Neurology Research International http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Apathy in Parkinson’s Disease: An Electrophysiological Study Mon, 07 Apr 2014 11:14:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/290513/ In Parkinson’s disease (PD), apathy (or loss of motivation) is frequent. Nevertheless, the contribution of attentional disorders to its genesis is still not clearly known. We want to determine the relation existing between apathy and attentional disorders by using P300a (or novelty P3) as a marker of the attentional process. The study included 25 patients (13 women and 12 men) with PD for whom we have determined the relationship between automatic attention (represented by P300a) and motor status, apathy, executive dysfunction, mental flexibility, inhibitory control, and depression/anxiety. We have found a correlation between the apathy score and amplitude of novelty P300 during the ON period and also a correlation of the apathy score with a decrease in amplitude of P300 during the OFF period. In a linear regression model, changes in the P300a predicted the severity of apathy independently of any other variable. We concluded firstly that the reduction in amplitude of the P300a wave was a neurophysiological marker of apathy in PD and secondly that apathy led to both dopaminergic denervation (mesolimbic) and nondopaminergic (dorsolateral prefrontal-subcortical) dysfunction. Stéphane Mathis, Jean-Philippe Neau, Claudette Pluchon, Marie-Noëlle Fargeau, Stéphane Karolewicz, Anna Iljicsov, and Roger Gil Copyright © 2014 Stéphane Mathis et al. All rights reserved. Cross-Cultural Validity, Reliability, and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson’s Disease-Psychosocial Questionnaire Mon, 07 Apr 2014 06:32:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/260684/ Objectives. Considering the influence of different motor and nonmotor features of Parkinson’s disease (PD), it is important to evaluate the psychosocial functioning of the patients. For this purpose, the scales for outcomes in Parkinson’s disease-psychosocial questionnaire (SCOPA-PS) has been previously designed. The aim of our study was to assess the cross-cultural validation and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the SCOPA-PS. Methods. One hundred and ten nondemented idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD) patients were consecutively recruited from an outpatient referral movement disorder clinic. Eligible patients filled up a number of questionnaires including the Persian version of SCOPA-PS during the face-to-face interview session and clinical examination to measure disease severity, nonmotor psychiatric symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Results. The highest and lowest correlation coefficients of internal consistency were reported for item 7 on “asking for help” and item 5 on “sexual problems” . Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient of the entire scale was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.83–0.90). The Hoehn and Yahr stage , Schwab and England ADL scale , anxiety , depression , and fatigue were significantly correlated with the total score of the SCOPA-PS questionnaire. Conclusions. The Persian version of SCOPA-PS is a highly reliable and valid scale to measure psychosocial functioning in IPD patients with different sex, age-group, and educational level, which could be applied in future researches. Disease severity scales, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and different domains of HRQoL were all associated with psychosocial functioning in PD patients. Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Farzaneh Farhadi, Hasti Hadizadeh, Gholam Ali Shahidi, Ahmad Delbari, and Johan Lökk Copyright © 2014 Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad et al. All rights reserved. Four-Quadrant Facial Function in Dysphagic Patients after Stroke and in Healthy Controls Tue, 04 Mar 2014 12:01:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/672685/ This study aims to examine any motility disturbance in any quadrant of the face other than the quadrant innervated by the lower facial nerve contralateral to the cortical lesion after stroke. Thirty-one stroke-afflicted patients with subjective dysphagia, consecutively referred to a swallowing centre, were investigated with a facial activity test (FAT) in all four facial quadrants and with a swallowing capacity test (SCT). Fifteen healthy adult participants served as FAT controls. Sixteen patients were judged to have a central facial palsy (FP) according to the referring physician, but all 31 patients had a pathological FAT in the lower quadrant contralateral to the cortical lesion. Simultaneous pathology in all four quadrants was observed in 52% of stroke-afflicted patients with dysphagia; some pathology in the left or right upper quadrant was observed in 74%. Dysfunction in multiple facial quadrants was independent of the time interval between stroke and study inclusion. All patients except two had a pathological SCT. All the controls had normal activity in all facial quadrants. In summary the majority of poststroke patients with dysphagia have subclinical orofacial motor dysfunction in three or four facial quadrants as assessed with a FAT. However, whether subclinical orofacial motor dysfunction can be present in stroke-afflicted patients without dysphagia is unknown. Mary Hägg and Lita Tibbling Copyright © 2014 Mary Hägg and Lita Tibbling. All rights reserved. Treatment Expenditure Pattern of Epileptic Patients: A Study from a Tertiary Care Hospital, Kolkata, India Mon, 24 Feb 2014 08:59:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/869572/ Introduction. Neurological diseases are very important causes of prolonged morbidity and disability leading to profound financial loss. Epilepsy is one of the most important neurological disorders. It being a cost intensive disorder poses a significant economic burden to the country. Aims and Objectives. The study was conducted among the persons with epilepsy (PWE) to assess their expenditure pattern for epilepsy treatment and its rural urban difference. Materials and Methods. 