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Neural Plasticity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 196848, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/196848
Review Article

Breaking It Down: The Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Neuronal Morphogenesis

Center for Neuroscience, University of California Davis, 1544 Newton Court, Davis, CA 95618, USA

Received 12 October 2012; Accepted 31 December 2012

Academic Editor: Michel Baudry

Copyright © 2013 Andrew M. Hamilton and Karen Zito. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is most widely known for its role in intracellular protein degradation; however, in the decades since its discovery, ubiquitination has been associated with the regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes. The addition of ubiquitin tags, either as single moieties or as polyubiquitin chains, has been shown not only to mediate degradation by the proteasome and the lysosome, but also to modulate protein function, localization, and endocytosis. The UPS plays a particularly important role in neurons, where local synthesis and degradation work to balance synaptic protein levels at synapses distant from the cell body. In recent years, the UPS has come under increasing scrutiny in neurons, as elements of the UPS have been found to regulate such diverse neuronal functions as synaptic strength, homeostatic plasticity, axon guidance, and neurite outgrowth. Here we focus on recent advances detailing the roles of the UPS in regulating the morphogenesis of axons, dendrites, and dendritic spines, with an emphasis on E3 ubiquitin ligases and their identified regulatory targets.