Table 1: Demographic characteristics and cognitive status of the participant groups (Mini Mental State Examination, verbal IQ, forward and backward digit span, and Trail-Making Test A and B). Standard deviations are given in parentheses behind the mean values. There were no significant group differences as is indicated by the statistical analyses (last column).

GroupCognitive trainingNo-contact controlSocial control

Mean age70.5 years (4.3)69.7 years (4.5)70.9 (4.4)F(2, 102) = 1, P = .36
MMSE score28.8 (1.9)28.1 (1.9)28.5 (1.6)F(2, 102) = 1.4, P = .24
Verbal IQ (MWT-B)116 (11.5)118 (13.9)117 (11.7)
Forward digit repetition3.6 (0.6)3.7 (0.7)3.8 (0.8)
Backward digit repetition2.9 (0.6)2.8 (0.8)2.8 (0.7)
Trail-Making Test A35.4 sec (10.7)39.2 sec (12.3)36.4 sec (8.2) (2, 102) = 1.2,
Trail-Making Test B93.9 sec (24.5)96.3 sec (40.5)97.4 sec (36.3)