315 PWE selected by systematic random sampling and their caregivers were interviewed with the predesigned, pretested semistructured proforma. Subsequently data were compiled and analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software. Results and Conclusion. Majority of the study population were in the age group of 16–30 years. Majority belonged to classes IV and V of Prasad socioeconomic status scale. Average total expenditure per month for treatment of epilepsy was 219 INR, mainly contributed by drugs, travel, investigations, and so forth. Rural population was having higher treatment expenditure for epilepsy specially for travel and food and lodging in order to get epilepsy treatment. Wage loss in the last three months was present in 42.86% study subjects which was both affected by seizure episodes and travel for visits. Better district care would have helped in this situation. Abhik Sinha and Dulal K. Bhaumik Copyright © 2014 Abhik Sinha and Dulal K. Bhaumik. All rights reserved. Comparative Neuroprotective Effects of Dexamethasone and Minocycline during Hepatic Encephalopathy Mon, 17 Feb 2014 10:10:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/254683/ Objective. Encephalopathy and brain edema are serious complications of acute liver injury and may lead to rapid death of patients. The present study was designed to investigate the role of the inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in the cytotoxic brain oedema and the neuroprotective effects of both minocycline and dexamethasone. Methods. 48 male albino rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, acute liver injury (ALI) group, minocycline pretreated ALI group, and dexamethasone pretreated ALI group. 24 hours after acute liver injury serum ammonia, liver enzymes, brain levels of heme oxygenase-1 gene, iNOS gene expression, nitrite/nitrate, and cytokines were measured. In addition, the grades of encephalopathy and brain water content were assessed. Results. ALI was associated with significant increases in all measured inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress, iNOS gene expression, and nitrite/nitrate. Both minocycline and dexamethasone significantly modulated the inflammatory changes and the oxidative/nitrosative stress associated with ALI. However, only minocycline but not dexamethasone significantly reduced the cytotoxic brain oedema. Conclusion. Both minocycline and dexamethasone could modulate inflammatory and oxidative changes observed in brain after ALI and could be novel preventative therapy for hepatic encephalopathy episodes. Maha Gamal, Zainab Abdel Wahab, Mohamed Eshra, Laila Rashed, and Nivin Sharawy Copyright © 2014 Maha Gamal et al. All rights reserved. Enhancing Spatial Memory: Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Effects of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (DC) Danser in Mice Wed, 05 Feb 2014 14:18:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/974308/ We evaluated the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the aqueous extract of the bark of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (TAE) (Danser) (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), using open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Effect of TAE was compared to standard drugs diazepam (2 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 mg/kg). Additionally, the same doses of TAE were evaluated on rat's memory using Y-maze task. Results showed a significant (; 100 mg/kg) increase in the percentage of open arm entry and the time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus maze, suggesting an anxiolytic activity of the extract. In a dose-dependant manner, TAE at 25 mg/kg significantly () decreased the number of lines crossed and the rearing behavior in the open field test, suggesting its possible sedative activity. In the forced swimming test, the immobility time of the animal was significantly reduced () by TAE (100 mg/kg), compared to control, and this effect was quite comparable to that of imipramine. In the Y-maze paradigm, TAE at 50 mg/kg caused a significant increase in the spontaneous alternations but with a significant decrease in exploratory behavioral pattern. Taking these results together, TAE improved the spatial memory and showed anxiolytic, antidepressant, and sedative activities. The present results support the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of TAE and, to our knowledge, for the first time, demonstrate its enhancing effect on memory. Foyet Harquin Simplice, Tsala David Emery, and Ngatanko Abaissou Hervé Hervé Copyright © 2014 Foyet Harquin Simplice et al. All rights reserved. Does Duration of Preoperative Sciatica Impact Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation? Tue, 28 Jan 2014 08:53:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/565189/ Background. In lumbar disc herniation, most authors recommend nonoperative treatment for the first few weeks of presentation, but what about the upper limit of this golden period? The aim of this study is to assess the effect of preoperative sciatica duration on surgical outcome of lumbar disc herniation. Methods. We retrospectively evaluated 240 patients (124 males and 116 females) with a mean age of years (range 16 to 63) surgically treated due to primary stable L4-L5 disc herniation. The patients were placed into two groups: with more and less than 12-month duration of preoperative sciatalgia. Disability and pain were measured by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Wilcoxon test and Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis. Results. Total mean duration of preoperative sciatalgia and follow-up period were 13.3 months (range 2 to 65) and months (range 24 to 72), respectively. Comparison between the groups showed that duration of preoperative sciatalgia either less or more than 12 months did not affect the surgical outcomes significantly. Conclusions. More or less than 12-month duration of preoperative sciatalgia may not affect the surgical outcomes of simple lumbar disc herniation in