About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Neural Plasticity
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 197264, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/197264
Research Article

Cross-Modal Recruitment of Primary Visual Cortex by Auditory Stimuli in the Nonhuman Primate Brain: A Molecular Mapping Study

1Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 1B1
2School of Optometry, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T 1P1

Received 1 February 2012; Revised 17 April 2012; Accepted 7 May 2012

Academic Editor: Ron Kupers

Copyright © 2012 Priscilla Hirst et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. E. Stein and M. A. Meredith, The Merging of the Senses, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1993.
  2. B. E. Stein, M. A. Meredith, W. S. Huneycutt, and L. McDade, “Behavioral indices of multisensory integration: orientation to visual cues is affected by auditory stimuli,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 12–24, 1989. View at Scopus
  3. C. Cappe, A. Morel, P. Barone, and E. M. Rouiller, “The thalamocortical projection systems in primate: an anatomical support for multisensory and sensorimotor interplay,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 2025–2037, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. A. Hackett, L. A. De La Mothe, I. Ulbert, G. Karmos, J. Smiley, and C. E. Schroeder, “Multisensory convergence in auditory cortex, II. Thalamocortical connections of the caudal superior temporal plane,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 502, no. 6, pp. 924–952, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. Bremmer, A. Schlack, J. R. Duhamel, W. Graf, and G. R. Fink, “Space coding in primate posterior parietal cortex,” NeuroImage, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. S46–S51, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Nakashita, D. N. Saito, T. Kochiyama, M. Honda, H. C. Tanabe, and N. Sadato, “Tactile-visual integration in the posterior parietal cortex: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 513–525, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. S. Beauchamp, B. D. Argall, J. Bodurka, J. H. Duyn, and A. Martin, “Unraveling multisensory integration: patchy organization within human STS multisensory cortex,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1190–1192, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. S. Beauchamp, K. E. Lee, J. V. Haxby, and A. Martin, “Parallel visual motion processing streams for manipulable objects and human movements,” Neuron, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 149–159, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Noesselt, J. W. Rieger, M. A. Schoenfeld et al., “Audiovisual temporal correspondence modulates human multisensory superior temporal sulcus plus primary sensory cortices,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 27, no. 42, pp. 11431–11441, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. B. Banati, G. W. Goerres, C. Tjoa, J. P. Aggleton, and P. Grasby, “The functional anatomy of visual-tactile integration in man: a study using positron emission tomography,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 115–124, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. W. Lewis, M. S. Beauchamp, and E. A. Deyoe, “A comparison of visual and auditory motion processing in human cerebral cortex,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 873–888, 2000. View at Scopus
  12. J. A. Johnson and R. J. Zatorre, “Attention to simultaneous unrelated auditory and visual events: behavioral and neural correlates,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1609–1620, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. A. Johnson and R. J. Zatorre, “Neural substrates for dividing and focusing attention between simultaneous auditory and visual events,” NeuroImage, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1673–1681, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. S. O'Leary, R. I. Block, J. A. Koeppel et al., “Effects of smoking marijuana on brain perfusion and cognition,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 802–816, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. W. R. Woodruff, R. R. Benson, P. A. Bandettini et al., “Modulation of auditory and visual cortex by selective attention is modality-dependent,” NeuroReport, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 1909–1913, 1996. View at Scopus
  16. C. I. Petkov, X. Kang, K. Alho, O. Bertrand, E. W. Yund, and D. L. Woods, “Attentional modulation of human auditory cortex,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 658–663, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. Kawashima, B. T. O'Sullivan, and P. E. Roland, “Positron-emission tomography studies of cross-modality inhibition in selective attentional tasks: closing the “mind's eye”,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 92, no. 13, pp. 5969–5972, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. A. Calvert, “Crossmodal processing in the human brain: insights from functional neuroimaging studies,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1110–1123, 2001. View at Scopus
  19. R. Martuzzi, M. M. Murray, C. M. Michel et al., “Multisensory interactions within human primary cortices revealed by BOLD dynamics,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1672–1679, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Pekkola, V. Ojanen, T. Autti et al., “Primary auditory cortex activation by visual speech: an fMRI study at 3 T,” NeuroReport, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 125–128, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. C. Tanabe, M. Honda, and N. Sadato, “Functionally segregated neural substrates for arbitrary audiovisual paired-association learning,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 25, no. 27, pp. 6409–6418, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. K. Bizley, F. R. Nodal, V. M. Bajo, I. Nelken, and A. J. King, “Physiological and anatomical evidence for multisensory interactions in auditory cortex,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 2172–2189, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Kayser, C. I. Petkov, and N. K. Logothetis, “Visual modulation of neurons in auditory cortex,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 1560–1574, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Driver and T. Noesselt, “Multisensory interplay reveals crossmodal influences on “sensory-specific” brain regions, neural responses, and judgments,” Neuron, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 11–23, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. A. Ghazanfar and C. E. Schroeder, “Is neocortex essentially multisensory?” