Neurology Research International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Comparative Study on Visual Choice Reaction Time for Different Colors in Females Tue, 16 Dec 2014 11:28:08 +0000 Reaction time is one of the important methods to study a person’s central information processing speed and coordinated peripheral movement response. Visual choice reaction time is a type of reaction time and is very important for drivers, pilots, security guards, and so forth. Previous studies were mainly on simple reaction time and there are very few studies on visual choice reaction time. The aim of our study was to compare the visual choice reaction time for red, green, and yellow colors of 60 healthy undergraduate female volunteers. After giving adequate practice, visual choice reaction time was recorded for red, green, and yellow colors using reaction time machine (RTM 608, Medicaid, Chandigarh). Repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparison were used for analysis and was considered statistically significant. The results showed that both red and green had significantly less choice visual choice reaction ( values and 0.0002) when compared with yellow. This could be because individual color mental processing time for yellow color is more than red and green. Grrishma Balakrishnan, Gurunandan Uppinakudru, Gaur Girwar Singh, Shobith Bangera, Aswini Dutt Raghavendra, and Dinesh Thangavel Copyright © 2014 Grrishma Balakrishnan et al. All rights reserved. Past Cigarette Smoking Is More Common among Those with Cholinergic Than Noncholinergic Dementias Wed, 10 Dec 2014 12:08:38 +0000 Background. Patients with progressive dementing disorders associated with cortical cholinergic dysfunction gradually develop cholinergic deficits many years before symptom onset and may begin to smoke cigarettes during midlife as a form of self-medication. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported past smoking rates between those with and without cholinergic dementias, to determine if those who developed cholinergic dementias were more likely to smoke during midlife than those who did not. Methods. Retrospective cross-sectional study of past smoking status among patients treated at an outpatient clinic during a three-year period. Results. A total of 440 patients were evaluated during the study period, including 224 with cholinergic dementias and 216 with noncholinergic dementias and controls. Past smoking rates were greater among those with cholinergic dementias compared to those without cholinergic dementias (43.92% versus 26.96%, ). Additionally, smokers with cholinergic dementias reported significantly greater mean pack-years of smoking (). Conclusions. Greater midlife smoking rates and greater pack-years of smoking were associated with cholinergic dementias. These results suggest midlife smoking may be an early indicator for those developing brain cholinergic deficits related to progressive dementing disorders and support initiating treatment prior to symptom onset in cholinergic dementias. Kyle Dalrymple, Erin K. Saito, Natalie Diaz, Julia Morrow, Beau Nakamoto, and Aaron M. McMurtray Copyright © 2014 Kyle Dalrymple et al. All rights reserved. Partial Block by Riluzole of Muscle Sodium Channels in Myotubes from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients Mon, 08 Dec 2014 00:10:06 +0000 Denervated muscles undergo fibrillations due to spontaneous activation of voltage-gated sodium (Na+) channels generating action potentials. Fibrillations also occur in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Riluzole, the only approved drug for ALS treatment, blocks voltage-gated Na+ channels, but its effects on muscle Na+ channels and fibrillations are yet poorly characterized. Using patch-clamp technique, we studied riluzole effect on Na+ channels in cultured myotubes from ALS patients. Needle electromyography was used to study fibrillation potentials (Fibs) in ALS patients during riluzole treatment and after one week of suspension. Patients were clinically characterized in all recording sessions. In myotubes, riluzole (1 μM, a therapeutic concentration) reduced Na+ current by 20%. The rate of rise and amplitude of spikes evoked by depolarizing stimuli were also reduced. Fibs were detected in all patients tested during riluzole treatment and riluzole washout had no univocal effect. Our study indicates that, in human myotubes, riluzole partially blocks Na+ currents and affects action potentials but does not prevent firing. In line with this in vitro finding, muscle Fibs in ALS patients appear to be largely unaffected by riluzole. Cristina Deflorio, Emanuela Onesti, Clotilde Lauro, Giorgio Tartaglia, Aldo Giovannelli, Cristina Limatola, Maurizio Inghilleri, and Francesca Grassi Copyright © 2014 Cristina Deflorio et al. All rights reserved. The Outcome of Agitation in Poisoned Patients in an Iranian Tertiary Care University Hospital Thu, 04 Dec 2014 00:10:04 +0000 Introduction. This study was conducted to evaluate and document the frequency and causes of agitation, the symptoms accompanying this condition in intoxications, relationship between agitation score on admission and different variables, and the outcome of therapy in a tertiary care referral poisoning center in Iran. Methods. In this prospective observational study which was done in 2012, 3010 patients were screened for agitation at the time of admission using the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale. Demographic data including age, gender, and the drug ingested were also recorded. The patients’ outcome was categorized as recovery without complications, recovery with complications (hyperthermia, renal failure, and other causes), and death. Results. Agitation was observed in 56 patients (males, ), mostly aged 19–40 years () and more frequently in illegal substance (stimulants, opioids and also alcohol) abusers. Agitation score was not significantly related to the age, gender, and previous history of psychiatric disorders. Forty nine patients had recovery without any complication. The need for mechanical ventilation was the most frequent complication. None of the patients died. Conclusion. Drug abuse seems to be a must-to-consider etiology for patients presenting with acute agitation and its morbidity and mortality could be low in agitated poisoning cases if prompt supportive care is performed. Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee, Ahmad Yaraghi, Elham Khalilidehkordi, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy Mirhosseini, Elham Beheshtian, and Nastaran Eizadi-Mood Copyright © 2014 Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee et al. All rights reserved. Differentiation of Human Breast-Milk Stem Cells to Neural Stem Cells and Neurons Tue, 25 Nov 2014 09:44:04 +0000 Objectives. Human breast milk contains a heterogeneous population of cells that have the potential to provide a noninvasive source of cells for cell therapy in many neurodegenerative diseases without any ethical concern. The objectives of this study were to differentiate the breast milk-derived stem cells (BMDSC) toward neural stem cells and then into the neurons and neuroglia. Materials and Methods. To do this, the BMDSC were isolated from human breast milk and cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium/F12 (DMEM/F12) containing fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The cells were then characterized by evaluation of the embryonic and stem cell markers. Then, the cells were exposed to culture medium containing 1% B27 and 2% N2 for 7–10 days followed by medium supplemented with B27, N2, bFGF 10 µg/mL, and endothelial growth factor (EGF) 20 µg/mL. Then, the sphere-forming assay was performed. The spheres were then differentiated into three neural lineages by withdrawing growth factor in the presence of 5% FBS (fetal bovine serum). The immunofluorescence was done for β-tubulin III, O4, and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein). Results. The results indicated that the cells expressed both embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers. They also showed neurospheres formation that was nestin-positive. The cells were also differentiated into all three neural lineages. Conclusion. The BMDSC can behave in the same way with neural stem cells. They were differentiated into oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes as well as neurons. Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini, Tahere Talaei-khozani, Mahsa Sani, and Bahareh Owrangi Copyright © 2014 Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Task Specific Exercises, Gait Training, and Visual Biofeedback on Equinovarus Gait among Individuals with Stroke: Randomized Controlled Study Mon, 24 Nov 2014 09:31:19 +0000 Background and Purpose. Equinovarus foot is a common sign after stroke. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of task specific exercises, gait training, and visual biofeedback on correcting equinovarus gait among individuals with stroke. Subjects and Methods. Sixteen subjects with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to two equal groups (G1 and G2). All the patients were at stage 4 of motor recovery of foot according to Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment without any cognitive dysfunction. E-med pedography was used to measure contact time, as well as force underneath hind and forefoot during walking. Outcome measures were collected before randomization, one week after the last session, and four weeks later. Participants in G1 received task specific exercises, gait training, and visual biofeedback and a traditional physical therapy program was applied for participants in G2 for 8 weeks. Results. Significant improvement was observed among G1 patients () which lasts one month after therapy termination. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between measurements of the participants in G2. Between groups comparison also revealed a significant improvement in G1 with long lasting effect. Conclusion. The results of this study showed a positive long lasting effect of the task specific exercises, gait training, and visual biofeedback on equinovarus gait pattern among individuals with stroke. Mohamed Elsayed Khallaf, Ahmed Maher Gabr, and Eman Elsayed Fayed Copyright © 2014 Mohamed Elsayed Khallaf et al. All rights reserved. Primary Headache in Yemen: Prevalence and Common Medications Used Wed, 05 Nov 2014 06:31:50 +0000 Background and Objective. Primary headaches is a major medical concern in certain Arabic countries, for example Oman, Jordan, and Qatar. This study was aimed at increasing understanding of the prevalence of headache in Arabic countries and identifying common medications used for treatment because of the lack of research done in this field in Yemen. Methods. This is a cross-sectional observational study conducted by recruiting case-series of adults and elderly who have primary headache within the age group from 18 to 85 years. 12640 subjects received a simple explanation for the aim of the study as ethical issue. The subjects were allowed to complete a self-conducted screening questionnaire. The data were diagnosed according to the International Headache Society’s diagnostic criteria (2004). Results. The results showed that 76.5% of the primary headache is prevalent at least once per year, 27.1% of the tension type headache (TTH) was the maximum percentage of type of headache, and 14.48% of the migraine headache (MH) was the minimum percentage. On the other hand, the relationship between the primary headache and age of subjects was statistically significant (), while between primary headache and sex was not (). In addition, 70.15% of the subjects said that headache attacks affected their activity of daily livings (ADL). 62.26% of the subjects used the medications without medical advice regarding their headache. 