Neurology Research International http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Optic Nerve Sonography in the Diagnostic Evaluation of Pseudopapilledema and Raised Intracranial Pressure: A Cross-Sectional Study Sun, 22 Mar 2015 11:43:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2015/146059/ Introduction. Differentiating pseudopapilledema from papilledema which is optic disk edema and a result of increased ICP (intracranial pressure) is important and can be done with noninvasive methods like orbital ultrasound examination. Method. This was a cross-sectional study in which patients with optic nerve head swelling were referred for LP exam after optic nerve head swelling diagnosis confirmation and having normal brain imaging (CT scan). Before LP (lumbar puncture) exam the patients were referred for optic nerve ultrasound test of both eyes. Results. Considering 5.7 mm as the upper limit for normal ONSD (optic nerve sheath diameter), sensitivity and negative predictive value of optic sonography in diagnosis of pseudopapilledema are 100% for both eyes. Calculated accuracy validity of ONSD measurement in detecting pseudopapilledema is 90% for the right eye and 87% for the left eye. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated a close correlation between optic nerve sheath dilation on ocular ultrasound and evidence of elevated ICP with optic disk swelling. With the aid of noninvasive diagnostic tests we can avoid unnecessary concerns along with expensive and invasive neurological investigations while targeting the correct diagnosis in bilateral optic disk swelling. Our study showed optic nerve sonography as a reliable diagnostic method for further usage. Masoud Mehrpour, Fatemeh Oliaee Torshizi, Shooka Esmaeeli, Salameh Taghipour, and Sahar Abdollahi Copyright © 2015 Masoud Mehrpour et al. All rights reserved. Biological Motion Perception Is Affected by Age and Cognitive Style in Children Aged 8–15 Mon, 16 Mar 2015 08:22:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2015/594042/ The current paper aims to address the question of how biological motion perception in different social contexts is influenced by age or also affected by cognitive styles. We examined developmental changes of biological motion perception among 141 school children aged 8–15 using point-light displays in monadic and dyadic social contexts. Furthermore, the cognitive styles of participants were investigated using empathizing-systemizing questionnaires. Results showed that the age and empathizing ability strongly predicted improvement in action perception in both contexts. However the systemizing ability was an independent predictor of performance only in monadic contexts. Furthermore, accuracy of action perception increased significantly from 46.4% (SD = 16.1) in monadic to 62.5% (SD = 11.5) in dyadic social contexts. This study can help to identify the roles of social context in biological motion perception and shows that children with different cognitive styles may present different biological motion perception. Parisa Ghanouni, Amir Hossein Memari, Monir Shayestehfar, Pouria Moshayedi, Shahriar Gharibzadeh, and Vahid Ziaee Copyright © 2015 Parisa Ghanouni et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy and Open Lumbar Surgery for Adjacent Segment Degeneration and Recurrent Disc Herniation Tue, 10 Mar 2015 11:28:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2015/791943/ Objective. The goal of the present study was to examine the clinical results of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and open lumbar surgery for patients with adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) and recurrence of disc herniation. Methods. From December 2011 to November 2013, we collected forty-three patients who underwent repeated lumbar surgery. These patients, either received PELD (18 patients) or repeated open lumbar surgery (25 patients), due to ASD or recurrence of disc herniation at L3-4, L4-5, or L5-S1 level, were assigned to different groups according to the surgical approaches. Clinical data were assessed and compared. Results. Mean blood loss was significantly less in the PELD group as compared to the open lumbar surgery group . Hospital stay and mean operating time were shorter significantly in the PELD group as compared to the open lumbar surgery group . Immediate postoperative pain improvement in VAS was 3.5 in the PELD group and −0.56 in the open lumbar surgery group . Conclusion. For ASD and recurrent lumbar disc herniation, PELD had more advantages over open lumbar surgery in terms of reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stay, operating time, fewer complications, and less postoperative discomfort. Huan-Chieh Chen, Chih-Hsun Lee, Li Wei, Tai-Ngar Lui, and Tien-Jen Lin Copyright © 2015 Huan-Chieh Chen et al. All rights reserved. Methylphenidate Efficacy: Immediate versus Extended Release at Short Term in Mexican Children with ADHD Assessed by Conners Scale and EEG Sun, 08 Mar 2015 09:30:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2015/207801/ Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 5-6% of school aged children worldwide. Pharmacological therapy is considered the first-line treatment and methylphenidate (MPH) is considered the first-choice medication. There are two formulations: immediate release (IR) MPH and long-acting (or extended release) formulation (MPH-ER). In this work, we measure the efficacy of treatment for both presentations in one month with Conners’ scales and electroencephalography (EEG). Results. for IR group, in parents and teachers Conners test, all items showed significant differences, towards improvement, except for teachers in perfectionism and emotional instability. For ER group in parent’s Conners test, the items in which there were no significant differences are psychosomatic and emotional instability. For teachers, there were no significant differences in: hyperactivity and perfectionism. Comparing the Conners questionnaires (parents versus