverse dynamic analysis shaping technique based on exponential function is applied to a solar array (SA) to stabilize output voltage before this technique is combined with a thermoelectric module (TEM). This method can be used to estimate the maximum power point of the hybrid system by initially shaping the input voltage of SA. The behavior of the overall system can be estimated by controlling the behavior of SA, such that SA can follow the output voltage of TEM as the time constant of TEM is greater than that of SA. Moreover, by employing a continuous and differentiable function, the acquired output behavior of the hybrid system can be attained. Data showing the model is obtained from current experiments with predicted values of temperature, internal resistance, and current attributes of TEM. The simulation results show that the proposed input shaper can be used to trigger the output voltage of SA to follow the TEM behavior under transient conditions. A. M. Yusop, R. Mohamed, A. Ayob, and A. Mohamed Copyright © 2014 A. M. Yusop et al. All rights reserved. Instantaneous Power Theory with Fourier and Optimal Predictive Controller Design for Shunt Active Power Filter Tue, 24 Jun 2014 06:18:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/381760/ This paper presents a novel harmonic identification algorithm of shunt active power filter for balanced and unbalanced three-phase systems based on the instantaneous power theory called instantaneous power theory with Fourier. Moreover, the optimal design of predictive current controller using an artificial intelligence technique called adaptive Tabu search is also proposed in the paper. These enhancements of the identification and current control parts are the aim of the good performance for shunt active power filter. The good results for harmonic mitigation using the proposed ideas in the paper are confirmed by the intensive simulation using SPS in SIMULINK. The simulation results show that the enhanced shunt active power filter can provide the minimum %THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) of source currents and unity power factor after compensation. In addition, the %THD also follows the IEEE Std.519-1992. Suksan Tiyarachakun, Kongpol Areerak, and Kongpan Areerak Copyright © 2014 Suksan Tiyarachakun et al. All rights reserved. Otsu Based Optimal Multilevel Image Thresholding Using Firefly Algorithm Sun, 15 Jun 2014 10:59:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/794574/ Histogram based multilevel thresholding approach is proposed using Brownian distribution (BD) guided firefly algorithm (FA). A bounded search technique is also presented to improve the optimization accuracy with lesser search iterations. Otsu’s between-class variance function is maximized to obtain optimal threshold level for gray scale images. The performances of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated by considering twelve benchmark images and are compared with the existing FA algorithms such as Lévy flight (LF) guided FA and random operator guided FA. The performance assessment comparison between the proposed and existing firefly algorithms is carried using prevailing parameters such as objective function, standard deviation, peak-to-signal ratio (PSNR), structural similarity (SSIM) index, and search time of CPU. The results show that BD guided FA provides better objective function, PSNR, and SSIM, whereas LF based FA provides faster convergence with relatively lower CPU time. N. Sri Madhava Raja, V. Rajinikanth, and K. Latha Copyright © 2014 N. Sri Madhava Raja et al. All rights reserved. Wind Turbine Placement Optimization by means of the Monte Carlo Simulation Method Mon, 09 Jun 2014 05:44:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/760934/ This paper defines a new procedure for optimising wind farm turbine placement by means of Monte Carlo simulation method. To verify the algorithm’s accuracy, an experimental wind farm was tested in a wind tunnel. On the basis of experimental measurements, the error on wind farm power output was less than 4%. The optimization maximises the energy production criterion; wind turbines’ ground positions were used as independent variables. Moreover, the mathematical model takes into account annual wind intensities and directions and wind turbine interaction. The optimization of a wind farm on a real site was carried out using measured wind data, dominant wind direction, and intensity data as inputs to run the Monte Carlo simulations. There were 30 turbines in the wind park, each rated at 20 kW. This choice was based on wind farm economics. The site was proportionally divided into 100 square cells, taking into account a minimum windward and crosswind distance between the turbines. The results highlight that the dominant wind intensity factor tends to overestimate the annual energy production by about 8%. Thus, the proposed method leads to a more precise annual energy evaluation and to a more optimal placement of the wind turbines. S. Brusca, R. Lanzafame, and M. Messina Copyright © 2014 S. Brusca et al. All rights reserved. An Iterated Local Search Algorithm for Estimating the Parameters of the Gamma/Gompertz Distribution Thu, 05 Jun 2014 08:56:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/629693/ Extensive research has been devoted to the estimation of the parameters of frequently used distributions. However, little attention has been paid to estimation of parameters of Gamma/Gompertz distribution, which is often encountered in customer lifetime and mortality risks distribution literature. This distribution has three parameters. In this paper, we proposed an algorithm for estimating the parameters of Gamma/Gompertz distribution based on maximum likelihood estimation method. Iterated local search (ILS) is proposed to maximize likelihood function. Finally, the proposed approach is computationally tested using some numerical examples and results are analyzed. Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi Copyright © 2014 Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi. All rights reserved. Online Detection of Change on Information Streams in Wireless Sensor Network Modeled Using Gaussian Distribution Sun, 01 Jun 2014 08:36:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/658302/ Wireless sensor network (WSN) is deployed to monitor certain physical quantities in a region. This monitoring problem could be stated as the problem of detecting a change in the parameters of a static or dynamic stochastic system. A moving window procedure is proposed to detect the systematic error, which occurs at an unknown time. It can detect the deviation in the mean of sensor measurements keeping variance as constant. The performance measures, such as the average run length (ARL) to detection delay and false alarms are computed for various window sizes. The performance comparison is done against traditional cumulative sum (CUSUM) method. The detection of change in mean using CUSUM is done with smaller delay compared to the proposed moving window detection procedure. In order to calculate CUSUM statistics, the number of measurements to keep in sensor memory increases with time. However, in the proposed moving window detection procedure, the number of stored measurements is limited by the size of the window. Therefore, it is advantageous to use the moving window procedure for change detection in sensor nodes that have very limited memory. A high probability of detection is achieved at the cost of larger window size and higher detection delay. However, we are able to achieve the maximum probability of detection even at a window size of 11. B. Victoria Jancee and S. Radha Copyright © 2014 B. Victoria Jancee and S. Radha. All rights reserved. Numerical Survey of Contaminant Transport and Self-Cleansing of Water in Nador Lagoon, Morocco Tue, 27 May 2014 11:27:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/179504/ Numerical simulations are presented of the flow hydrodynamics and hypothetical contaminant dispersion patterns in Nador Lagoon, a shallow lagoon with a barrier island situated on the coast of Morocco. It is found that the natural circulation forced by the tidal flow in the lagoon is greatly affected by the development of an artificial inlet in the barrier island. The case study demonstrates the potential use of modern computational hydraulics as a tool integrated in the decision support system designed to manage a lagoon ecosystem. E. M. Chaabelasri, A. Amahmouj, M. Jeyar, A. G. L. Borthwick, N. Salhi, and I. Elmahi Copyright © 2014 E. M. Chaabelasri et al. All rights reserved. On Counting and Embedding a Subclass of Height-Balanced Trees Mon, 26 May 2014 08:35:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/748941/ A height-balanced tree is a rooted binary tree in which, for every vertex , the difference in the heights of the subtrees rooted at the left and right child of (called the balance factor of ) is at most one. In this paper, we consider height-balanced trees in which the balance factor of every vertex beyond a level is . We prove that there are such trees and embed them into a generalized join of hypercubes. Indhumathi Raman Copyright © 2014 Indhumathi Raman. All rights reserved. Analytic Model of Microcantilevers as Low Frequency Generator Sun, 25 May 2014 07:00:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/897315/ Finite element method (FEM) based simulation has been carried out, and an analytic model of microcantilevers using piezoelectric excitations is proposed. The model is based on the type of the selected material and geometry of the structure. The investigations are carried out with rectangular microcantilevers using silicon as the substrate. The high frequency analytic signals are applied to the input piezoelectric electrodes, and the resultant signal generated at the output piezoelectric electrode is recorded and analyzed. The analysis of the results showed that the proposed system is capable of generating a low frequency signal. Two microcantilevers with different dimensional aspects are used, and the results verified the application of microcantilever array as a low frequency signal generator. Sandeep Arya, Saleem Khan, and Parveen Lehana Copyright © 2014 Sandeep Arya et al. All rights reserved. Computation of Pressure Fields around a Two-Dimensional Circular Cylinder Using the Vortex-In-Cell and Penalization Methods Sun, 25 May 2014 05:54:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/708372/ The vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations allows purely kinematical problems to be decoupled from the pressure term, since the pressure is eliminated by applying the curl operator. The Vortex-In-Cell (VIC) method, which is based on the vorticity-velocity formulation, offers particle-mesh algorithms to numerically simulate flows past a solid body. The penalization method is used to enforce boundary conditions