the patients undergoing discectomy. Farzad Omidi-Kashani, Ebrahim Ghayem Hasankhani, Amir Reza Kachooei, Mohammad Dawood Rahimi, and Reza Khanzadeh Copyright © 2014 Farzad Omidi-Kashani et al. All rights reserved. Coronary Spasm in Neurosurgical Patients and Role of Trigeminocardiac Reflex Mon, 27 Jan 2014 07:24:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/974930/ Background. Coronary artery spasm (CAS) is a rarely reported complication in neurosurgical patients and its main causative mechanism was attributed to vagal mediated responses. However, these may be the unusual manifestations of trigeminal cardiac reflex (TCR) which is a well established brain stem reflex observed in various neurosurgical patients. Methods and Results. In this review, we have searched for the case reports/papers related to intraoperative coronary spasm in neurosurgical patients and described the role of TCR in this regard. TCR is a possible mechanism in producing CAS in most of the cases in which stimulation occurred at or near the vicinity of trigeminal nerve. It is likely that TCR mediated coronary spasm may be a physiological mechanism and not related to actual myocardial insult apparent by cardiac enzymes or echocardiography studies in most of the cases. Some common risk factors may also exist related to occurrence of CAS as well as TCR. Conclusions. In conclusion, neurosurgical procedures occurring at the vicinity of trigeminal nerve may produce CAS even in previously healthy patients and may produce catastrophic consequences. There is a need for future reports and experimental studies on the interaction of TCR and pathophysiological mechanisms related to CAS. Tumul Chowdhury, Cyrill Meuwly, Nora Sandu, Ronald B. Cappellani, and Bernhard Schaller Copyright © 2014 Tumul Chowdhury et al. All rights reserved. Improved Outcomes with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Combined with Temozolomide for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme Sun, 19 Jan 2014 11:45:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/945620/ Purpose. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is optimally treated by maximal debulking followed by combined chemoradiation. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is gaining widespread acceptance in other tumour sites, although evidence to support its use over three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) in the treatment of gliomas is currently lacking. We examined the survival outcomes for patients with GBM treated with IMRT and Temozolomide. Methods and Materials. In all, 31 patients with GBM were treated with IMRT and 23 of these received chemoradiation with Temozolomide. We correlated survival outcomes with patient functional status, extent of surgery, radiation dose, and use of chemotherapy. Results. Median survival for all patients was 11.3 months, with a median survival of 7.2 months for patients receiving 40.05 Gray (Gy) and a median survival of 17.4 months for patients receiving 60 Gy. Conclusions. We report one of the few series of IMRT in patients with GBM. In our group, median survival for those receiving 60 Gy with Temozolomide compared favourably to the combined therapy arm of the largest randomised trial of chemoradiation versus radiation to date (17.4 months versus 14.6 months). We propose that IMRT should be considered as an alternative to 3DCRT for patients with GBM. Noel J. Aherne, Linus C. Benjamin, Patrick J. Horsley, Thomaz Silva, Shea Wilcox, Julan Amalaseelan, Patrick Dwyer, Abdul M. R. Tahir, Jacques Hill, Andrew Last, Carmen Hansen, Craig S. McLachlan, Yvonne L. Lee, Michael J. McKay, and Thomas P. Shakespeare Copyright © 2014 Noel J. Aherne et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Chronic Morphine Consumption on Synaptic Plasticity of Rat’s Hippocampus: A Transmission Electron Microscopy Study Thu, 28 Nov 2013 18:26:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/290414/ It is well known that the synapses undergo some changes in the brain during the course of normal life and under certain pathological or experimental circumstances. One of the main goals of numerous researchers has been to find the reasons for these structural changes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic morphine consumption on synaptic plasticity, postsynaptic density thickness, and synaptic curvatures of hippocampus CA1 area of rats. So for reaching these goals, 24 N-Mary male rats were randomly divided into three groups, morphine (), placebo (), and control () groups. In the morphine group, complex of morphine (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4) mg/mL and in the placebo (sucrose) group complex of sucrose (% 0.3) were used for 21 days. After the end of drug treatment the animals were scarified and perfused intracardinally and finally the CA1 hippocampal samples were taken for ultrastructural studies, and then the obtained data were analyzed by SPSS and one-way analysis of variance. Our data indicated that synaptic numbers per nm3 change significantly in morphine group compared to the other two groups (placebo and control) () and also statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between groups in terms of thickness of postsynaptic density () and synaptic curvature (). It seems that morphine dependence in rats plays a main role in the ultrastructural changes of hippocampus. Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Abdollah Amini, Zohreh Bahrami, Ali Shahriari, Abolfazle Movafag, and Reihane Heidari Copyright © 2013 Mohammad Hassan Heidari et al. All rights reserved. Cognitive Functions across the GNB3 C825T Polymorphism in an Elderly Italian Population Tue, 22 Oct 2013 17:36:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/597034/ To verify whether the C825T polymorphism of the GNB3 influences the response to neuropsychological tests, mini-mental state examination, digit span (DS), immediate and delayed prose memory, memory with interference at 10 and 30 seconds (MI 10 and 30), trail making tests (TMTs) A and B, abstraction task, verbal fluency (VF) test, figure drawing and copying, overlapping figures test and clock test were performed in 220 elderly men and women free from clinical dementia and from neurological and psychiatric diseases randomly taken from the Italian general population and analysed across the C825T polymorphism. The performance of DS, immediate and delayed prose memory, VF, and TMTs was worse in subjects who were TT for the polymorphism in comparison to the C-carriers. The performance of all tests declined with age. In the case of DS, immediate and delayed prose memory, MI 10 and VF, this trend was maintained in the C-carriers but not in TT. In the case of prose memory, of memory with interference, and of VF, schooling reduced the detrimental interaction between age and genotype. The C825T polymorphism of GNB3 gene therefore influences memory and verbal fluency, being additive to the effects of age and partially mitigated by schooling. Edoardo Casiglia, Nunzia Giordano, Valérie Tikhonoff, Giovanni Boschetti, Alberto Mazza, Sandro Caffi, Federica Guidotti, and Patrizia Bisiacchi Copyright © 2013 Edoardo Casiglia et al. All rights reserved. Current Controversies in the Prediction, Diagnosis, and Management of Cerebral Vasospasm: Where Do We Stand? Tue, 08 Oct 2013 09:39:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/373458/ Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs in approximately 30,000 persons in the United States each year. Around 30 percent of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage suffer from cerebral ischemia and infarction due to cerebral vasospasm, a leading cause of treatable death and disability following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods used to predict, diagnose, and manage vasospasm are the topic of recent active research. This paper utilizes a comprehensive review of the recent literature to address controversies surrounding these topics. Evidence regarding the effect of age, smoking, and cocaine use on the incidence and outcome of vasospasm is reviewed. The abilities of different computed tomography grading schemes to predict vasospasm in the aftermath of subarachnoid hemorrhage are presented. Additionally, the utility of different diagnostic methods for the detection and visualization of vasospasm, including transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, digital subtraction angiography, and CT perfusion imaging is discussed. Finally, the recent literature regarding interventions for the prophylaxis and treatment of vasospasm, including hyperdynamic therapy, albumin, calcium channel agonists, statins, magnesium sulfate, and endothelin antagonists is summarized. Recent studies regarding each topic were reviewed for consensus recommendations from the literature, which were then presented. Young Lee, Scott L. Zuckerman, and J. Mocco Copyright © 2013 Young Lee et al. All rights reserved. Optic Neuritis as Isolated Manifestation of Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis: A Case Report and Systematic Review of Ocular Manifestations of Neoplastic Meningitis Mon, 07 Oct 2013 15:43:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/892523/ Introduction. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in about 5% of cancer patients. Ocular involvement is a common clinical manifestation and often the presenting clinical feature. Materials and Methods. We report the case of a 52-year old lady with optic neuritis as isolated manifestation of neoplastic meningitis and a review of ocular involvement in neoplastic meningitis. Ocular symptoms were the presenting clinical feature in 34 patients (83%) out of 41 included in our review, the unique manifestation of meningeal carcinomatosis in 3 patients (7%). Visual loss was the presenting clinical manifestation in 17 patients (50%) and was the most common ocular symptom (70%). Other ocular signs were diplopia, ptosis, papilledema, anisocoria, exophthalmos, orbital pain, scotomas, hemianopsia, and nystagmus. Associated clinical symptoms were headache, altered consciousness, meningism, limb weakness, ataxia, dizziness, seizures, and other cranial nerves involvement. All patients except five underwent CSF examination which was normal in 1 patient, pleocytosis was found in 11 patients, increased protein levels were observed in 16 patients, and decreased glucose levels were found in 8 patients. Cytology was positive in 29 patients (76%). Conclusion. Meningeal carcinomatosis should be considered in patients with ocular symptoms even in the absence of other suggestive clinical symptoms. Silvia Lanfranconi, Paola Basilico, Ilaria Trezzi, Linda Borellini, Giulia Franco, Vittorio Civelli, Francesco Pallotti, Nereo Bresolin, and Pierluigi Baron Copyright © 2013 Silvia Lanfranconi et al. All rights reserved. Variation in Functional Independence among Stroke Survivors Having Fatigue and Depression Wed, 11 Sep 2013 15:17:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/842980/ Objective. This study evaluated variation in functional independence in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) among individuals with poststroke fatigue (PSF) and poststroke depression (PSD). Methods. A cross-sectional survey involved 65 consenting poststroke survivors who were purposively recruited from physiotherapy clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Adeoyo Maternity Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, and Federal Medical Center, Gusau. Participants were assessed for symptoms of PSD with short geriatric depression scale-15, PSF with fatigue severity scale, ADL with Barthel Index and IADL with Nottingham extended ADL scale. Data analysis was done using Chi-square and unpaired -test with significance level being 0.05. Results. Participants’ age ranged from 58 to 80 years. PSD alone () and both PSF and PSD () were significantly associated with ADL, while PSF alone was not (). PSD alone () and both PSF and PSD () significantly negatively affected IADL, while PSF alone had no significant effect (). Conclusions. Participants with PSD alone and those with both PSF and PSD had lower functional independence in ADL and IADL. Umaru Muhammad Badaru, Omoyemi Olubunmi Ogwumike, Ade Fatai Adeniyi, and Olajide Olubanji Olowe Copyright © 2013 Umaru Muhammad Badaru et al. All rights reserved. Female Gender Remains an Independent Risk Factor for Poor Outcome after Acute Nontraumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage Thu, 05 Sep 2013 08:36:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/219097/ Objective. To study whether gender influences outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods. Cohort study of 245 consecutive adults presenting to the emergency department with spontaneous ICH from January 2006 to December 2008. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, extradural hemorrhage, and recurrence of hemorrhage were excluded. Results. There were no differences noted between genders in stroke severity (NIHSS) at presentation, ICH volume, or intraventricular extension (IVE) of hemorrhage. Despite this, females had 1.94 times higher odds of having a bad outcome (modified Rankin score (mRs) ) as compared to males (95% CI 1.12 to 3.3) and 1.84 times higher odds of early mortality (95% CI 1.02–3.33). analyzing known variables influencing mortality in ICH, the authors found that females did have higher serum glucose levels on arrival () and 4.2 times higher odds for a cerebellar involvement than males (95% CI 1.63–10.75). After adjusting for age, NIHSS, glucose levels, hemorrhage volume, and IVE, female gender remained an independent predictor of early mortality (). Conclusions. Female gender may be an independent predictor of early mortality in ICH patients, even after adjustment for stroke severity, hemorrhage volume, IVE, serum glucose levels, and age. Latha Ganti, Anunaya Jain, Neeraja Yerragondu, Minal Jain, M. Fernanda Bellolio, Rachel M. Gilmore, and Alejandro Rabinstein Copyright © 2013 Latha Ganti et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Methodology of an International Study of People with Multiple Sclerosis Recruited through Web 2.0 Platforms: Demographics, Lifestyle, and Disease Characteristics” Tue, 27 Aug 2013 14:52:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/129417/ Emily J. Hadgkiss, George A. Jelinek, Tracey J. Weiland, Naresh G. Pereira, Claudia H. Marck, and Dania M. van der Meer Copyright © 2013 Emily J. Hadgkiss et al. All rights reserved. The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Episodic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Do Episodic Memory Deficits Identified at Classification Remain Evident When Later Examined with Different Memory Tests? Mon, 26 Aug 2013 09:51:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/437013/ Previous studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have been criticised for using the same battery of neuropsychological tests during classification and longitudinal followup. The key concern is that there is a potential circularity when the same tests are used to identify MCI and then subsequently monitor change in function over time. The aim of the present study was to examine the evidence of this potential circularity problem. The present study assessed the memory function of 72 MCI participants and 50 healthy controls using an alternate battery of visual and verbal episodic memory tests 9 months following initial comprehensive screening assessment and MCI classification. Individuals who were classified as multiple-domain amnestic MCI (a-MCI+) at screening show a significantly reduced performance in visual and verbal memory function at followup using a completely different battery of valid and reliable tests. Consistent with their initial classification, those identified as nonamnestic MCI (na-MCI) or control at screening demonstrated the highest performance across the memory tasks. The results of the present study indicate that persistent memory deficits remain evident in amnestic MCI subgroups using alternate memory tests, suggesting that the concerns regarding potential circularity of logic may be overstated in MCI research. Shannon Zofia Klekociuk and Mathew James Summers Copyright © 2013 Shannon Zofia Klekociuk and Mathew James Summers. All rights reserved. Inflammation, Cerebral Vasospasm, and Evolving Theories of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia Thu, 22 Aug 2013 11:29:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/506584/ Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is a potentially lethal complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Recently, the symptomatic presentation of CVS has been termed delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), occurring as early as 3-4 days after the sentinel bleed. For the past 5-6 decades, scientific research has promulgated the theory that cerebral vasospasm plays a primary role in the pathology of DCI and subsequently delayed ischemic neurological decline (DIND). Approximately 70% of patients develop CVS after aSAH with 50% long-term morbidity rates. The exact etiology of CVS is unknown; however, a well-described theory involves an antecedent inflammatory cascade with alterations of intracellular calcium dynamics and nitric oxide fluxes, though the intricacies of this inflammatory theory are currently unknown. Consequently, there have been few advances in the clinical treatment of this patient cohort, and morbidity remains high. Identification of intermediaries in the inflammatory cascade can provide insight into newer clinical interventions in the prevention and management of cerebral vasospasm and will hopefully prevent neurological decline. In this review, we discuss current theories implicating the inflammatory cascade in the development of CVS and potential treatment targets. Kevin R. Carr, Scott L. Zuckerman, and J Mocco Copyright © 2013 Kevin R. Carr et al. All rights reserved. Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Artery Dissection: Clinical and Angiographic Follow-Up Mon, 22 Jul 2013 09:24:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/968380/ Background. Intracranial artery dissections are rare and many controversies exist about treatment options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the endovascular approach in patients with an intracranial dissection presenting with different symptoms. Methods. We prospectively evaluated the clinical features and treatment outcomes of 30 patients who had angiographically confirmed nontraumatic intracranial dissections over 4 years. Patients were followed up for 17 months, and their final outcomes were assessed by the modified Rankin Score (mRS) and angiography. Results. Sixteen (53.3%) patients had a dissection of the anterior circulation, whereas 14 (46.7%) had a posterior circulation dissection. Overall, 83.3% of the patients suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Grade IV Hunt and Hess score was seen in 32% of the SAH presenting cases. Parent artery occlusion (PAO) with coil embolization was used in 70% of the cases. The prevalence of overall procedural complications was 23.3%, and all were completely resolved at the end of follow-up. No evidence of in-stent occlusion/stenosis or rebleeding was observed in our cases during follow-up. Angiography results improved more frequently in the PAO with coil embolization group (100%) than in the stent-only-treated group (88.9%) () and the unruptured dissection group (5/5, 100%) in comparison with the group that presented with SAH (95.8%) (). Conclusion. Favorable outcomes were achieved following an endovascular approach for symptomatic ruptured or unruptured dissecting aneurysms. However, the long-term efficacy and durability of these procedures remain to be determined in a larger series. Reza Mohammadian, Ali Akbar Taheraghdam, Ehsan Sharifipour, Reza Mansourizadeh, Ali Pashapour, Mohammad Shimia, Ghaffar Shokouhi, Moslem shakeri, and Ali Hashemzadeh Copyright © 2013 Reza Mohammadian et al. All rights reserved. Preoperative High-Dose Steroid Has Long-Term Beneficial Effects for Myasthenia Gravis Sun, 14 Jul 2013 12:56:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/709480/ Previous studies addressing preoperative steroid treatment have revealed that control of myasthenia gravis (MG) with steroids prior to surgery appeared to stabilize postoperative status. The purpose of our study was to clarify the clinical benefits of the preoperative programmed high-dose steroid treatment on the long-term outcomes of MG patients. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 171 MG patients who were followed up after undergoing thymectomy in our hospital between 1988 and 2006. One hundred and thirteen patients in the programmed treatment group had received preoperative steroid treatment, while 58 patients received no steroid treatment during the preoperative period. Clinical remission, which was defined as the achievement of the modified pharmacologic remission (PR) for at least 1 year, and clinical benefits were compared between the two groups. With regard to the remission after thymectomy, Kaplan-Meier life-table curves for patients in the preoperative steroid treatment group versus those for patients in the no steroid preoperative treatment group revealed a significantly higher probability of the PR in the preoperative steroid treatment group (log-rank test, ). This study might be the first, as per our knowledge, to indicate that preoperative programmed high-dose steroid treatment has long-term beneficial effects for MG patients. Syuichi Tetsuka, Ken-ichi Fujimoto, and Kunihiko Ikeguchi Copyright © 2013 Syuichi Tetsuka et al. All rights reserved. Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease: A Review of Current Concepts Mon, 01 Jul 2013 10:48:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/576091/ Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease (PD-MCI) is common and may be associated with accelerated progression to dementia. Considering the importance of this emerging entity, new diagnostic criteria have recently been proposed. Early recognition and accurate classification of PD-MCI could offer opportunities for novel therapeutic interventions. This review discusses current definitions for PD-MCI, the screening tools used, the pattern of cognitive deficits observed, and the predictors of cognitive decline and transition to Parkinson’s Disease Dementia. Emerging biomarkers, which may aid diagnosis, are also explored and the role of novel treatment options is considered. Natalie C. Palavra, Sharon L. Naismith, and Simon J. G. Lewis Copyright © 2013 Natalie C. Palavra et al. All rights reserved. Nitric Oxide in Cerebral Vasospasm: Theories, Measurement, and Treatment Tue, 25 Jun 2013 18:25:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/972417/ In recent decades, a large body of research has focused on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the development of cerebral vasospasm (CV) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Literature searches were therefore conducted regarding the role of NO in cerebral vasospasm, specifically focusing on NO donors, reactive nitrogen species, and peroxynitrite in manifestation of vasospasm. Based off the assessment of available evidence, two competing theories are reviewed regarding the role of NO in vasospasm. One school of thought describes a deficiency in NO due to scavenging by hemoglobin in the cisternal space, leading to an NO signaling deficit and vasospastic collapse. A second hypothesis focuses on the dysfunction of nitric oxide synthase, an enzyme that synthesizes NO, and subsequent generation of reactive nitrogen species. Both theories have strong experimental evidence behind them and hold promise for translation into clinical practice. Furthermore, NO donors show definitive promise for preventing vasospasm at the angiographic and clinical level. However, NO augmentation may also cause systemic hypotension and worsen vasospasm due to oxidative distress. Recent evidence indicates that targeting NOS dysfunction, for example, through erythropoietin or statin administration, also shows promise at preventing vasospasm and neurotoxicity. Ultimately, the role of NO in neurovascular disease is complex. Neither of these theories is mutually exclusive, and both should be considered for future research directions and treatment strategies. Michael Siuta, Scott L. Zuckerman, and