teachers) we find significant differences before and after treatment in hyperactivity, perfectionism, psychosomatics, DSM-IV hyperactive-impulsive, and DSM-IV total. In the EEG the Wilcoxon test showed a significant difference . As we can see, both presentations are suitable for managing the ADHD and have the same effect on the symptomatology and in the EEG. Alfredo Durand-Rivera, Efren Alatorre-Miguel, Elizabeth Zambrano-Sánchez, and Celia Reyes-Legorreta Copyright © 2015 Alfredo Durand-Rivera et al. All rights reserved. Predictor’s of Mortality in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Reebleding Thu, 05 Feb 2015 09:27:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2015/545407/ Methods. “Ameijeiras Brother’s” and “Cmdt. Manuel Fajardo” Hospitals enrolled 64 patients (multicentre retrospective cohort) with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and rebleeding. The patients were admitted to the Stroke Unit (SU) between January 1, 2006, and December 1, 2013. Demographic, clinical, and radiological variables were examined in logistic regression to evaluate independent factors for increasing the risk of death. Results. Patients with systolic blood pressure >160 mmHg (), serum glucose >7 mmol/L (), aneurysm location in artery communicant anterior (), and black/mixed race () were significant related to death in univariate analysis. Risk factors (HTA, smoke, alcohol consumption, and DM), complication, multiplex rebleeding and stage of WFNS, and Fisher’s scale were not related to mortality. Patients with three or more complications had a higher mortality rate (). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that race (black/mixed, , OR 4.62, and 95% IC 1.40–16.26), systolic blood pressure (>160 mmHg, , OR 2.54, and 95% IC 1.01–3.13), and serum glucose (>7.0 mmol/L, , OR 1.82, and 95% IC 1.27–2.67) were independent risk factors for death. Conclusions. The black/mixed race, SBP, and serum glucose were independent predictors of mortality. Three or more complications were associated with increasing the probability to death. Further investigation is necessary to validate these findings. Dannys Rivero Rodríguez, Claudio Scherle Matamoros, Leda Fernández Cúe, Jose Luis Miranda Hernández, Yanelis Pernas Sánchez, and Jesús Pérez Nellar Copyright © 2015 Dannys Rivero Rodríguez et al. All rights reserved. Brain Activity during Lower-Limb Movement with Manual Facilitation: An fMRI Study Mon, 02 Feb 2015 06:26:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2015/701452/ Brain activity knowledge of healthy subjects is an important reference in the context of motor control and reeducation. While the normal brain behavior for upper-limb motor control has been widely explored, the same is not true for lower-limb control. Also the effects that different stimuli can evoke on movement and respective brain activity are important in the context of motor potentialization and reeducation. For a better understanding of these processes, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to collect data of 10 healthy subjects performing lower-limb multijoint functional movement under three stimuli: verbal stimulus, manual facilitation, and verbal + manual facilitation. Results showed that, with verbal stimulus, both lower limbs elicit bilateral cortical brain activation; with manual facilitation, only the left lower limb (LLL) elicits bilateral activation while the right lower limb (RLL) elicits contralateral activation; verbal + manual facilitation elicits bilateral activation for the LLL and contralateral activation for the RLL. Manual facilitation also elicits subcortical activation in white matter, the thalamus, pons, and cerebellum. Deactivations were also found for lower-limb movement. Manual facilitation is stimulus capable of generating brain activity in healthy subjects. Stimuli need to be specific for bilateral activation and regarding which brain areas we aim to activate. Patrícia Maria Duarte de Almeida, Ana Isabel Correia Matos de Ferreira Vieira, Nádia Isabel Silva Canário, Miguel Castelo-Branco, and Alexandre Lemos de Castro Caldas Copyright © 2015 Patrícia Maria Duarte de Almeida et al. All rights reserved. Deletion of Ovarian Hormones Induces a Sickness Behavior in Rats Comparable to the Effect of Lipopolysaccharide Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:18:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2015/627642/ Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as the contributors to the pathogenesis of sickness behaviors. The effects of female gonadal hormones on both neuroinflammation and depression have also been well considered. In the present study, the capability of deletion of ovarian hormones to induce sickness-like behaviors in rats was compared with the effect lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The groups were including Sham, OVX, Sham-LPS, and OVX-LPS. The Sham-LPS and OVX-LPS groups were treated with LPS (250 μg/kg) two hours before conducting the behavioral tests. In the forced swimming (FST), the immobility times in both OVX and Sham-LPS groups were higher than that of Sham (). In open-field (OP) test, the central crossing number by OVX and Sham-LPS groups were lower than Sham () while there were no significant differences between OVX-LPS and OVX groups. In elevated plus maze (EPM), the percent of entries to the open arm by both OVX and Sham-LPS groups was lower than that of Sham group (). The results of present study showed that deletion of ovarian hormones induced sickness behaviors in rats which were comparable to the effects of LPS. Moreover, further investigations are required in order to better understand the mechanism(s) involved. Hamid Azizi-Malekabadi, Mahmoud Hosseini, Masoume Pourganji, Hoda Zabihi, Mohsen Saeedjalali, and Akbar Anaeigoudari Copyright © 2015 Hamid Azizi-Malekabadi et al. All rights reserved. Is Parkinson’s Disease Truly a Prion-Like Disorder? An Appraisal of Current Evidence Tue, 13 Jan 2015 