37.73% of the subjects relied on medical professionals (physicians and pharmacist) regarding analgesics use. The most common agent used among the medications was paracetamol (38.4%). Others included ibuprofen, aspirin, diclofenac sodium, naproxen, mefenamic acid, ergotamine and (11.45%) were unknown agents. Conclusion. We concluded that absence of health attention from the Yemeni Community and education from the health system in the country regarding analgesics use and their potential risk led to abuse of such medications and could be a reason beyond high prevalence of headache in Yemen. Salah A. Abdo, Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany, Karem H. Alzoubi, Mohamed T. Al-Maktari, and Abdulrhman H. Al-Baidani Copyright © 2014 Salah A. Abdo et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Peripheral Cytokines as a Chemical Mediator for Postconcussion Like Sickness Behaviour in Trauma and Perioperative Patients: Literature Review Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:24:45 +0000 Neurology Research International Copyright © 2014 Neurology Research International. All rights reserved. Meditation as an Adjunct to the Management of Multiple Sclerosis Tue, 01 Jul 2014 09:32:07 +0000 Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) disease course is known to be adversely affected by several factors including stress. A proposed mechanism for decreasing stress and therefore decreasing MS morbidity and improving quality of life is meditation. This review aims to critically analyse the current literature regarding meditation and MS. Methods. Four major databases were used to search for English language papers published before March 2014 with the terms MS, multiple sclerosis, meditation, and mindfulness. Results. 12 pieces of primary literature fitting the selection criteria were selected: two were randomised controlled studies, four were cohort studies, and six were surveys. The current literature varies in quality; however common positive effects of meditation include improved quality of life (QOL) and improved coping skills. Conclusion. All studies suggest possible benefit to the use of meditation as an adjunct to the management of multiple sclerosis. Additional rigorous clinical trials are required to validate the existing findings and determine if meditation has an impact on disease course over time. Adam B. Levin, Emily J. Hadgkiss, Tracey J. Weiland, and George A. Jelinek Copyright © 2014 Adam B. Levin et al. All rights reserved. Aortic Stiffness Is Related to the Ischemic Brain Injury Biomarker N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Antibody Levels in Aortic Valve Replacement Thu, 26 Jun 2014 07:51:11 +0000 Background. Aortic stiffness changes the flow pattern of circulating blood causing microvascular damage to different end-organ tissues, such as brain cells. The relationship between aortic stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and serum ischemic brain injury biomarker N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (NR2Ab) levels in aortic valve replacement has not been assessed. Methods. Patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS) had their PWV and NR2Ab serum levels measured preoperatively. We analyzed PWV and NR2Ab in two ways: (1) as continuous variables using the actual value and (2) as dichotomous variables (PWV-norm and PWV-high groups) and (NR2Ab-low and NR2Ab-high groups). Results. Fifty-six patients ( years) were included in this study. The NR2Ab level (ng/mL) was significantly higher in the PWV-high group () than in PWV-norm group (; median versus , resp., ). NR2Ab level was positively associated with PWV and negatively associated with male gender. Multiple regression revealed PWV independently related to NR2Ab level, and PWV cut-off was associated with a 7.23 times increase in the likelihood of having high NR2Ab (>1.8 ng/mL). Conclusion. Higher PWV in patients with surgical aortic stenosis is associated with higher levels of the ischemic brain biomarker NR2Ab. Emaddin Kidher, Vanash M. Patel, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, Jon R. Anderson, Andrew Chukwuemeka, Darrel P. Francis, Hutan Ashrafian, and Thanos Athanasiou Copyright © 2014 Emaddin Kidher et al. All rights reserved. Anatomical Variations of the Circulus Arteriosus in Cadaveric Human Brains Wed, 07 May 2014 11:20:03 +0000 Objective. Circulus arteriosus/circle of Willis (CW) is a polygonal anastomotic channel at the base of the brain which unites the internal carotid and vertebrobasilar system. It maintains the steady and constant supply to the brain. The variations of CW are seen often. The Aim of the present work is to find out the percentage of normal pattern of CW, and the frequency of variations of the CW and to study the morphological and morphometric aspects of all components of CW. Methods. Circulus arteriosus of 150 formalin preserved brains were dissected. Dimensions of all the components forming circles were measured. Variations of all the segments were noted and well photographed. The variations such as aplasia, hypoplasia, duplication, fenestrations, and difference in dimensions with opposite segments were noted. The data collected in the study was analyzed. Results. Twenty-one different types of CW were found in the present study. Normal and complete CW was found in 60%. CW with gross morphological variations was seen in 40%. Maximum variations were seen in the PCoA followed by the ACoA in 50% and 40%, respectively. Conclusion. As it confirms high percentage of variations, all surgical interventions should be preceded by angiography. Awareness of these anatomical variations is important in neurovascular procedures. S. A. Gunnal, M. S. Farooqui, and R. N. Wabale Copyright © 2014 S. A. Gunnal et al. All rights reserved. Quality of Sleep in an HIV Population on Antiretroviral Therapy at an Urban Tertiary Centre in Lagos, Nigeria Mon, 28 Apr 2014 07:21:55 +0000 Aim. To determine the prevalence of sleep disturbance and its associated characteristics in HIV-positive outpatients on HAART using the PSQI. Methods. Using a cross-sectional design, 300 patients attending the outpatient HIV/AIDS clinic at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital were recruited. Baseline