at a body surface with a decoupling between body boundaries and computational grids. Its main advantage is a highly efficient implementation for solid boundaries of arbitrary complexity on Cartesian grids. We present an efficient algorithm to numerically implement the vorticity-velocity-pressure formulation including a penalty term to simulate the pressure fields around a solid body. In vorticity-based methods, pressure field can be independently computed from the solution procedure for vorticity. This clearly simplifies the implementation and reduces the computational cost. Obtaining the pressure field at any fixed time represents the most challenging goal of this study. We validate the implementation by numerical simulations of an incompressible viscous flow around an impulsively started circular cylinder in a wide range of Reynolds numbers: Re , 550, 3000, and 9500. Seung-Jae Lee, Jun-Hyeok Lee, and Jung-Chun Suh Copyright © 2014 Seung-Jae Lee et al. All rights reserved. Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects Wed, 21 May 2014 08:51:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/635803/ Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resistance shows significant improvement as the channel length decreases. The effects of thermal noise including self-heating of the device are explored. Moreover, significant reduction in noise with respect to channel thermal resistance, gate length, and biasing is analyzed. P. Anandan, N. Malathi, and N. Mohankumar Copyright © 2014 P. Anandan et al. All rights reserved. Quaternion-Based Attitude Control System Design of Single and Cooperative Spacecrafts: Boundedness of Solution Approach Mon, 19 May 2014 06:49:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/652571/ It is well known that single equilibrium orientation point in matrix rotation is represented by two equilibrium points in quaternion. This fact would imply nonefficient control effort as well as problem in guaranteeing stability of the two equilibrium points in quaternion. This paper presents a solution to design quaternion-based spacecraft attitude control system whose saturation element is in its control law such that those problems are overcome. The proposed feature of methodology is the consideration on boundedness of solution in the control system design even in the presence of unknown external disturbance. The same methodology is also used to design cooperative spacecrafts attitude control system. Through the proposed method, the most relaxed information-state topology requirement is obtained, that is, the directed graph that contains a directed spanning tree. Some numerical simulations demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed feature of methodology. Harry Septanto, Riyanto T. Bambang, Arief Syaichu-Rohman, Ridanto Eko Poetro, and Adrianto Ravi Ibrahim Copyright © 2014 Harry Septanto et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Issues in Testing a Semiactive Technique to Control Earthquake Induced Vibration Wed, 14 May 2014 14:00:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/535434/ This work focuses on the issues to deal with when approaching experimental testing of structures equipped with semiactive control (SA) systems. It starts from practical experience authors gained in a recent wide campaign on a large scale steel frame structure provided with a control system based on magnetorheological dampers. The latter are special devices able to achieve a wide range of physical behaviours using low-power electrical currents. Experimental activities involving the use of controllable devices require special attention in solving specific aspects that characterize each of the three phases of the SA control loop: acquisition, processing, and command. Most of them are uncommon to any other type of structural testing. This paper emphasizes the importance of the experimental assessment of SA systems and shows how many problematic issues likely to happen in real applications are also present when testing these systems experimentally. This paper highlights several problematic aspects and illustrates how they can be addressed in order to achieve a more realistic evaluation of the effectiveness of SA control solutions. Undesired and unavoidable effects like delays and control malfunction are also remarked. A discussion on the way to reduce their incidence is also offered. Nicola Caterino, Mariacristina Spizzuoco, Julian M. Londoño, and Antonio Occhiuzzi Copyright © 2014 Nicola Caterino et al. All rights reserved. Electrical Discharge Machining of Al (6351)-5% SiC-10% B4C Hybrid Composite: A Grey Relational Approach Tue, 13 May 2014 13:00:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/426718/ The goal of the present experimental work is to optimize the electrical discharge machining (EDM) parameters of aluminum alloy (Al 6351) matrix reinforced with 5 wt.% silicon carbide (SiC) and 10 wt.