Table 3: Neuroimaging of the spine in patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders in Malaysia.

Spinal cord findingsMS /%NMO/NMOSD /%

Mean cord lesion length at onset for all clinical types/VS
Mean cord lesion length in RRMS patients
Commonest site for cord involvement
 Cervical 42/104 (40.4)28/77 (36.4)
 Cervicothoracic24/104 (23.1)33/77 (42.9)
 Thoracic 6/104 (5.8) 8/77 (10.4)
 Thoracic and lumbar cord1/104 (1.0)1/77 (1.3)
 Cervical/thoracic/lumbar cord (interrupted segments)4/104 (3.8)
 Whole spine3/77 (3.9)
Location of the lesion
 Periphery of cord (lateral/posterolateral)68/104 (65.4)3/77 (3.9)
 Central gray matter9/104 (8.6)36/77 (46.8)
 Holocord 34/77 (44.2)
Length of cord lesions (vertebral segments-VS)
 1 VS or less13/104 (12.5)1/77 (1.3)
 >1 VS to ≤3 VS (Single patchy/well defined lesion)40/104 (38.5)
9/77 (11.7)
 >3 VS (multiple ill-defined patchy short segments between 1 to 3 VS)22/104 (21.2)
(multiple ill-defined patchy short segments between 1 and 3 VS coalescing together)
63/77 (81.8)
(longitudinally extensive or linear lesions with or without patchy interrupted segments)
Multiple well-defined short segments, <3 VS2/104 (1.9)0/77 (0)
No lesion20/104 (19.2)4/77 (5.2)
No scan done7/104 (6.7)
Cord atrophy
 Yes3/104/(2.8)
(all with disease >10 years progressive phase)
26/77 (33.8)
 No74/104/(71.2)47/77 (61.0)
T1 hypointensity
 Yes2/104 (1.9)17/77 (22.0)
 No75/104 (74.0)56/77 (72.7)
Cord edema
 Yes0/104 (0)24/77 (31.2)
 No77/104 (74.0)49/77 (63.6)

MS: multiple sclerosis; VS: vertebral-segments; RRMS: relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis; NMO: neuromyelitis optica; NMOSD: neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.