data obtained included the participants’ demographic data, educational qualification, and marital status. Their treatment history, including duration since HIV diagnosis, the most recent CD4 cell count, and current antiretroviral therapies, was obtained from their case records. Each participant completed the PSQI questionnaire and those with scores ≥5 were diagnosed with poor sleep quality. Results. The participants were made up of 70.7% females and 29.3% males. Their ages ranged between 18 and 74 years with a mean of years. According to the PSQI, 59.3% reported poor sleep quality. The mean score of those with poor quality sleep () was comparable to that of those with good quality sleep (). . Significant differences were observed in all the individual components of the PSQI (). On multivariate analyses, the independent associations with sleep quality were the duration since HIV diagnosis (), efavirenz based regimen (), and lower CD4 cell count (). Conclusions. Sleep disturbances are quite common in the HIV population even in the era of HAART. Early recognition via routine assessment and effective treatments could prevent the resultant complications and improve quality of life. Olajumoke Oshinaike, Akinsegun Akinbami, Olaitan Ojelabi, Akinola Dada, Adedoyin Dosunmu, and Sarah John Olabode Copyright © 2014 Olajumoke Oshinaike et al. All rights reserved. Peripheral Cytokines as a Chemical Mediator for Postconcussion Like Sickness Behaviour in Trauma and Perioperative Patients: Literature Review Mon, 28 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Besides brain injury and systemic infection, cognitive and concussion like sickness behaviour is associated with muscular trauma and perioperative patients, which represents a major obstacle to daily activities and rehabilitation. The neuroinflammatory response triggers glial activation and consequently the release of proinflammatory cytokines within the hippocampus. We review clinical studies that have investigated neurocognitive and psychosomatic symptoms related to muscular trauma and in perioperative conditions. These include impaired attention and executive and general cognitive functioning. The purpose of this literature review is to focus on the systemic inflammation and the role of proinflammatory cytokines IL1, IL6,and TNF and other inflammatory mediators which mediates the cognitive impairment and induces sickness behaviour. Moreover, this review will also help to determine if some patients could have long-term cognitive changes associated with musculoskeletal injuries or as a consequence of surgery and thereby will lead to efforts in reducing that risk. Yasir Rehman, Nadia Rehman, and Riaz Rehman Copyright © 2014 Yasir Rehman et al. All rights reserved. Thicker Carotid Intima Media Thickness in Children with Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1: A-2138T and A-2464G Mutation Tue, 22 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) is clearly associated with atherosclerosis. Studies in ischemic stroke patients reveal that there is a significant association between CIMT with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and osteopontin (OPN) promoter polymorphism. This research aims to explain the effect of MCP-1 and OPN promoter polymorphism toward CIMT changes identified in Javanese Indonesian children. Subjects were 54 children: 27 were from parents with ischemic stroke (cases), and 27 were from healthy parents (controlled). The CIMT was examined by utilizing high resolution B-mode ultrasound. Physical examination and genotyping analysis of MCP-1 promoter were conducted by employing PCR method. Research results indicate that two polymorphisms were obtained, that is, A-2138T and G-2464A, respectively. A-2138T polymorphism was found in 5% of case children and in 14.3% of controlled children. G-2464A polymorphism was found in 5% of case children. CIMT of case children was significantly different from that of controlled children ( mm versus,  mm, 0.021). Subjects with MCP-1 promoter polymorphism have 1.471 times higher tendency to have thicker CIMT than subjects with no polymorphism in MCP1 promoter. OPN promoter T-66G was also studied but it did not indicate occurrence of polymorphism in samples. Yuyun Yueniwati, Valentina Yurina, and Mohammad Rasjad Indra Copyright © 2014 Yuyun Yueniwati et al. All rights reserved. Apathy in Parkinson’s Disease: An Electrophysiological Study Mon, 07 Apr 2014 11:14:24 +0000 In Parkinson’s disease (PD), apathy (or loss of motivation) is frequent. Nevertheless, the contribution of attentional disorders to its genesis is still not clearly known. We want to determine the relation existing between apathy and attentional disorders by using P300a (or novelty P3) as a marker of the attentional process. The study included 25 patients (13 women and 12 men) with PD for whom we have determined the relationship between automatic attention (represented by P300a) and motor status, apathy, executive dysfunction, mental flexibility, inhibitory control, and depression/anxiety. We have found a correlation between the apathy score and amplitude of novelty P300 during the ON period and also a correlation of the apathy score with a decrease in amplitude of P300 during the OFF period. In a linear regression model, changes in the P300a predicted the severity of apathy independently of any other variable. We concluded firstly that the reduction in amplitude of the P300a wave was a neurophysiological marker of apathy in PD and secondly that apathy led to both dopaminergic denervation (mesolimbic) and nondopaminergic (dorsolateral prefrontal-subcortical) dysfunction. Stéphane Mathis, Jean-Philippe Neau, Claudette Pluchon, Marie-Noëlle Fargeau, Stéphane Karolewicz, Anna Iljicsov, and Roger Gil Copyright © 2014 Stéphane Mathis et al. All rights reserved. Cross-Cultural Validity, Reliability, and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson’s Disease-Psychosocial Questionnaire Mon, 07 Apr 2014 06:32:46 +0000 Objectives. Considering the influence of different