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 278–285, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. Senkowski, T. R. Schneider, J. J. Foxe, and A. K. Engel, “Crossmodal binding through neural coherence: implications for multisensory processing,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 401–409, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. Shams, Y. Kamitani, and S. Shimojo, “Illusions: what you see is what you hear,” Nature, vol. 408, no. 6814, p. 788, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Mishra, A. Martinez, and S. A. Hillyard, “Cortical processes underlying sound-induced flash fusion,” Brain Research, vol. 1242, pp. 102–115, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Mishra, A. Martinez, T. J. Sejnowski, and S. A. Hillyard, “Early cross-modal interactions in auditory and visual cortex underlie a sound-induced visual illusion,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 4120–4131, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Watkins, L. Shams, O. Josephs, and G. Rees, “Activity in human V1 follows multisensory perception,” NeuroImage, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 572–578, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Watkins, L. Shams, S. Tanaka, J. D. Haynes, and G. Rees, “Sound alters activity in human V1 in association with illusory visual perception,” NeuroImage, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 1247–1256, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. A. Calvert, E. T. Bullmore, M. J. Brammer et al., “Activation of auditory cortex during silent lipreading,” Science, vol. 276, no. 5312, pp. 593–596, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. Pekkola, V. Ojanen, T. Autti et al., “Primary auditory cortex activation by visual speech: an fMRI study at 3 T,” NeuroReport, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 125–128, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Besle, C. Fischer, A. Bidet-Caulet, F. Lecaignard, O. Bertrand, and M. H. Giard, “Visual activation and audiovisual interactions in the auditory cortex during speech perception: intracranial recordings in humans,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 28, no. 52, pp. 14301–14310, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. Van Atteveldt, E. Formisano, R. Goebel, and L. Blomert, “Integration of letters and speech sounds in the human brain,” Neuron, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 271–282, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. A. Ghazanfar, J. X. Maier, K. L. Hoffman, and N. K. Logothetis, “Multisensory integration of dynamic faces and voices in rhesus monkey auditory cortex,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 25, no. 20, pp. 5004–5012, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. von Kriegstein, A. Kleinschmidt, P. Sterzer, and A. L. Giraud, “Interaction of face and voice areas during speaker recognition,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 367–376, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. R. McIntosh, R. E. Cabeza, and N. J. Lobaugh, “Analysis of neural interactions explains the activation of occipital cortex by an auditory stimulus,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 2790–2796, 1998. View at Scopus
  39. M. Meyer, S. Baumann, S. Marchina, and L. Jancke, “Hemodynamic responses in human multisensory and auditory association cortex to purely visual stimulation,” BMC Neuroscience, vol. 8, article 14, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. Terleph and L. Tremere, “The use of immediate early genes as mapping tools for neuronal activation: concepts and methods,” in Immediate Early Genes in Sensory Processing, Cognitive Performance and Neurological Disorders, R. Pinaud and L. Tremere, Eds., pp. 1–10, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2009.
  41. S. Zangenehpour and A. Chaudhuri, “Differential induction and decay curves of c-fos and zif268 revealed through dual activity maps,” Molecular Brain Research, vol. 109, no. 1-2, pp. 221–225, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Chaudhuri, “Neural activity mapping with inducible transcription factors,” NeuroReport, vol. 8, no. 13, pp. 3–7, 1997. View at Scopus
  43. R. Farivar, S. Zangenehpour, and A. Chaudhuri, “Cellular-resolution activity mapping of the brain using immediate-early gene expression,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 9, pp. 104–109, 2004. View at Scopus
  44. R. K. Filipkowski, “Inducing gene expression in barrel cortex—focus on immediate early genes,” Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 411–418, 2000. View at Scopus
  45. J. F. Guzowski, “Insights into immediate-early gene function in hippocampal memory consolidation using antisense oligonucleotide and fluorescent imaging approaches,” Hippocampus, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 86–104, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. T. Herdegen and J. D. Leah, “Inducible and constitutive transcription factors in the mammalian nervous system: control of gene expression by Jun, Fos and Krox, and CREB/ATF proteins,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 370–490, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. Kaczmarek and A. Chaudhuri, “Sensory regulation of immediate-early gene expression in mammalian visual cortex: implications for functional mapping and neural plasticity,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 237–256, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. Farivar, S. Zangenehpour, and A. Chaudhuri, “Cellular-resolution activity mapping of the brain using immediate-early gene expression,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 9, pp. 104–109, 2004. View at Scopus