J. Mocco Copyright © 2013 Michael Siuta et al. All rights reserved. Cerebral Vasospasm in Traumatic Brain Injury Wed, 19 Jun 2013 08:28:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/415813/ Vasospasm following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may dramatically affect the neurological and functional recovery of a vulnerable patient population. While the reported incidence of traumatic vasospasm ranges from 19%–68%, the true incidence remains unknown due to variability in protocols for its detection. Only 3.9%–16.6% of patients exhibit clinical deficits. Compared to vasospasm resulting from aneurysmal SAH (aSAH), the onset occurs earlier and the duration is shorter. Overall, the clinical course tends to be milder, although extreme cases may occur. Traumatic vasospasm can occur in the absence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Surveillance transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) has been utilized to monitor for radiographic vasospasm following TBI. However, effective treatment modalities remain limited. Hypertension and hypervolemia, the mainstays of treatment of vasospasm associated with aSAH, must be used judiciously in TBI patients, and calcium-channel blockers have offered mixed clinical results. Currently, the paucity of large prospective cohort studies and level-one data limits the ability to form evidence-based recommendations regarding the diagnosis and management of vasospasm associated with TBI. Daniel R. Kramer, Jesse L. Winer, B. A. Matthew Pease, Arun P. Amar, and William J. Mack Copyright © 2013 Daniel R. Kramer et al. All rights reserved. Evidence-Based Cerebral Vasospasm Surveillance Mon, 03 Jun 2013 18:15:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/256713/ Subarachnoid hemorrhage related to aneurysmal rupture (aSAH) carries significant morbidity and mortality, and its treatment is focused on preventing secondary injury. The most common—and devastating—complication is delayed cerebral ischemia resulting from vasospasm. In this paper, the authors review the various surveillance technologies available to detect cerebral vasospasm in the days following aSAH. First, evidence related to the most common modalities, including transcranial doppler ultrasonography and computed tomography, are reviewed. Continuous electroencephalography and older instruments such as positron emission tomography, xenon-enhanced CT, and single-photon emission computed tomography are also discussed. Invasive strategies including brain tissue oxygen monitoring, microdialysis, thermal diffusion, and jugular bulb oximetry are examined. Lastly, near-infrared spectroscopy, a recent addition to the field, is briefly reviewed. Each surveillance tool carries its own set of advantages and limitations, and the concomitant use of multiple modalities serves to improve diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Heather Kistka, Michael C. Dewan, and J. Mocco Copyright © 2013 Heather Kistka et al. All rights reserved. Mitochondrial Fusion Proteins and Human Diseases Mon, 27 May 2013 16:12:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/293893/ Mitochondria are highly dynamic, complex organelles that continuously alter their shape, ranging between two opposite processes, fission and fusion, in response to several stimuli and the metabolic demands of the cell. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics due to mutations in proteins involved in the fusion-fission machinery represent an important pathogenic mechanism of human diseases. The most relevant proteins involved in the mitochondrial fusion process are three GTPase dynamin-like proteins: mitofusin 1 (MFN1) and 2 (MFN2), located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1), in the inner membrane. An expanding number of degenerative disorders are associated with mutations in the genes encoding MFN2 and OPA1, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A and autosomal dominant optic atrophy. While these disorders can still be considered rare, defective mitochondrial dynamics seem to play a significant role in the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of more common neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. This review provides an overview of the basic molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial fusion and focuses on the alteration in mitochondrial DNA amount resulting from impairment of mitochondrial dynamics. We also review the literature describing the main disorders associated with the disruption of mitochondrial fusion. Michela Ranieri, Simona Brajkovic, Giulietta Riboldi, Dario Ronchi, Federica Rizzo, Nereo Bresolin, Stefania Corti, and Giacomo P. Comi Copyright © 2013 Michela Ranieri et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Magnesium in the Management of Cerebral Vasospasm Tue, 21 May 2013 08:34:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/943914/ Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is characterized by bleeding into the subarachnoid space, often caused by ruptured aneurysm. Aneurysmal rupture occurs in 700,000 individuals per year worldwide, with 40,000 cases taking place in the United States. Beyond the high mortality associated with SAH alone, morbidity and mortality are further increased with the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm, a pathologic constriction of blood vessels that can lead to delayed ischemic neurologic deficits (DIND). Treatment of cerebral vasospasm is a source of contention. One extensively studied therapy is Magnesium (Mg) as both a competitive antagonist of calcium at the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and a noncompetitive antagonist of both IP3 and voltage-gated calcium channels, leading to smooth muscle relaxation. In our literature review, several animal and human studies are summarized in addition to two Phase III trials assessing the use of intravenous Mg in the treatment of SAH (IMASH and MASH-2). Though many studies have shown promise for the use of Mg in SAH, there has been inconsistency in study design and outcomes. Furthermore, the results of