motor and nonmotor features of Parkinson’s disease (PD), it is important to evaluate the psychosocial functioning of the patients. For this purpose, the scales for outcomes in Parkinson’s disease-psychosocial questionnaire (SCOPA-PS) has been previously designed. The aim of our study was to assess the cross-cultural validation and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the SCOPA-PS. Methods. One hundred and ten nondemented idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD) patients were consecutively recruited from an outpatient referral movement disorder clinic. Eligible patients filled up a number of questionnaires including the Persian version of SCOPA-PS during the face-to-face interview session and clinical examination to measure disease severity, nonmotor psychiatric symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Results. The highest and lowest correlation coefficients of internal consistency were reported for item 7 on “asking for help” and item 5 on “sexual problems” . Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient of the entire scale was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.83–0.90). The Hoehn and Yahr stage , Schwab and England ADL scale , anxiety , depression , and fatigue were significantly correlated with the total score of the SCOPA-PS questionnaire. Conclusions. The Persian version of SCOPA-PS is a highly reliable and valid scale to measure psychosocial functioning in IPD patients with different sex, age-group, and educational level, which could be applied in future researches. Disease severity scales, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and different domains of HRQoL were all associated with psychosocial functioning in PD patients. Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Farzaneh Farhadi, Hasti Hadizadeh, Gholam Ali Shahidi, Ahmad Delbari, and Johan Lökk Copyright © 2014 Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad et al. All rights reserved. Four-Quadrant Facial Function in Dysphagic Patients after Stroke and in Healthy Controls Tue, 04 Mar 2014 12:01:44 +0000 This study aims to examine any motility disturbance in any quadrant of the face other than the quadrant innervated by the lower facial nerve contralateral to the cortical lesion after stroke. Thirty-one stroke-afflicted patients with subjective dysphagia, consecutively referred to a swallowing centre, were investigated with a facial activity test (FAT) in all four facial quadrants and with a swallowing capacity test (SCT). Fifteen healthy adult participants served as FAT controls. Sixteen patients were judged to have a central facial palsy (FP) according to the referring physician, but all 31 patients had a pathological FAT in the lower quadrant contralateral to the cortical lesion. Simultaneous pathology in all four quadrants was observed in 52% of stroke-afflicted patients with dysphagia; some pathology in the left or right upper quadrant was observed in 74%. Dysfunction in multiple facial quadrants was independent of the time interval between stroke and study inclusion. All patients except two had a pathological SCT. All the controls had normal activity in all facial quadrants. In summary the majority of poststroke patients with dysphagia have subclinical orofacial motor dysfunction in three or four facial quadrants as assessed with a FAT. However, whether subclinical orofacial motor dysfunction can be present in stroke-afflicted patients without dysphagia is unknown. Mary Hägg and Lita Tibbling Copyright © 2014 Mary Hägg and Lita Tibbling. All rights reserved. Treatment Expenditure Pattern of Epileptic Patients: A Study from a Tertiary Care Hospital, Kolkata, India Mon, 24 Feb 2014 08:59:06 +0000 Introduction. Neurological diseases are very important causes of prolonged morbidity and disability leading to profound financial loss. Epilepsy is one of the most important neurological disorders. It being a cost intensive disorder poses a significant economic burden to the country. Aims and Objectives. The study was conducted among the persons with epilepsy (PWE) to assess their expenditure pattern for epilepsy treatment and its rural urban difference. Materials and Methods. 315 PWE selected by systematic random sampling and their caregivers were interviewed with the predesigned, pretested semistructured proforma. Subsequently data were compiled and analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software. Results and Conclusion. Majority of the study population were in the age group of 16–30 years. Majority belonged to classes IV and V of Prasad socioeconomic status scale. Average total expenditure per month for treatment of epilepsy was 219 INR, mainly contributed by drugs, travel, investigations, and so forth. Rural population was having higher treatment expenditure for epilepsy specially for travel and food and lodging in order to get epilepsy treatment. Wage loss in the last three months was present in 42.86% study subjects which was both affected by seizure episodes and travel for visits. Better district care would have helped in this situation. Abhik Sinha and Dulal K. Bhaumik Copyright © 2014 Abhik Sinha and Dulal K. Bhaumik. All rights reserved. Comparative Neuroprotective Effects of Dexamethasone and Minocycline during Hepatic Encephalopathy Mon, 17 Feb 2014 10:10:08 +0000 Objective. Encephalopathy and brain edema are serious complications of acute liver injury and may lead to rapid death of patients. The present study was designed to investigate the role of the inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in the cytotoxic brain oedema and the neuroprotective effects of both minocycline and dexamethasone. Methods. 48 male albino rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, acute liver injury (ALI) group, minocycline pretreated ALI group, and dexamethasone pretreated ALI group. 