% boron carbide (B4C) particles fabricated through the stir casting route. Multiresponse optimization was carried out through grey relational analysis (GRA) with an objective to minimize the machining characteristics, namely electrode wear ratio (EWR), surface roughness (SR) and power consumption (PC). The optimal combination of input parameters is identified, which shows the significant enhancement in process characteristics. Contributions of each machining parameter to the responses are calculated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result shows that the pulse current contributes more (83.94%) to affecting the combined output responses. S. Suresh Kumar, M. Uthayakumar, S. Thirumalai Kumaran, P. Parameswaran, and E. Mohandas Copyright © 2014 S. Suresh Kumar et al. All rights reserved. A New Coupled Fractional Reduced Differential Transform Method for the Numerical Solutions of -Dimensional Time Fractional Coupled Burger Equations Tue, 13 May 2014 09:04:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/960241/ A very new technique, coupled fractional reduced differential transform, has been implemented to obtain the numerical approximate solution of (2 + 1)-dimensional coupled time fractional burger equations. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. By using the present method we can solve many linear and nonlinear coupled fractional differential equations. The obtained results are compared with the exact solutions. Numerical solutions are presented graphically to show the reliability and efficiency of the method. S. Saha Ray Copyright © 2014 S. Saha Ray. All rights reserved. Thermal Boundary Layer in Flow due to an Exponentially Stretching Surface with an Exponentially Moving Free Stream Thu, 08 May 2014 07:55:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/785049/ A numerical investigation is made to study the thermal boundary layer for flow of incompressible Newtonian fluid over an exponentially stretching sheet with an exponentially moving free stream. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into self-similar ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations in exponential forms. Then those are solved numerically by shooting technique using Runge-Kutta method. The study reveals that the momentum boundary layer thickness for this flow is considerably smaller than the linear stagnation point flow past a linearly stretching sheet. The momentum and thermal boundary layer thicknesses reduce when the velocity ratio parameter increases. For the temperature distribution, in addition to the heat transfer from the sheet, the heat absorption at the sheet also occurs in certain situations and both heat transfer and absorption increase with the velocity ratio parameter and the Prandtl number. The temperature inside the boundary layer significantly decreases with higher values of velocity ratio parameter and the Prandtl number. Krishnendu Bhattacharyya and G. C. Layek Copyright © 2014 Krishnendu Bhattacharyya and G. C. Layek. All rights reserved. Performance Analysis of Dijkstra-Based Weighted Sum Minimization Routing Algorithm for Wireless Mesh Networks Tue, 06 May 2014 09:42:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/658408/ Multiobjective optimization methods for routing in static wireless mesh networks (WMNs), with more than one QoS measure to be optimized, are highly challenging. To optimize the performance for a given end-to-end route in a static network, the most common metrics that need to be optimized or bounded are the path capacity and the end-to-end delay. In this work, we focus on combining desirable properties of these two metrics by minimizing a weighted metrics sum via a Dijkstra-based algorithm. The approach is directed towards fast convergence rather than optimality. It is shown that the resulting algorithm provides more satisfactory results than simple Dijkstra-based pruning algorithms in terms of simultaneously achieving high capacity and small delay. The effect of changing the weighting factor on the proposed algorithm performance is investigated. Nuha A. S. Alwan Copyright © 2014 Nuha A. S. Alwan. All rights reserved. Mathematical Modeling of Moisture Sorption Isotherms and Determination of Isosteric Heats of Sorption of Ziziphus Leaves Sun, 27 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/427842/ Desorption and adsorption equilibrium moisture isotherms of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves were determined using the gravimetric-static method at 30, 40, and 50°C for water activity ranging from 0.057 to 0.898. At a given , the results show that the moisture content decreases with increasing temperature. A hysteresis effect was observed. The experimental data of sorption were fitted by eight models (GAB, BET, Henderson-Thompson, modified-Chung Pfost, Halsey, Oswin, Peleg, and Adam and Shove). After evaluating the models according to several criteria, the Peleg and Oswin models were found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The net isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves were calculated by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the sorption isotherms and an expression for predicting these thermodynamic properties was given. Amel Saad, Boumediene Touati, Belkacem Draoui, Boufeldja Tabti, Asma Abdenebi, and Said Benaceur Copyright © 2014 Amel Saad et al. All rights reserved. Fault Diagnosis of Batch Reactor Using Machine Learning Methods Tue, 22 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/426402/ Fault diagnosis of a batch reactor gives the early detection of fault and minimizes the risk of thermal runaway. It provides superior performance and helps to improve safety and consistency. It has become more vital in this technical era. In this paper, support vector machine (SVM) is used to estimate the heat release () of the batch reactor both normal and faulty conditions. The signature of the residual, which is obtained from the difference between nominal and estimated faulty