the recently completed clinical trials have shown no significant benefit from using intravenous Mg as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. Mitchell J. Odom, Scott L. Zuckerman, and J Mocco Copyright © 2013 Mitchell J. Odom et al. All rights reserved. Skin Matters: Identifying Pain Mechanisms and Predicting Treatment Outcomes Tue, 21 May 2013 08:25:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/329364/ The skin acts as a complex sensory organ. The emerging new data on peripheral pain mechanisms from within the skin is presented. This data has led to new insights into the potential pain mechanisms for various pain conditions including neuropathic pain (from small fiber neuropathies) and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. The somatosensory neurons that innervate our skin constantly update our brains on the objects and environmental factors that surround us. Cutaneous sensory neurons expressing nociceptive receptors such as transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels and voltage-gated sodium channels are critical for pain transmission. Epidermal cells (such as keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, and Merkel cells) express sensor proteins and neuropeptides; these regulate the neuroimmunocutaneous system and participate in nociception and neurogenic inflammation. In the past two decades, there has been widespread use of modalities such as punch skin biopsies, quantitative sensory testing, and laser-evoked potentials to evaluate small caliber nerve fibers. This paper explores these laboratory techniques as well as the phenomenon of small fiber neuropathy. Treatment using transdermal drug delivery is discussed. There is potential for these findings to predict treatment outcomes in clinical practice and to develop new therapies for different pain conditions. These findings should enhance the physician's ability to evaluate and treat diverse types of pain. Edward A. Shipton Copyright © 2013 Edward A. Shipton. All rights reserved. Medical Management of Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Review of Current and Emerging Therapeutic Interventions Mon, 15 Apr 2013 18:14:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/462491/ Cerebral vasospasm is a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Evidence suggests a multifactorial etiology and this concept remains supported by the assortment of therapeutic modalities under investigation. The authors provide an updated review of the literature for previous and recent clinical trials evaluating medical treatments in patients with cerebral vasospasm secondary to aSAH. Currently, the strongest evidence supports use of prophylactic oral nimodipine and initiation of triple-H therapy for patients in cerebral vasospasm. Other agents presented in this report include magnesium, statins, endothelin receptor antagonists, nitric oxide promoters, free radical scavengers, thromboxane inhibitors, thrombolysis, anti-inflammatory agents and neuroprotectants. Although promising data is beginning to emerge for several treatments, few prospective randomized clinical trials are presently available. Additionally, future investigational efforts will need to resolve discrepant definitions and outcome measures for cerebral vasospasm in order to permit adequate study comparisons. Until then, definitive recommendations cannot be made regarding the safety and efficacy for each of these therapeutic strategies and medical management practices will continue to be implemented in a wide-ranging manner. Peter Adamczyk, Shuhan He, Arun Paul Amar, and William J. Mack Copyright © 2013 Peter Adamczyk et al. All rights reserved. Autonomic Nervous System in the Control of Energy Balance and Body Weight: Personal Contributions Thu, 11 Apr 2013 11:49:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/639280/ The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the industrialized world, so that the World Health Organization considers obesity as a “pandemia” in rich populations. The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the control of energy balance and body weight. This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight. Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity. On the other hand, pathophysiological mechanisms of the obesity involve alterations of the sympathetic nervous system in accordance with the “Mona Lisa Hypothesis,” an acronym for “most obesities known are low in sympathetic activity.” Furthermore, the parasympathetic influences on the energy expenditure are analyzed in this review, showing that an increase in parasympathetic activity can induce a paradoxical enhancement of energy consumption. G. Messina, V. De Luca, An. Viggiano, A. Ascione, T. Iannaccone, S. Chieffi, and M. Monda Copyright © 2013 G. Messina et al. All rights reserved. Genetics of Cerebral Vasospasm Thu, 11 Apr 2013 11:08:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2013/291895/ Cerebral vasospasm (CV) is a major source of morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). It is thought that an inflammatory cascade initiated by extravasated blood products precipitates CV, disrupting vascular smooth muscle cell function of major cerebral arteries, leading to vasoconstriction. Mechanisms of CV and modes of therapy are an active area of research. Understanding the genetic basis of CV holds promise for the recognition and treatment for this devastating neurovascular event. In our review, we summarize the most recent research involving key areas within the genetics and vasospasm discussion: (1) Prognostic role of genetics—risk stratification based on gene sequencing, biomarkers, and polymorphisms; (2) Signaling pathways—pinpointing key inflammatory molecules responsible for downstream cellular signaling and altering these mediators to provide therapeutic benefit; and (3) Gene therapy and gene delivery—using viral vectors or novel protein delivery methods to overexpress protective genes in the vasospasm cascade. Travis R. Ladner, Scott L. Zuckerman, and J Mocco Copyright © 2013 Travis R. Ladner et al. All rights reserved.