24 hours after acute liver injury serum ammonia, liver enzymes, brain levels of heme oxygenase-1 gene, iNOS gene expression, nitrite/nitrate, and cytokines were measured. In addition, the grades of encephalopathy and brain water content were assessed. Results. ALI was associated with significant increases in all measured inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress, iNOS gene expression, and nitrite/nitrate. Both minocycline and dexamethasone significantly modulated the inflammatory changes and the oxidative/nitrosative stress associated with ALI. However, only minocycline but not dexamethasone significantly reduced the cytotoxic brain oedema. Conclusion. Both minocycline and dexamethasone could modulate inflammatory and oxidative changes observed in brain after ALI and could be novel preventative therapy for hepatic encephalopathy episodes. Maha Gamal, Zainab Abdel Wahab, Mohamed Eshra, Laila Rashed, and Nivin Sharawy Copyright © 2014 Maha Gamal et al. All rights reserved. Enhancing Spatial Memory: Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Effects of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (DC) Danser in Mice Wed, 05 Feb 2014 14:18:59 +0000 We evaluated the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the aqueous extract of the bark of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (TAE) (Danser) (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), using open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Effect of TAE was compared to standard drugs diazepam (2 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 mg/kg). Additionally, the same doses of TAE were evaluated on rat's memory using Y-maze task. Results showed a significant (; 100 mg/kg) increase in the percentage of open arm entry and the time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus maze, suggesting an anxiolytic activity of the extract. In a dose-dependant manner, TAE at 25 mg/kg significantly () decreased the number of lines crossed and the rearing behavior in the open field test, suggesting its possible sedative activity. In the forced swimming test, the immobility time of the animal was significantly reduced () by TAE (100 mg/kg), compared to control, and this effect was quite comparable to that of imipramine. In the Y-maze paradigm, TAE at 50 mg/kg caused a significant increase in the spontaneous alternations but with a significant decrease in exploratory behavioral pattern. Taking these results together, TAE improved the spatial memory and showed anxiolytic, antidepressant, and sedative activities. The present results support the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of TAE and, to our knowledge, for the first time, demonstrate its enhancing effect on memory. Foyet Harquin Simplice, Tsala David Emery, and Ngatanko Abaissou Hervé Hervé Copyright © 2014 Foyet Harquin Simplice et al. All rights reserved. Does Duration of Preoperative Sciatica Impact Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation? Tue, 28 Jan 2014 08:53:54 +0000 Background. In lumbar disc herniation, most authors recommend nonoperative treatment for the first few weeks of presentation, but what about the upper limit of this golden period? The aim of this study is to assess the effect of preoperative sciatica duration on surgical outcome of lumbar disc herniation. Methods. We retrospectively evaluated 240 patients (124 males and 116 females) with a mean age of years (range 16 to 63) surgically treated due to primary stable L4-L5 disc herniation. The patients were placed into two groups: with more and less than 12-month duration of preoperative sciatalgia. Disability and pain were measured by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Wilcoxon test and Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis. Results. Total mean duration of preoperative sciatalgia and follow-up period were 13.3 months (range 2 to 65) and months (range 24 to 72), respectively. Comparison between the groups showed that duration of preoperative sciatalgia either less or more than 12 months did not affect the surgical outcomes significantly. Conclusions. More or less than 12-month duration of preoperative sciatalgia may not affect the surgical outcomes of simple lumbar disc herniation in the patients undergoing discectomy. Farzad Omidi-Kashani, Ebrahim Ghayem Hasankhani, Amir Reza Kachooei, Mohammad Dawood Rahimi, and Reza Khanzadeh Copyright © 2014 Farzad Omidi-Kashani et al. All rights reserved. Coronary Spasm in Neurosurgical Patients and Role of Trigeminocardiac Reflex Mon, 27 Jan 2014 07:24:39 +0000 Background. Coronary artery spasm (CAS) is a rarely reported complication in neurosurgical patients and its main causative mechanism was attributed to vagal mediated responses. However, these may be the unusual manifestations of trigeminal cardiac reflex (TCR) which is a well established brain stem reflex observed in various neurosurgical patients. Methods and Results. In this review, we have searched for the case reports/papers related to intraoperative coronary spasm in neurosurgical patients and described the role of TCR in this regard. TCR is a possible mechanism in producing CAS in most of the cases in which stimulation occurred at or near the vicinity of trigeminal nerve. It is likely that TCR mediated coronary spasm may be a physiological mechanism and not related to actual myocardial insult apparent by cardiac enzymes or echocardiography studies in most of the cases. Some common risk factors may also exist related to occurrence of CAS as well as TCR. Conclusions. In conclusion, neurosurgical procedures occurring at the vicinity of trigeminal nerve may produce CAS even in previously healthy patients and may produce catastrophic consequences. There is a need for future reports and experimental studies on the interaction of TCR and pathophysiological mechanisms related to CAS. Tumul Chowdhury, Cyrill Meuwly, Nora Sandu, Ronald B. Cappellani, and Bernhard Schaller Copyright © 2014 Tumul Chowdhury et al. All rights reserved. Improved Outcomes with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Combined with Temozolomide for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme Sun, 19 Jan 2014 11:45:52 +0000 Purpose. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is optimally treated by maximal debulking followed by combined chemoradiation. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is gaining widespread acceptance in other tumour sites, although evidence to support its use over three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) in the treatment of gliomas is currently lacking. We examined the survival outcomes for patients with GBM treated with IMRT and Temozolomide. Methods and Materials. In all, 31 patients with GBM were treated with IMRT and 23 of these received chemoradiation with Temozolomide. We correlated survival outcomes with patient functional status, extent of surgery, radiation dose, and use of chemotherapy. Results. Median survival for all patients was 11.3 months, with a median survival of 7.2 months for patients receiving 40.05 Gray (Gy) and a median survival of 17.4 months for patients receiving 60 Gy. Conclusions. We report one of the few series of IMRT in patients with GBM. In our group, median survival for those receiving 60 Gy with Temozolomide compared favourably to the combined therapy arm of the largest randomised trial of chemoradiation versus radiation to date (17.4 months versus 14.6 months). We propose that IMRT should be considered as an alternative to 3DCRT for patients with GBM. Noel J. Aherne, Linus C. Benjamin, Patrick J. Horsley, Thomaz Silva, Shea Wilcox, Julan Amalaseelan, Patrick Dwyer, Abdul M. R. Tahir, Jacques Hill, Andrew Last, Carmen Hansen, Craig S. McLachlan, Yvonne L. Lee, Michael J. McKay, and Thomas P. Shakespeare Copyright © 2014 Noel J. Aherne et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Chronic Morphine Consumption on Synaptic Plasticity of Rat’s Hippocampus: A Transmission Electron Microscopy Study Thu, 28 Nov 2013 18:26:02 +0000 It is well known that the synapses undergo some changes in the brain during the course of normal life and under certain pathological or experimental circumstances. One of the main goals of numerous researchers has been to find the reasons for these structural changes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic morphine consumption on synaptic plasticity, postsynaptic density thickness, and synaptic curvatures of hippocampus CA1 area of rats. So for reaching these goals, 24 N-Mary male rats were randomly divided into three groups, morphine (), placebo (), and control () groups. In the morphine group, complex of morphine (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4) mg/mL and in the placebo (sucrose) group complex of sucrose (% 0.3) were used for 21 days. After the end of drug treatment the animals were scarified and perfused intracardinally and finally the CA1 hippocampal samples were taken for ultrastructural studies, and then the obtained data were analyzed by SPSS and one-way analysis of variance. Our data indicated that synaptic numbers per nm3 change significantly in morphine group compared to the other two groups (placebo and control) () and also statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between groups in terms of thickness of postsynaptic density () and synaptic curvature (). It seems that morphine dependence in rats plays a main role in the ultrastructural changes of hippocampus. Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Abdollah Amini, Zohreh Bahrami, Ali Shahriari, Abolfazle Movafag, and Reihane Heidari Copyright © 2013 Mohammad Hassan Heidari et al. All rights reserved. Cognitive Functions across the GNB3 C825T Polymorphism in an Elderly Italian Population Tue, 22 Oct 2013 17:36:03 +0000 To verify whether the C825T polymorphism of the GNB3 influences the response to neuropsychological tests, mini-mental state examination, digit span (DS), immediate and delayed prose memory, memory with interference at 10 and 30 seconds (MI 10 and 30), trail making tests (TMTs) A and B, abstraction task, verbal fluency (VF) test, figure drawing and copying, overlapping figures test and clock test were performed in 220 elderly men and women free from clinical dementia and from neurological and psychiatric diseases randomly taken from the Italian general population and analysed across the C825T polymorphism. The performance of DS, immediate and delayed prose memory, VF, and TMTs was worse in subjects who were TT for the polymorphism in comparison to the C-carriers. The performance of all tests declined with age. In the case of DS, immediate and delayed prose memory, MI 10 and VF, this trend was maintained in the C-carriers but not in TT. In the case of prose memory, of memory with interference, and of VF, schooling reduced the detrimental interaction between age and genotype. The C825T polymorphism of GNB3 gene therefore influences memory and verbal fluency, being additive to the effects of age and partially mitigated by schooling. Edoardo Casiglia, Nunzia Giordano, Valérie Tikhonoff, Giovanni Boschetti, Alberto Mazza, Sandro Caffi, Federica Guidotti, and Patrizia Bisiacchi Copyright © 2013 Edoardo Casiglia et al. All rights reserved. Current Controversies in the Prediction, Diagnosis, and Management of Cerebral Vasospasm: Where Do We Stand? Tue, 08 Oct 2013 09:39:35 +0000 Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs in approximately 30,000 persons in the United States each year. Around 30 percent of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage suffer from cerebral ischemia and infarction due to cerebral vasospasm, a leading cause of treatable death and disability following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods used to predict, diagnose, and manage vasospasm are the topic of recent active research. This paper utilizes a comprehensive review of the recent literature to address controversies surrounding these topics. Evidence regarding the effect of age, smoking, and cocaine use on the incidence and outcome of vasospasm is reviewed. The abilities of different computed tomography grading schemes to predict vasospasm in the aftermath of subarachnoid hemorrhage are presented. Additionally, the utility of