  49. S. Zangenehpour and A. Chaudhuri, “Patchy organization and asymmetric distribution of the neural correlates of face processing in monkey inferotemporal cortex,” Current Biology, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 993–1005, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Zangenehpour and R. J. Zatorre, “Crossmodal recruitment of primary visual cortex following brief exposure to bimodal audiovisual stimuli,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 591–600, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. P. Rauschecker and S. K. Scott, “Maps and streams in the auditory cortex: nonhuman primates illuminate human speech processing,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 718–724, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. L. M. Romanski and B. B. Averbeck, “The primate cortical auditory system and neural representation of conspecific vocalizations,” Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol. 32, pp. 315–346, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. Zangenehpour and A. Chaudhuri, “Neural activity profiles of the neocortex and superior colliculus after bimodal sensory stimulation,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 924–935, 2001. View at Scopus
  54. P. F. Worley, B. A. Christy, Y. Nakabeppu, R. V. Bhat, A. J. Cole, and J. M. Baraban, “Constitutive expression of zif268 in neocortex is regulated by synaptic activity,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 88, no. 12, pp. 5106–5110, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. Zangenehpour and A. Chaudhuri, “Neural activity profiles of the neocortex and superior colliculus after bimodal sensory stimulation,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 924–935, 2001. View at Scopus
  56. J. Besle, A. Fort, C. Delpuech, and M. H. Giard, “Bimodal speech: early suppressive visual effects in human auditory cortex,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 2225–2234, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. J. Foxe, I. A. Morocz, M. M. Murray, B. A. Higgins, D. C. Javitt, and C. E. Schroeder, “Multisensory auditory-somatosensory interactions in early cortical processing revealed by high-density electrical mapping,” Cognitive Brain Research, vol. 10, no. 1-2, pp. 77–83, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. H. Giard and F. Peronnet, “Auditory-visual integration during multimodal object recognition in humans: a behavioral and electrophysiological study,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 473–490, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. Molholm, W. Ritter, M. M. Murray, D. C. Javitt, C. E. Schroeder, and J. J. Foxe, “Multisensory auditory-visual interactions during early sensory processing in humans: a high-density electrical mapping study,” Cognitive Brain Research, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 115–128, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. V. van Wassenhove, K. W. Grant, and D. Poeppel, “Visual speech speeds up the neural processing of auditory speech,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 1181–1186, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. Gobbelé, M. Schürmann, N. Forss, K. Juottonen, H. Buchner, and R. Hari, “Activation of the human posterior parietal and temporoparietal cortices during audiotactile interaction,” NeuroImage, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 503–511, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. B. Lütkenhöner, C. Lammertmann, C. Simões, and R. Hari, “Magnetoencephalographic correlates of audiotactile interaction,” NeuroImage, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 509–522, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. Brosch, E. Selezneva, and H. Scheich, “Nonauditory events of a behavioral procedure activate auditory cortex of highly trained monkeys,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 25, no. 29, pp. 6797–6806, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. K. M. G. Fu, T. A. Johnston, A. S. Shah et al., “Auditory cortical neurons respond to somatosensory stimulation,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 23, no. 20, pp. 7510–7515, 2003. View at Scopus
  65. C. Kayser, C. I. Petkov, M. Augath, and N. K. Logothetis, “Integration of touch and sound in auditory cortex,” Neuron, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 373–384, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. C. E. Schroeder and J. J. Foxe, “The timing and laminar profile of converging inputs to multisensory areas of the macaque neocortex,” Cognitive Brain Research, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 187–198, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. C. E. Schroeder, R. W. Lindsley, C. Specht, A. Marcovici, J. F. Smiley, and D. C. Javitt, “Somatosensory input to auditory association cortex in the macaque monkey,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 1322–1327, 2001. View at Scopus
  68. F. Morrell, “Visual system's view of acoustic space,” Nature, vol. 238, no. 5358, pp. 44–46, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. Falchier, S. Clavagnier, P. Barone, and H. Kennedy, “Anatomical evidence of multimodal integration in primate striate cortex,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 13, pp. 5749–5759, 2002. View at Scopus
  70. K. S. Rockland and H. Ojima, “Multisensory convergence in calcarine visual areas in macaque monkey,” International Journal of Psychophysiology, vol. 50, no. 1-2, pp. 19–26, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. R. Gibson and J. H. R. Maunsell, “Sensory modality specificity of neural activity related to memory in visual cortex,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 1263–1275, 1997. View at Scopus
  72. A. Poremba, R. C. Saunder, A. M. Crane, M. Cook, L. Sokoloff, and M. Mishkin, “Functional mapping of the primate auditory system,” Science, vol. 299, no. 5606, pp. 568–572, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. K. H. Pribram, B. S. Rosner, and W. A. Rosenblith, “Electrical responses to acoustic clicks in monkey: extent of neocortex activated.,” Journal of neurophysiology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 336–344, 1954. View at Scopus