11:42:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2015/345285/ Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the world’s second most common neurodegenerative disease and most common movement disorder. Characterised by a loss of dopaminergic neurons and the development of intraneuronal inclusions known as Lewy bodies, it has classically been thought of as a cell-autonomous disease. However, in 2008, two groups reported the startling observation of Lewy bodies within embryonic neuronal grafts transplanted into PD patients little more than a decade previously, suggesting that PD pathology can be propagated to neighbouring cells and calling basic assumptions of our understanding of the disease into question. Subsequent research has largely served to confirm this interpretation, pointing towards a prion-like intercellular transfer of misfolded α-synuclein, the main component of Lewy bodies, as central to PD. This shift in thinking offers a revolutionary approach to PD treatment, potentially enabling a transition from purely symptomatic therapy to direct targeting of the pathology that drives disease progression. In this short review, we appraise current experimental support for PD as a prion-like disease, whilst highlighting areas of controversy or inconsistency which must be resolved. We also offer a brief discussion of the therapeutic implications of these discoveries. Aneesha Chauhan and Alexander F. Jeans Copyright © 2015 Aneesha Chauhan and Alexander F. Jeans. All rights reserved. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning Sun, 11 Jan 2015 06:13:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2015/606479/ Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose) regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning. Menizibeya O. Welcome, Nikos E. Mastorakis, and Vladimir A. Pereverzev Copyright © 2015 Menizibeya O. Welcome et al. All rights reserved. MS Prevalence and Patients’ Characteristics in the District of Braga, Portugal Thu, 08 Jan 2015 07:06:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2015/895163/ Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the Central Nervous System causing inflammation and neurodegeneration. There are only 3 epidemiological studies in Portugal, 2 in the Centre and 1 in the North, and there is the need to further study MS epidemiology in this country. The objective of this work is to contribute to the MS epidemiological knowledge in Portugal, describing the patients’ epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics in the Braga district of Portugal. This is a cross-sectional study of 345 patients followed in two hospitals of Braga district. These hospitals cover a resident population of 866,012 inhabitants. The data was collected from the clinical records, and 31/12/2009 was established as the prevalence day. For all MS patients, demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes are reported. We have found an incidence of 2.74/100,000 and a prevalence of 39.82/100,000 inhabitants. Most patients have an EDSS of 3 or lower and a mean age of 42 years. The diagnosis was done at mean age of 35, with RRMS being the disease type in more than 80% of patients. In this cohort, we found a female : male ratio of 1.79. More than 50% of patients are treated with Interferon β-1b IM or IFNβ-1a SC 22 μg. José Figueiredo, Ângela Silva, João J. Cerqueira, Joaquim Fonseca, and Paulo A. Pereira Copyright © 2015 José Figueiredo et al. All rights reserved. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage Tue, 23 Dec 2014 13:18:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/298767/ Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single () or multiple () doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group) who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of . Results. (1) Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2) The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3) There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients. Thomas Kapapa, Stefan Röhrer, Sabine Struve, Matthias Petscher, Ralph König, Christian Rainer Wirtz, and Dieter Woischneck Copyright © 2014 Thomas Kapapa et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study on Visual Choice Reaction Time for Different Colors in Females Tue, 16 Dec 2014 11:28:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/301473/ Reaction time is one of the important methods to study a person’s central information processing speed and coordinated peripheral movement response. Visual choice reaction time is a type of reaction time and is very important for drivers, pilots, security guards, and so forth. Previous studies were mainly on simple reaction time and there are very few studies on visual choice reaction time. The aim of our study was to compare the visual choice reaction time for red, green, and yellow colors of 60 healthy undergraduate female volunteers. After giving adequate practice, visual choice reaction time was recorded for red, green, and yellow colors using reaction time machine (RTM 608, Medicaid, Chandigarh). Repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparison were used for analysis and was considered statistically significant. The results showed that both red and green had significantly less choice visual choice reaction ( values and 0.0002) when compared with yellow. This could be because individual color mental processing time for yellow color is more than red and green. Grrishma Balakrishnan, Gurunandan Uppinakudru, Gaur Girwar Singh, Shobith Bangera, Aswini Dutt Raghavendra, and Dinesh Thangavel Copyright © 2014 Grrishma Balakrishnan et al. All rights reserved. Past Cigarette Smoking Is More Common among Those with Cholinergic Than Noncholinergic Dementias Wed, 10 Dec 2014 12:08:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/423602/ Background. Patients with progressive dementing disorders associated with cortical cholinergic dysfunction gradually develop cholinergic deficits many years before symptom onset and may begin to smoke cigarettes during midlife as a form of self-medication. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported past smoking rates between those with and without cholinergic dementias, to determine if those who developed cholinergic dementias were more likely to smoke during midlife than those who did not. Methods. Retrospective cross-sectional study of past smoking status among patients treated at an outpatient clinic during a three-year period. Results. A total of 440 patients were evaluated during the study period, including 224 with cholinergic dementias and 216 with noncholinergic dementias and controls. Past smoking rates were greater among those with cholinergic dementias compared to those without cholinergic dementias (43.92% versus 26.96%, ). Additionally, smokers with cholinergic dementias reported significantly greater mean pack-years of smoking (). Conclusions. Greater midlife smoking rates and greater pack-years of smoking were associated with cholinergic dementias. These results suggest midlife smoking may be an early indicator for those developing brain cholinergic deficits related to progressive dementing disorders and support initiating treatment prior to symptom onset in cholinergic dementias. Kyle Dalrymple, Erin K. Saito, Natalie Diaz, Julia Morrow, Beau Nakamoto, and Aaron M. McMurtray Copyright © 2014 Kyle Dalrymple et al. All rights reserved. Partial Block by Riluzole of Muscle Sodium Channels in Myotubes from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients Mon, 08 Dec 2014 00:10:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/946073/ Denervated muscles undergo fibrillations due to spontaneous activation of voltage-gated sodium (Na+) channels generating action potentials. Fibrillations also occur in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Riluzole, the only approved drug for ALS treatment, blocks voltage-gated Na+ channels, but its effects on muscle Na+ channels and fibrillations are yet poorly characterized. Using patch-clamp technique, we studied riluzole effect on Na+ channels in cultured myotubes from ALS patients. Needle electromyography was used to study fibrillation potentials (Fibs) in ALS patients during riluzole treatment and after one week of suspension. Patients were clinically characterized in all recording sessions. In myotubes, riluzole (1 μM, a therapeutic concentration) reduced Na+ current by 20%. The rate of rise and amplitude of spikes evoked by depolarizing stimuli were also reduced. Fibs were detected in all patients tested during riluzole treatment and riluzole washout had no univocal effect. Our study indicates that, in human myotubes, riluzole partially blocks Na+ currents and affects action potentials but does not prevent firing. In line with this in vitro finding, muscle Fibs in ALS patients appear to be largely unaffected by riluzole. Cristina Deflorio, Emanuela Onesti, Clotilde Lauro, Giorgio Tartaglia, Aldo Giovannelli, Cristina Limatola, Maurizio Inghilleri, and Francesca Grassi Copyright © 2014 Cristina Deflorio et al. All rights reserved. The Outcome of Agitation in Poisoned Patients in an Iranian Tertiary Care University Hospital Thu, 04 Dec 2014 00:10:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/275064/ Introduction. This study was conducted to evaluate and document the frequency and causes of agitation, the symptoms accompanying this condition in intoxications, relationship between agitation score on admission and different variables, and the outcome of therapy in a tertiary care referral poisoning center in Iran. Methods. In this prospective observational study which was done in 2012, 3010 patients were screened for agitation at the time of admission using the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale. Demographic data including age, gender, and the drug ingested were also recorded. The patients’ outcome was categorized as recovery without complications, recovery with complications (hyperthermia, renal failure, and other causes), and death. Results. Agitation was observed in 56 patients (males, ), mostly aged 19–40 years () and more frequently in illegal substance (stimulants, opioids and also alcohol) abusers. Agitation score was not significantly related to the age, gender, and previous history of psychiatric disorders. Forty nine patients had recovery without any complication. The need for mechanical ventilation was the most frequent complication. None of the patients died. Conclusion. Drug abuse seems to be a must-to-consider etiology for patients presenting with acute agitation and its morbidity and mortality could be low in agitated poisoning cases if prompt supportive care is performed. Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee, Ahmad Yaraghi, Elham Khalilidehkordi, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy Mirhosseini, Elham Beheshtian, and Nastaran Eizadi-Mood Copyright © 2014 Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee et al. All rights reserved. Differentiation of Human Breast-Milk Stem Cells to Neural Stem Cells and Neurons Tue, 25 Nov 2014 09:44:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/807896/ Objectives. Human breast milk contains a heterogeneous population of cells that have the potential to provide a noninvasive source of cells for cell therapy in many neurodegenerative diseases without any ethical concern. The objectives of this study were to differentiate the breast milk-derived stem cells (BMDSC) toward neural stem cells and then into the neurons and neuroglia. Materials and Methods. To do this, the BMDSC were isolated from human breast milk and cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium/F12 (DMEM/F12) containing fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The cells were then characterized by evaluation of the embryonic and stem cell markers. Then, the cells were exposed to culture medium containing 1% B27 and 2% N2 for 7–10 days followed by medium supplemented with B27, N2, bFGF 10 µg/mL, and endothelial growth factor (EGF) 20 µg/mL. Then, the sphere-forming assay was performed. The spheres were then differentiated into three neural lineages by withdrawing growth factor in the presence of 5% FBS (fetal bovine serum). The immunofluorescence was done for β-tubulin III, O4, and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein). Results. The results indicated that the cells expressed both embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers. They also showed neurospheres formation that was nestin-positive. The cells were also differentiated into all three neural lineages. Conclusion. The BMDSC can behave in the same way with neural stem cells. They were differentiated into oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes as well as neurons. Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini, Tahere Talaei-khozani, Mahsa Sani, and Bahareh Owrangi Copyright © 2014 Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Task Specific Exercises, Gait Training, and Visual Biofeedback on Equinovarus Gait among Individuals with Stroke: Randomized Controlled Study Mon, 24 Nov 2014 09:31:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/693048/ Background and Purpose. Equinovarus foot is a common sign after stroke. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of task specific exercises, gait training, and visual biofeedback on correcting equinovarus gait among individuals with stroke. Subjects and Methods. Sixteen subjects with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to two equal groups (G1 and G2). All the patients were at stage 4 of motor recovery of foot according to Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment without any cognitive dysfunction. E-med pedography was used to measure contact time, as well as force underneath hind and forefoot during walking. Outcome measures were collected before randomization, one week after the last session, and four weeks later. Participants in G1 received task specific exercises, gait training, and visual biofeedback and a traditional physical therapy program was applied for participants in G2 for 8 weeks. Results. Significant improvement was observed among G1 patients () which lasts one month after therapy termination. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between measurements of the participants in G2. Between groups comparison also revealed a significant improvement in G1 with long lasting effect. Conclusion. The results of this study showed a positive long lasting effect of the task specific exercises, gait training, and visual biofeedback on equinovarus gait pattern among individuals with stroke. Mohamed Elsayed Khallaf, Ahmed Maher Gabr, and Eman Elsayed Fayed Copyright © 2014 Mohamed Elsayed Khallaf et al. All rights reserved. Primary Headache in Yemen: Prevalence and Common Medications Used Wed, 05 Nov 2014 06:31:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/808126/ Background and Objective. Primary headaches is a major medical concern in certain Arabic countries, for example Oman, Jordan, and Qatar. This study was aimed at increasing understanding of the prevalence of headache in Arabic countries and identifying common medications used for treatment because of the lack of research done in this field in Yemen. Methods. This is a cross-sectional observational study conducted by recruiting case-series of adults and elderly who have primary headache within the age group from 18 to 85 years. 12640 subjects received a simple explanation for the aim of the study as ethical issue. The subjects were allowed to complete a self-conducted screening questionnaire. The data were diagnosed according to the International Headache Society’s diagnostic criteria (2004). Results. The results showed that 76.5% of the primary headache is prevalent at least once per year, 27.1% of the tension type headache (TTH) was the maximum percentage of type of headache, and 14.48% of the migraine headache (MH) was the minimum percentage. On the other hand, the relationship between the primary headache and age of subjects was statistically significant (), while between primary headache and sex was not (). In addition, 70.15% of the subjects said that headache attacks affected their activity of daily livings (ADL). 62.26% of the subjects used the medications without medical advice regarding their headache. 37.73% of the subjects relied on medical professionals (physicians and pharmacist) regarding analgesics use. The most common agent used among the medications was paracetamol (38.4%). Others included ibuprofen, aspirin, diclofenac sodium, naproxen, mefenamic acid, ergotamine and (11.45%) were unknown agents. Conclusion. We concluded that absence of health attention from the Yemeni Community and education from the health system in the country regarding analgesics use and their potential risk led to abuse of such medications and could be a reason beyond high prevalence of headache in Yemen. Salah A. Abdo, Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany, Karem H. Alzoubi, Mohamed T. Al-Maktari, and Abdulrhman H. Al-Baidani Copyright © 2014 Salah A. Abdo et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Peripheral Cytokines as a Chemical Mediator for Postconcussion Like Sickness Behaviour in Trauma and Perioperative Patients: Literature Review Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:24:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/673464/ Neurology Research International Copyright © 2014 Neurology Research International. All rights reserved. Meditation as an Adjunct to the Management of Multiple Sclerosis Tue, 01 Jul 2014 09:32:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/704691/ Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) disease course is known to be adversely affected by several factors including stress. A proposed mechanism for decreasing stress and therefore decreasing MS morbidity and improving quality of life is meditation. This review aims to critically analyse the current literature regarding meditation and MS. Methods. Four major databases were used to search for English language papers published before March 2014 with the terms MS, multiple sclerosis, meditation, and mindfulness. Results. 