Table 1: Examples of anti-inflammatory strategies effective in experimental stroke.

Target mediator in inflammatory cascadeTherapeutic interventionOutcomeLiterature examples

General inflammationMinocyclineAttenuation of ischemic deficits are inhibition of apoptotic neuronal cell death after MCAO. Better outcome from stroke in patients[5456, 78]
Intravenous immunoglobulin therapyElimination of mortality and reduction of brain damage after MCAO in mice[58, 59]

Complement inhibitionCobra venom factor (CVF)Reduced infarct and atrophy are improved clinical outcome[79, 80]
C1 inhibition: C1-INHNeuroprotection[81]
C3 inhibition: sCR1, C3 KOReduced infarct volume and neurological deficit score[82, 83]
C5 inhibition: C5 KOImprovement of functional outcome, reduced brain damage[58]

LeukocytesNeutrophil inhibitory factor Neuroprotection after focal ischemia in rats and reduction of the number of infiltrated neutrophils and infarct volume[84, 85]

Lymphocytes TSphingosine 1-phosphate receptor agonist FTY720 (Fingolimod)Reduction of infarct volume and cell death and improvement of neurological score after MCAO in rats[57, 86, 87]

ProstaglandinsCyclooxygenase pathway: IbuprofenRestoration of plasticity in visual and somatosensory cortex after photothrombotic stroke in mice without the neuroprotective effect [35, 36]
COX-2 KOReduction in the brain injury after MCAO in mice[88]

CytokinesIL-1:
IL-1 receptor antagonist Administration of human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist reduced damage caused by MCAO in rats[64, 66]
IL-1 KO70% reduction of infarct volume after MCAO[65, 89, 90]
IL-1R1 null mice reduced brain damage and increased neuronal survival after ligation of right common carotid artery in mice [91]
TNFα:
Anti-TNF antibodiesBlocking endogenous TNF-alpha reduced focal ischemic brain injury in mice and rats after MCAO[62, 92]
TNF decoy receptorReduction of stroke volume, neural deficits, extent of microglial cell activation, and apoptotic cell death after MCAO in mice[93, 94]
Soluble TNFα receptor (TNFbp)Reduction of infarct size after MCAO in mice[75]