  74. A. Amedi, R. Malach, T. Hendler, S. Peled, and E. Zohary, “Visuo-haptic object-related activation in the ventral visual pathway,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 324–330, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. R. Blake, K. V. Sobel, and T. W. James, “Neural synergy between kinetic vision and touch,” Psychological Science, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 397–402, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. C. Hagen, O. Franzén, F. McGlone, G. Essick, C. Dancer, and J. V. Pardo, “Tactile motion activates the human middle temporal/V5 (MT/V5) complex,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 957–964, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. T. W. James, G. K. Humphrey, J. S. Gati, P. Servos, R. S. Menon, and M. A. Goodale, “Haptic study of three-dimensional objects activates extrastriate visual areas,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 1706–1714, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. P. Pietrini, M. L. Furey, E. Ricciardi et al., “Beyond sensory images: object-based representation in the human ventral pathway,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 15, pp. 5658–5663, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. K. Sathian and A. Zangaladze, “Feeling with the mind's eye: contribution of visual cortex to tactile perception,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 135, no. 1-2, pp. 127–132, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. Sur, P. E. Garraghty, and A. W. Roe, “Experimentally induced visual projections into auditory thalamus and cortex,” Science, vol. 242, no. 4884, pp. 1437–1441, 1988. View at Scopus
  81. D. O. Frost, “Orderly anomalous retinal projections to the medial geniculate, ventrobasal, and lateral posterior nuclei of the hamster,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 203, no. 2, pp. 227–256, 1981. View at Scopus
  82. D. O. Frost, D. Boire, G. Gingras, and M. Ptito, “Surgically created neural pathways mediate visual pattern discrimination,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 20, pp. 11068–11073, 2000. View at Scopus
  83. C. Büchel, C. Price, R. S. J. Frackowiak, and K. Friston, “Different activation patterns in the visual cortex of late and congenitally blind subjects,” Brain, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 409–419, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. H. Burton, A. Z. Snyder, T. E. Conturo, E. Akbudak, J. M. Ollinger, and M. E. Raichle, “Adaptive changes in early and late blind: a fMRI study of Braille reading,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 589–607, 2002. View at Scopus
  85. L. G. Cohen, R. A. Weeks, N. Sadato, et al., “Period of susceptibility for cross-modal plasticity in the blind,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 45, pp. 451–460, 1999.
  86. N. Sadato, A. Pascual-Leone, J. Grafman et al., “Activation of the primary visual cortex by Braille reading in blind subjects,” Nature, vol. 380, no. 6574, pp. 526–528, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. Ptito, S. M. Moesgaard, A. Gjedde, and R. Kupers, “Cross-modal plasticity revealed by electrotactile stimulation of the tongue in the congenitally blind,” Brain, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 606–614, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. R. Weeks, B. Horwitz, A. Aziz-Sultan et al., “A positron emission tomographic study of auditory localization in the congenitally blind,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 2664–2672, 2000. View at Scopus
  89. F. Gougoux, R. J. Zatorre, M. Lassonde, P. Voss, and F. Lepore, “A functional neuroimaging study of sound localization: visual cortex activity predicts performance in early-blind individuals,” PLoS Biology, vol. 3, no. 2, article e27, 2005. View at Scopus
  90. E. M. Finney, B. A. Clementz, G. Hickok, and K. R. Dobkins, “Visual stimuli activate auditory cortex in deaf subjects: evidence from MEG,” NeuroReport, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1425–1427, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. E. M. Finney, I. Fine, and K. R. Dobkins, “Visual stimuli activate auditory cortex in the deaf,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 1171–1173, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. L. A. Petitto, R. J. Zatorre, K. Gauna, E. J. Nikelski, D. Dostie, and A. C. Evans, “Speech-like cerebral activity in profoundly deaf people processing signed languages: implications for the neural basis of human language,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 25, pp. 13961–13966, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. S. Clavagnier, A. Falchier, and H. Kennedy, “Long-distance feedback projections to area V1: implications for multisensory integration, spatial awareness, and visual consciousness,” Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 117–126, 2004. View at Scopus
  94. B. Horwitz, J. M. Rumsey, and B. C. Donohue, “Functional connectivity of the angular gyrus in normal reading and dyslexia,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 15, pp. 8939–8944, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. C. Cappe and P. Barone, “Heteromodal connections supporting multisensory integration at low levels of cortical processing in the monkey,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2886–2902, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. J. F. Smiley, T. A. Hackett, I. Ulbert et al., “Multisensory convergence in auditory cortex, I. Cortical connections of the caudal superior temporal plane in macaque monkeys,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 502, no. 6, pp. 894–923, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. A. Amedi, G. Jacobson, T. Hendler, R. Malach, and E. Zohary, “Convergence of visual and tactile shape processing in the human lateral occipital complex zohary,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1202–1212, 2002. View at Scopus