12 pieces of primary literature fitting the selection criteria were selected: two were randomised controlled studies, four were cohort studies, and six were surveys. The current literature varies in quality; however common positive effects of meditation include improved quality of life (QOL) and improved coping skills. Conclusion. All studies suggest possible benefit to the use of meditation as an adjunct to the management of multiple sclerosis. Additional rigorous clinical trials are required to validate the existing findings and determine if meditation has an impact on disease course over time. Adam B. Levin, Emily J. Hadgkiss, Tracey J. Weiland, and George A. Jelinek Copyright © 2014 Adam B. Levin et al. All rights reserved. Aortic Stiffness Is Related to the Ischemic Brain Injury Biomarker N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Antibody Levels in Aortic Valve Replacement Thu, 26 Jun 2014 07:51:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/970793/ Background. Aortic stiffness changes the flow pattern of circulating blood causing microvascular damage to different end-organ tissues, such as brain cells. The relationship between aortic stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and serum ischemic brain injury biomarker N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (NR2Ab) levels in aortic valve replacement has not been assessed. Methods. Patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS) had their PWV and NR2Ab serum levels measured preoperatively. We analyzed PWV and NR2Ab in two ways: (1) as continuous variables using the actual value and (2) as dichotomous variables (PWV-norm and PWV-high groups) and (NR2Ab-low and NR2Ab-high groups). Results. Fifty-six patients ( years) were included in this study. The NR2Ab level (ng/mL) was significantly higher in the PWV-high group () than in PWV-norm group (; median versus , resp., ). NR2Ab level was positively associated with PWV and negatively associated with male gender. Multiple regression revealed PWV independently related to NR2Ab level, and PWV cut-off was associated with a 7.23 times increase in the likelihood of having high NR2Ab (>1.8 ng/mL). Conclusion. Higher PWV in patients with surgical aortic stenosis is associated with higher levels of the ischemic brain biomarker NR2Ab. Emaddin Kidher, Vanash M. Patel, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, Jon R. Anderson, Andrew Chukwuemeka, Darrel P. Francis, Hutan Ashrafian, and Thanos Athanasiou Copyright © 2014 Emaddin Kidher et al. All rights reserved. Anatomical Variations of the Circulus Arteriosus in Cadaveric Human Brains Wed, 07 May 2014 11:20:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/687281/ Objective. Circulus arteriosus/circle of Willis (CW) is a polygonal anastomotic channel at the base of the brain which unites the internal carotid and vertebrobasilar system. It maintains the steady and constant supply to the brain. The variations of CW are seen often. The Aim of the present work is to find out the percentage of normal pattern of CW, and the frequency of variations of the CW and to study the morphological and morphometric aspects of all components of CW. Methods. Circulus arteriosus of 150 formalin preserved brains were dissected. Dimensions of all the components forming circles were measured. Variations of all the segments were noted and well photographed. The variations such as aplasia, hypoplasia, duplication, fenestrations, and difference in dimensions with opposite segments were noted. The data collected in the study was analyzed. Results. Twenty-one different types of CW were found in the present study. Normal and complete CW was found in 60%. CW with gross morphological variations was seen in 40%. Maximum variations were seen in the PCoA followed by the ACoA in 50% and 40%, respectively. Conclusion. As it confirms high percentage of variations, all surgical interventions should be preceded by angiography. Awareness of these anatomical variations is important in neurovascular procedures. S. A. Gunnal, M. S. Farooqui, and R. N. Wabale Copyright © 2014 S. A. Gunnal et al. All rights reserved. Quality of Sleep in an HIV Population on Antiretroviral Therapy at an Urban Tertiary Centre in Lagos, Nigeria Mon, 28 Apr 2014 07:21:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/298703/ Aim. To determine the prevalence of sleep disturbance and its associated characteristics in HIV-positive outpatients on HAART using the PSQI. Methods. Using a cross-sectional design, 300 patients attending the outpatient HIV/AIDS clinic at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital were recruited. Baseline data obtained included the participants’ demographic data, educational qualification, and marital status. Their treatment history, including duration since HIV diagnosis, the most recent CD4 cell count, and current antiretroviral therapies, was obtained from their case records. Each participant completed the PSQI questionnaire and those with scores ≥5 were diagnosed with poor sleep quality. Results. The participants were made up of 70.7% females and 29.3% males. Their ages ranged between 18 and 74 years with a mean of years. According to the PSQI, 59.3% reported poor sleep quality. The mean score of those with poor quality sleep () was comparable to that of those with good quality sleep (). . Significant differences were observed in all the individual components of the PSQI (). On multivariate analyses, the independent associations with sleep quality were the duration since HIV diagnosis (), efavirenz based regimen (), and lower CD4 cell count (). Conclusions. Sleep disturbances are quite common in the HIV population even in the era of HAART. Early recognition via routine assessment and effective treatments could prevent the resultant complications and improve quality of life. Olajumoke