About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Neural Plasticity
Volume 2007 (2007), Article ID 10241, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2007/10241
Clinical Study

A Spiderless Arachnophobia Therapy: Comparison between Placebo and Treatment Groups and Six-Month Follow-Up Study

1Institute of Psychology, University of São Paulo, 1721 Avenue of Professor Mello Moraes, São Paulo 05508-030, Brazil
2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, 1524 Avenue Professor Lineu Prestes, Prédio Biomédicas I Cidade Universitária, São Paulo 05508-900, Brazil
3Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, Polytechnic School, University of São Paulo, 802 Rua Alameda Barros, Apartment T3, São Paulo 01232-000, Brazil

Received 28 January 2007; Accepted 2 May 2007

Academic Editor: Patrice Venault

Copyright © 2007 Laura Carmilo Granado et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (APA), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorderes, American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 1994.
  2. K. H. Bourdon, J. H. Boyd, D. S. Era, B. J. Burns, J. W. Thompson, and B. Z. Locke, “Gender differences in phobias: results of the ECA community survey,” Journal of Anxiety Disorders, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 227–241, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. I. M. Marks, “Tratamiento de exposición en la agoraphobia y el pánico,” in Avances en el tratamiento psicológico de los trastornos de ansiedad, E. Echeburua, Ed., Piramide, Madrid, Spain, 1992.
  4. L.-G. Ost, “One-session treatment for specific phobias,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. J. E. Hecker, “Emotional processing in the treatment of simple phobia: a comparison of imaginal and in vivo exposure,” Behavioural Psychotherapy, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 21–34, 1990.
  6. A. Garcia-Palacios, H. Hoffman, S. Kwong See, A. Tsai, and C. Botella, “Redefining therapeutic success with VR exposure therapy,” CyberPsychology and Behavior, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 341–348, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. A. Garcia-Palacios, H. Hoffman, A. Carlin, T. A. Furness III, and C. Botella, “Virtual reality in the treatment of spider phobia: a controlled study,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 983–993, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. L. J. Gilroy, K. C. Kirkby, B. A. Daniels, R. G. Menzies, and I. M. Montgomery, “Controlled comparison of computer-aided vicarious exposure versus live exposure in the treatment of spider phobia,” Behavior Therapy, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 733–744, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. L. J. Gilroy, K. C. Kirkby, B. A. Daniels, R. G. Menzies, and I. M. Montgomery, “Long-term follow-up of computer-aided vicarious exposure versus live graded exposure in the treatment of spider phobia,” Behavior Therapy, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 65–76, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. A. Öhman and J. J. F. Soares, “On the automatic nature of phobic fear: conditioned electrodermal responses to masked fear-relevant stimuli,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 121–132, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. A. Öhman and J. J. F. Soares, ““Unconscious anxiety”: phobic responses to masked stimuli,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 231–240, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. A. J. Pegna, A. Khateb, F. Lazeyras, and M. L. Seghier, “Discriminating emotional faces without primary visual cortices involves the right amygdala,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 24–25, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. J. S. Morris, B. DeGelder, L. Weiskrantz, and R. J. Dolan, “Differential extrageniculostriate and amygdala responses to presentation of emotional faces in a cortically blind field,” Brain, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 1241–1252, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. J. E. LeDoux, “Emotion, memory and the brain,” Scientific American, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 68–75, 1997, special issue: Mysteries of the Mind.
  15. V. Doyère, G. E. Schafe, T. Sigurdsson, and J. E. LeDoux, “Long-term potentiation in freely moving rats reveals asymmetries in thalamic and cortical inputs to the lateral amygdala,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2703–2715, 2003.
  16. M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, M. Gibbon, and J. Williams, “Structured clinical interview for DSM IV axis I disorders—patient edition (SCID-I/P, version 2.0. 9/98 revision),” Tech. Rep., Biometrics Research Department, New York State Research Institute, New York, NY, USA, 1998.
  17. P. J. Lang and A. D. Lazovick, “Experimental desensitization of a phobia,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 519–525, 1963. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. P. Lang, B. G. Melamed, and J. A. Hart, “A psychophysiological analysis of fear modification using an automated desensitization procedure,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 220–234, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. J. Wolpe, The Practice of Behavior Therapy, Pergamon Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1973.
  20. J. Szymanski and W. O'Donohue, “Fear of spiders questionnaire,” Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 31–34, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. J. F. Hair, R. E. Anderson, R. L. Tatham, and W. C. Black, “Multivariate analysis of variance,” in Multivariate Data Analysis, pp. 87–138, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 1998, chapter 3.
  22. A. M. Apergis-Schoute, J. Dębiec, V. Doyère, J. E. LeDoux, and G. E. Schafe, “Auditory fear conditioning and long-term potentiation in the lateral amygdala require ERK/MAP kinase signaling in the auditory thalamus: a role for presynaptic plasticity in the fear system,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 25, no. 24, pp. 5730–5739, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. S. J. Cruikshank, J.-M. Edeline, and N. M. Weinberger, “Stimulation at a site of auditory-somatosensory convergence in the medial geniculate nucleus is an effective unconditioned stimulus for fear conditioning,” Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 471–483, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. D. J. Veltman, W. E. Tuinebreijer, D. Winkelman, et al., “Neurophysiological correlates of habituation during exposure in spider phobia,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 149–158, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. V. Paquette, J. Lévesque, B. Mensour, et al., ““Change the mind and you change the brain”: effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the neural correlates of spider phobia,” NeuroImage, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 401–409, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. A. Artola and W. Singer, “Long-term depression of excitatory synaptic transmission and its relationship to long-term potentiation,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 480–487, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. M. F. Bear, B. W. Connors, and M. A. Paradiso, Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 2001.
  28. J. S. Morris, M. DeBonis, and R. J. Dolan, “Human amygdala responses to fearful eyes,” NeuroImage, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 214–222, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. M. De Bonis, P. De Boeck, F. Pérez-Díaz, and M. Nahas, “A two-process theory of facial perception of emotions,” Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie, vol. 322, no. 8, pp. 669–675, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. R. C. Lennartz and N. M. Weinberger, “Frequency-specific receptive field plasticity in the medial geniculate body induced by pavlovian fear conditioning is expressed in the anesthetized brain,” Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 484–497, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. J.-M. Edeline and N. M. Weinberger, “Associative retuning in the thalamic source of input to the amygdala and auditory cortex: receptive field plasticity in the medial division of the medial geniculate body,” Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 81–105, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. J. R. Peláez, “Plato's theory of ideas revisited,” Neural Networks, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1269–1288, 1997, special issue. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. J. R. Peláez, “Towards a neural network based therapy for hallucinatory disorders,” Neural Networks, vol. 13, no. 8-9, pp. 1047–1061, 2000, special issue. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. J. W. Crabtree and J. T. R. Isaac, “New intrathalamic pathways allowing modality-related and cross-modality switching in the dorsal thalamus,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 19, pp. 8754–8761, 2002.
  35. P. J. Whalen, S. L. Rauch, N. L. Etcoff, S. C. McInerney, B. M. Lee, and M. A. Jenike, “Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 411–418, 1998.
  36. S. N. Burke and C. A. Barnes, “Neural plasticity in the ageing brain,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 30–40, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. M. J. Friedman, S. Wang, J. E. Jalowiec, G. J. McHugo, and A. McDonagh-Coyle, “Thyroid hormone alterations among women with posttraumatic stress disorder due to childhood sexual abuse,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 1186–1192, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. J. E. LeDoux, The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY, USA, 1998.