Table 4: Effects of Seizures on CCCs.

ModelSpeciesAge at seizuresRegionEffectsRef.

Ictal changes

Kainic acidRatPN6-7HippocampusSwitch from hyperpolarizing to depolarizing EGABA [184]
Low Mg2+ seizuresMicePN5HippocampusBumetanide sensitive increase in [Cl-]i [150]

After seizures

Kainic acidRat (male)PN4-6Hippocampus (at least 4 days postictally)Increased KCC2; decreased NKCC1 activity; more hyperpolarizing EGABA [185]
Kainic acidRat (female)PN4-6Hippocampus (at least 4 days postictally)No change in KCC2; increased NKCC1 activity; more depolarizing EGABA [185]
Kainic acidRat (male)PN5-7Hippocampus (immediate postictal period)Increased surface expression of KCC2; hyperpolarizing shift of EGABA [171]