different diagnostic methods for the detection and visualization of vasospasm, including transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, digital subtraction angiography, and CT perfusion imaging is discussed. Finally, the recent literature regarding interventions for the prophylaxis and treatment of vasospasm, including hyperdynamic therapy, albumin, calcium channel agonists, statins, magnesium sulfate, and endothelin antagonists is summarized. Recent studies regarding each topic were reviewed for consensus recommendations from the literature, which were then presented. Young Lee, Scott L. Zuckerman, and J. Mocco Copyright © 2013 Young Lee et al. All rights reserved. Optic Neuritis as Isolated Manifestation of Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis: A Case Report and Systematic Review of Ocular Manifestations of Neoplastic Meningitis Mon, 07 Oct 2013 15:43:15 +0000 Introduction. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in about 5% of cancer patients. Ocular involvement is a common clinical manifestation and often the presenting clinical feature. Materials and Methods. We report the case of a 52-year old lady with optic neuritis as isolated manifestation of neoplastic meningitis and a review of ocular involvement in neoplastic meningitis. Ocular symptoms were the presenting clinical feature in 34 patients (83%) out of 41 included in our review, the unique manifestation of meningeal carcinomatosis in 3 patients (7%). Visual loss was the presenting clinical manifestation in 17 patients (50%) and was the most common ocular symptom (70%). Other ocular signs were diplopia, ptosis, papilledema, anisocoria, exophthalmos, orbital pain, scotomas, hemianopsia, and nystagmus. Associated clinical symptoms were headache, altered consciousness, meningism, limb weakness, ataxia, dizziness, seizures, and other cranial nerves involvement. All patients except five underwent CSF examination which was normal in 1 patient, pleocytosis was found in 11 patients, increased protein levels were observed in 16 patients, and decreased glucose levels were found in 8 patients. Cytology was positive in 29 patients (76%). Conclusion. Meningeal carcinomatosis should be considered in patients with ocular symptoms even in the absence of other suggestive clinical symptoms. Silvia Lanfranconi, Paola Basilico, Ilaria Trezzi, Linda Borellini, Giulia Franco, Vittorio Civelli, Francesco Pallotti, Nereo Bresolin, and Pierluigi Baron Copyright © 2013 Silvia Lanfranconi et al. All rights reserved. Variation in Functional Independence among Stroke Survivors Having Fatigue and Depression Wed, 11 Sep 2013 15:17:40 +0000 Objective. This study evaluated variation in functional independence in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) among individuals with poststroke fatigue (PSF) and poststroke depression (PSD). Methods. A cross-sectional survey involved 65 consenting poststroke survivors who were purposively recruited from physiotherapy clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Adeoyo Maternity Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, and Federal Medical Center, Gusau. Participants were assessed for symptoms of PSD with short geriatric depression scale-15, PSF with fatigue severity scale, ADL with Barthel Index and IADL with Nottingham extended ADL scale. Data analysis was done using Chi-square and unpaired -test with significance level being 0.05. Results. Participants’ age ranged from 58 to 80 years. PSD alone () and both PSF and PSD () were significantly associated with ADL, while PSF alone was not (). PSD alone () and both PSF and PSD () significantly negatively affected IADL, while PSF alone had no significant effect (). Conclusions. Participants with PSD alone and those with both PSF and PSD had lower functional independence in ADL and IADL. Umaru Muhammad Badaru, Omoyemi Olubunmi Ogwumike, Ade Fatai Adeniyi, and Olajide Olubanji Olowe Copyright © 2013 Umaru Muhammad Badaru et al. All rights reserved. Female Gender Remains an Independent Risk Factor for Poor Outcome after Acute Nontraumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage Thu, 05 Sep 2013 08:36:55 +0000 Objective. To study whether gender influences outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods. Cohort study of 245 consecutive adults presenting to the emergency department with spontaneous ICH from January 2006 to December 2008. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, extradural hemorrhage, and recurrence of hemorrhage were excluded. Results. There were no differences noted between genders in stroke severity (NIHSS) at presentation, ICH volume, or intraventricular extension (IVE) of hemorrhage. Despite this, females had 1.94 times higher odds of having a bad outcome (modified Rankin score (mRs) ) as compared to males (95% CI 1.12 to 3.3) and 1.84 times higher odds of early mortality (95% CI 1.02–3.33). analyzing known variables influencing mortality in ICH, the authors found that females did have higher serum glucose levels on arrival () and 4.2 times higher odds for a cerebellar involvement than males (95% CI 1.63–10.75). After adjusting for age, NIHSS, glucose levels, hemorrhage volume, and IVE, female gender remained an independent predictor of early mortality (). Conclusions. Female gender may be an independent predictor of early mortality in ICH patients, even after adjustment for stroke severity, hemorrhage volume, IVE, serum glucose levels, and age. Latha Ganti, Anunaya Jain, Neeraja Yerragondu, Minal Jain, M. Fernanda Bellolio, Rachel M. Gilmore, and Alejandro Rabinstein Copyright © 2013 Latha Ganti et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Methodology of an International Study of People with Multiple Sclerosis Recruited through Web 2.0 Platforms: Demographics, Lifestyle, and Disease Characteristics” Tue, 27 Aug 2013 14:52:47 +0000 Emily J. Hadgkiss, George A. Jelinek, Tracey J. Weiland, Naresh G. Pereira, Claudia H. Marck, and Dania M. van der Meer Copyright © 2013 Emily J. Hadgkiss et al. All rights reserved.