|Study||Method||Number of patients||Relevant findings|
|Calabrese et al. 2007 ||Cross sectional|
|116 CIS, 163 RRMS, 101 SPMS|
|Cortical lesions occur in greater numbers in SPMS than in CIS or RRMS.|
Cortical lesion numbers are correlated with EDSS.
|Calabrese et al. 2009 ||1 yr longitudinal|
|48 Benign MS|
|Benign MS patients have lower numbers of cortical lesions and lower cortical lesion volumes as compared to early RRMS, and do not accumulate a statistically significant number of new lesions over 1 year.|
|Roosendaal et al. 2009 ||3 yr longitudinal|
|9 RRMS, 4 SPMS|
|Cortical lesions increase significantly in MS patients over time and are associated with worse performance on neuropsychological measures.|
Cortical lesions are most frequent in SPMS.
|Calabrese et al. 2009 ||Cross sectional|
|70 RRMS ||Cortical lesion volume and number correlate with most, but not all, of the cognitive tests of Rao’s brief repeatable battery.|
Cortical lesion volume is an independent predictor of the cognitive impairment index.
|Calabrese et al. 2010 ||3 yr longitudinal |
|76 RRMS, 31 SPMS||Baseline cortical lesion volume best predicted disability progression (as measured by EDSS) over the follow-up period. |
|Mike et al. 2011 ||Cross sectional|
3T; 3D FLAIR & 3D IRSPGR
|20 RRMS, 6 SPMS||Cortical lesion number and volume independently predicted EDSS. |
Cortical lesion number and volume independently predicted performance measured by the Symbol Digit Modality Test.
Only cortical lesion number predicted performance measured by the California Verbal Learn Test.
|Nelson et al. 2011 ||Cross sectional|
|39 MS |
(Subtypes not specified)
|Leukocortical lesion numbers are independently correlated with cognitive impairment, while purely intracortical lesions are not independent contributors.|
The size of cortical lesions, not the tissue specific location, may better explain the correlation with cognitive impairment.
|Calabrese et al. 2012 ||3 yr longitudinal|
|32 RRMS with epilepsy, 60 RRMS without epilepsy||Cortical lesion number and volumes are larger in patients with epilepsy than those without. |
RRMS patients with epilepsy accumulate lesions at a faster rate than nonepileptic patients over 3 years.
|Calabrese et al. 2012 ||5 yr longitudinal|
|157 RRMS, 35 Pediatric MS, 45 Benign MS, 44 PPMS, 31 SPMS||Higher cortical lesion loads correlate with higher EDSS. |
Patients with clinical progression have the highest rate of cortical lesion accumulation.
Cortical lesion volumes are independent predictors of disability progression and cognitive impairment.