Oshinaike, Akinsegun Akinbami, Olaitan Ojelabi, Akinola Dada, Adedoyin Dosunmu, and Sarah John Olabode Copyright © 2014 Olajumoke Oshinaike et al. All rights reserved. Peripheral Cytokines as a Chemical Mediator for Postconcussion Like Sickness Behaviour in Trauma and Perioperative Patients: Literature Review Mon, 28 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/671781/ Besides brain injury and systemic infection, cognitive and concussion like sickness behaviour is associated with muscular trauma and perioperative patients, which represents a major obstacle to daily activities and rehabilitation. The neuroinflammatory response triggers glial activation and consequently the release of proinflammatory cytokines within the hippocampus. We review clinical studies that have investigated neurocognitive and psychosomatic symptoms related to muscular trauma and in perioperative conditions. These include impaired attention and executive and general cognitive functioning. The purpose of this literature review is to focus on the systemic inflammation and the role of proinflammatory cytokines IL1, IL6,and TNF and other inflammatory mediators which mediates the cognitive impairment and induces sickness behaviour. Moreover, this review will also help to determine if some patients could have long-term cognitive changes associated with musculoskeletal injuries or as a consequence of surgery and thereby will lead to efforts in reducing that risk. Yasir Rehman, Nadia Rehman, and Riaz Rehman Copyright © 2014 Yasir Rehman et al. All rights reserved. Thicker Carotid Intima Media Thickness in Children with Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1: A-2138T and A-2464G Mutation Tue, 22 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/176535/ Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) is clearly associated with atherosclerosis. Studies in ischemic stroke patients reveal that there is a significant association between CIMT with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and osteopontin (OPN) promoter polymorphism. This research aims to explain the effect of MCP-1 and OPN promoter polymorphism toward CIMT changes identified in Javanese Indonesian children. Subjects were 54 children: 27 were from parents with ischemic stroke (cases), and 27 were from healthy parents (controlled). The CIMT was examined by utilizing high resolution B-mode ultrasound. Physical examination and genotyping analysis of MCP-1 promoter were conducted by employing PCR method. Research results indicate that two polymorphisms were obtained, that is, A-2138T and G-2464A, respectively. A-2138T polymorphism was found in 5% of case children and in 14.3% of controlled children. G-2464A polymorphism was found in 5% of case children. CIMT of case children was significantly different from that of controlled children ( mm versus,  mm, 0.021). Subjects with MCP-1 promoter polymorphism have 1.471 times higher tendency to have thicker CIMT than subjects with no polymorphism in MCP1 promoter. OPN promoter T-66G was also studied but it did not indicate occurrence of polymorphism in samples. Yuyun Yueniwati, Valentina Yurina, and Mohammad Rasjad Indra Copyright © 2014 Yuyun Yueniwati et al. All rights reserved. Apathy in Parkinson’s Disease: An Electrophysiological Study Mon, 07 Apr 2014 11:14:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/290513/ In Parkinson’s disease (PD), apathy (or loss of motivation) is frequent. Nevertheless, the contribution of attentional disorders to its genesis is still not clearly known. We want to determine the relation existing between apathy and attentional disorders by using P300a (or novelty P3) as a marker of the attentional process. The study included 25 patients (13 women and 12 men) with PD for whom we have determined the relationship between automatic attention (represented by P300a) and motor status, apathy, executive dysfunction, mental flexibility, inhibitory control, and depression/anxiety. We have found a correlation between the apathy score and amplitude of novelty P300 during the ON period and also a correlation of the apathy score with a decrease in amplitude of P300 during the OFF period. In a linear regression model, changes in the P300a predicted the severity of apathy independently of any other variable. We concluded firstly that the reduction in amplitude of the P300a wave was a neurophysiological marker of apathy in PD and secondly that apathy led to both dopaminergic denervation (mesolimbic) and nondopaminergic (dorsolateral prefrontal-subcortical) dysfunction. Stéphane Mathis, Jean-Philippe Neau, Claudette Pluchon, Marie-Noëlle Fargeau, Stéphane Karolewicz, Anna Iljicsov, and Roger Gil Copyright © 2014 Stéphane Mathis et al. All rights reserved. Cross-Cultural Validity, Reliability, and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson’s Disease-Psychosocial Questionnaire Mon, 07 Apr 2014 06:32:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/260684/ Objectives. Considering the influence of different motor and nonmotor features of Parkinson’s disease (PD), it is important to evaluate the psychosocial functioning of the patients. For this purpose, the scales for outcomes in Parkinson’s disease-psychosocial questionnaire (SCOPA-PS) has been previously designed. The aim of our study was to assess the cross-cultural validation and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the SCOPA-PS. Methods. One hundred and ten nondemented idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD) patients were consecutively recruited from an outpatient referral movement disorder clinic. Eligible patients filled up a number of questionnaires including the Persian version of SCOPA-PS during the face-to-face interview session and clinical examination to measure disease severity, nonmotor psychiatric symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Results. The highest and lowest correlation coefficients of internal consistency were reported for item 7 on “asking for help” and item 5 on “sexual problems” . Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient of the entire scale was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.83–0.90). The Hoehn and Yahr stage , Schwab and England ADL scale , anxiety , depression , and fatigue were significantly correlated with the total score of the SCOPA-PS questionnaire. Conclusions. The Persian version of SCOPA-PS is a highly reliable and valid scale to measure psychosocial functioning in IPD patients with different sex, age-group, and educational level, which could be applied in future researches. Disease severity scales, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and different domains of HRQoL were all associated with psychosocial functioning in PD patients. Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Farzaneh Farhadi, Hasti Hadizadeh, Gholam Ali Shahidi, Ahmad Delbari, and Johan Lökk Copyright © 2014 Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad et al. All rights reserved. Four-Quadrant Facial Function in Dysphagic Patients after Stroke and in Healthy Controls Tue, 04 Mar 2014 12:01:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/672685/ This study aims to examine any motility disturbance in any quadrant of the face other than the quadrant innervated by the lower facial nerve contralateral to the cortical lesion after stroke. Thirty-one stroke-afflicted patients with subjective dysphagia, consecutively referred to a swallowing centre, were investigated with a facial activity test (FAT) in all four facial quadrants and with a swallowing capacity test (SCT). Fifteen healthy adult participants served as FAT controls. Sixteen patients were judged to have a central facial palsy (FP) according to the referring physician, but all 31 patients had a pathological FAT in the lower quadrant contralateral to the cortical lesion. Simultaneous pathology in all four quadrants was observed in 52% of stroke-afflicted patients with dysphagia; some pathology in the left or right upper quadrant was observed in 74%. Dysfunction in multiple facial quadrants was independent of the time interval between stroke and study inclusion. All patients except two had a pathological SCT. All the controls had normal activity in all facial quadrants. In summary the majority of poststroke patients with dysphagia have subclinical orofacial motor dysfunction in three or four facial quadrants as assessed with a FAT. However, whether subclinical orofacial motor dysfunction can be present in stroke-afflicted patients without dysphagia is unknown. Mary Hägg and Lita Tibbling Copyright © 2014 Mary Hägg and Lita Tibbling. All rights reserved. Treatment Expenditure Pattern of Epileptic Patients: A Study from a Tertiary Care Hospital, Kolkata, India Mon, 24 Feb 2014 08:59:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/869572/ Introduction. Neurological diseases are very important causes of prolonged morbidity and disability leading to profound financial loss. Epilepsy is one of the most important neurological disorders. It being a cost intensive disorder poses a significant economic burden to the country. Aims and Objectives. The study was conducted among the persons with epilepsy (PWE) to assess their expenditure pattern for epilepsy treatment and its rural urban difference. Materials and Methods. 315 PWE selected by systematic random sampling and their caregivers were interviewed with the predesigned, pretested semistructured proforma. Subsequently data were compiled and analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software. Results and Conclusion. Majority of the study population were in the age group of 16–30 years. Majority belonged to classes IV and V of Prasad socioeconomic status scale. Average total expenditure per month for treatment of epilepsy was 219 INR, mainly contributed by drugs, travel, investigations, and so forth. Rural population was having higher treatment expenditure for epilepsy specially for travel and food and lodging in order to get epilepsy treatment. Wage loss in the last three months was present in 42.86% study subjects which was both affected by seizure episodes and travel for visits. Better district care would have helped in this situation. Abhik Sinha and Dulal K. Bhaumik Copyright © 2014 Abhik Sinha and Dulal K. Bhaumik. All rights reserved. Comparative Neuroprotective Effects of Dexamethasone and Minocycline during Hepatic Encephalopathy Mon, 17 Feb 2014 10:10:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/254683/ Objective. Encephalopathy and brain edema are serious complications of acute liver injury and may lead to rapid death of patients. The present study was designed to investigate the role of the inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in the cytotoxic brain oedema and the neuroprotective effects of both minocycline and dexamethasone. Methods. 48 male albino rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, acute liver injury (ALI) group, minocycline pretreated ALI group, and dexamethasone pretreated ALI group. 24 hours after acute liver injury serum ammonia, liver enzymes, brain levels of heme oxygenase-1 gene, iNOS gene expression, nitrite/nitrate, and cytokines were measured. In addition, the grades of encephalopathy and brain water content were assessed. Results. ALI was associated with significant increases in all measured inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress, iNOS gene expression, and nitrite/nitrate. Both minocycline and dexamethasone significantly modulated the inflammatory changes and the oxidative/nitrosative stress associated with ALI. However, only minocycline but not dexamethasone significantly reduced the cytotoxic brain oedema. Conclusion. Both minocycline and dexamethasone could modulate inflammatory and oxidative changes observed in brain after ALI and could be novel preventative therapy for hepatic encephalopathy episodes. Maha Gamal, Zainab Abdel Wahab, Mohamed Eshra, Laila Rashed, and Nivin Sharawy Copyright © 2014 Maha Gamal et al. All rights reserved.