values, characterizes the different natures of faults occurring in the batch reactor. Appropriate statistical and geometric features are extracted from the residual signature and the total numbers of features are reduced using SVM attribute selection filter and principle component analysis (PCA) techniques. artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers like multilayer perceptron (MLP), radial basis function (RBF), and Bayes net are used to classify the different types of faults from the reduced features. It is observed from the result of the comparative study that the proposed method for fault diagnosis with limited number of features extracted from only one estimated parameter () shows that it is more efficient and fast for diagnosing the typical faults. Sujatha Subramanian, Fathima Ghouse, and Pappa Natarajan Copyright © 2014 Sujatha Subramanian et al. All rights reserved. Interaction of Submerged Breakwater by a Solitary Wave Using WC-SPH Method Sun, 13 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/524824/ Interaction of a solitary wave and submerged breakwater is studied in a meshless, Lagrangian approach. For this purpose, a two-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code is developed. Furthermore, an extensive set of simulations is conducted. In the first step, the generated solitary wave is validated. Subsequently, the interaction of solitary wave and submerged breakwater is investigated thoroughly. Results of the interaction of solitary wave and a submerged breakwater are also shown to be in good agreement with published experimental studies. Afterwards, the effects of the inclination and length of breakwater as well as distance between two breakwaters are evaluated on damping ratio of breakwater. Afshin Mansouri and Babak Aminnejad Copyright © 2014 Afshin Mansouri and Babak Aminnejad. All rights reserved. Developing a Chaotic-Simulation Based Model for Ranking High Selected Network Links in Hazardous Material Transportation Mon, 07 Apr 2014 12:10:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/193280/ Hazardous material transportation is one of the main concerns due to the nature of hazardous materials and their incident impacts. In general, transport risk is a main attribute to develop mathematical models for hazardous material routing problem as well as network designing or improving road safety. This paper presents a chaotic-simulation based model to determine the high selected links to improve road network quality for hazardous material transportation, in which risk is considered as a chaotic variable over the network whereas a simulation technique has been applied to cover a wide range of selecting paths. A real road network, consists of fifty-nine nodes and eighty two-way edges, is used for running the mathematical model and checking validation. Due to the large amounts of hazardous material transported by trucks, the proposed methodology is focused on fuel transportation, and high selected list of edges (links) has been obtained to improve road safety. Sensitivity analysis revealed that using different seeds for generating transport risk has no significant effects on finding the most frequent paths and high selected edges. Abbas Mahmoudabadi Copyright © 2014 Abbas Mahmoudabadi. All rights reserved. Modeling of Unsteady Flow through the Canals by Semiexact Method Thu, 20 Feb 2014 09:23:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2014/495715/ The study of free-surface and pressurized water flows in channels has many interesting application, one of the most important being the modeling of the phenomena in the area of natural water systems (rivers, estuaries) as well as in that of man-made systems (canals, pipes). For the development of major river engineering projects, such as flood prevention and flood control, there is an essential need to have an instrument that be able to model and predict the consequences of any possible phenomenon on the environment and in particular the new hydraulic characteristics of the system. The basic equations expressing hydraulic principles were formulated in the 19th century by Barre de Saint Venant and Valentin Joseph Boussinesq. The original hydraulic model of the Saint Venant equations is written in the form of a system of two partial differential equations and it is derived under the assumption that the flow is one-dimensional, the cross-sectional velocity is uniform, the streamline curvature is small and the pressure distribution is hydrostatic. The St. Venant equations must be solved with continuity equation at the same time. Until now no analytical solution for Saint Venant equations is presented. In this paper the Saint Venant equations and continuity equation are solved with homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and comparison by explicit forward finite difference method (FDM). For decreasing the present error between HPM and FDM, the st.venant equations and continuity equation are solved by HAM. The homotopy analysis method (HAM) contains the auxiliary parameter ħ that allows us to adjust and control the convergence region of solution series. The study has highlighted the efficiency and capability of HAM in solving Saint Venant equations and modeling of unsteady flow through the rectangular canal that is the goal of this paper and other kinds of canals. Farshad Ehsani, Seyed Ghorban Hosseini, and Hossein Soury Copyright © 2014 Farshad Ehsani et al. All rights reserved.